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 DIGBY WELLS


r N V . •' I! M ■■ !. I A























Environmental and Social Impact


Assessment Report for the





Koidu Kimberlite Project























Koidu Holdings SA























Volume 1 of 3

















May 2011





















































Fern Isle. Section 10. 359 Pretoria Avc. Rancfburg. Private Bag x10046. Randburg. 2125 South Africa. Tel: +27 11 789 9495. Fax: +27 11 789 9498.


info@cligbywells.com. vrww.digbywclls.com


 DIGBY A'LllS


i I. .* I * • *» I * 1 * i


This document has been prepared by Digby Wells & Associates (Pty) Ltd © 2011








Project Title: ESIA Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Project Number: RES 965








Name Responsibility Signature Date


Johan Hayes Project Manager 29 April 2011


Danie Otto Senior Review





This report is provided solely for the purposes set out in it and may not. in whole or in part, be used for any other purpose


without Digby Wells' prior written consent


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for flit Koidti Kimberlite Project , .1








EXECUTIVE SUMMARY





Introduction


Digby Wells Environmental (Digby Wells), in association with Cemmats Group Ltd


(Cemmats), were appointed as independent consultants to assess the potential


environmental and social impacts associated with the expansion of the existing Koidu Mine's


capacity from 50 tonnes per hour(tph) to 180 tph.


The Koidu Kimberlite Project is located in the Kono District of Sierra Leone, approximately


360 km east of the capital Freetown, and is owned and operated by Koidu Holdings S.A


("Koidu Holdings" or "the Company"), a company wholly owned by BSG Diamonds Ltd, a


subsidiary of BSG Resources Ltd. Koidu Holdings was originally formed in September 2003


as a joint venture company between the previous mineral rights owners Energem Resources


Inc (formerly named DiamondWorks Ltd) and a subsidiary of BSG Resources, Magma


Diamond Resources Ltd. From incorporation onwards, various changes in the shareholding


structure of the Company took place, with BSG Diamonds progressively increasing its stake


in Koidu Holdings to 100% by February 2007.





Development of the mine commenced in 2003, with the construction of a 50 tph dense


media separation (DMS) plant and associated mining infrastructure required for bulk


sampling and trial mining of No. 1 Pipe (K1) and No. 2 Pipe (K2).


Processing of the first kimberiitic material from K1 began in January 2004 and continued


until mid-2004, when sampling switched to K2. This allowed for preparation of the planned


vertical pit at K1, which required waste rock stripping and construction of the headgear, hoist


and winder at the collar of the planned K1 vertical pit.


Between August 2005 and December 2007, the mine focussed on extracting ore from the K1


vertical pit and initiated a comprehensive exploration programme to locate and evaluate ail


kimberlite ore bodies on the property, develop an optimal life of mine (LoM) plan and compile


a full bankable feasibility study. Evaluation of the kimberlite deposits was completed in mid*


2010 and the feasibility study was completed towards the end of 2010.


Koidu Holdings was awarded an Environmental Impact Assessment Licence for the current


50 tph operation in September 2003. However, the proposed mine plan to increase the life of


the operation, mine larger and deeper pits and to progress to underground mining methods


requires updating of the EIA and identification of any new impacts on the social and physical


environments within the lease area as well as beyond its boundaries.


The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the Environmental and Social Impact


Assessment (ESIA) that has been undertaken for the Koidu Kimberlite Project, and to


propose an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to maximise the positive aspects of the


project and to minimise or manage the negative impacts.


The mining lease area measures 4.9873 km2 and is located adjacent to the town of Koidu.


As no mining activities are to take place within the Extended Affected Area, no biophysical


assessments were undertaken. Updated socio-economic baseline information was used in


the assessment of the socio-economic impacts on the communities within this area.














RES 965 i


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





Biophysical assessments for this ESIA included the area provisionally earmarked for


resettlement due to the expansion of the Koidu Kimberlite Project. A detailed social


assessment of this and other potential replacement land will be conducted during the


development of the RAP.


Social issues due to resettlement are a very significant aspect of the proposed project.


However, these aspects can only be scoped and assessed to a point in the ESIA phase.


Some details need to be addressed in the consultative RAP process with full community


participation.





Regulatory Requirements


Project funding will be sourced from financial institutions who are signatories to the Equator


Principles (EPs) and, hence, the Koidu Kimberlite Project ESIA will aim to comply wilh the


applicable International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards and the


applicable General and Industry Specific Environment Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines,


in addition to the EPs.


The relevant IFC Performance Standards are:


® Performance Standard 1: Social and Environmental Assessment and Management


System;


o Performance Standard 2: Labour and Working Conditions;


e Performance Standard 3: Pollution Prevention and Abatement;


• Performance Standard 4; Community Health, Safety and Security;





• Performance Standard 5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement;


• Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Natural Resource


Management; and


® Performance Standard 8: Cultural Heritage.


The anticipated impacts on the existing biophysical and social environment, associated with


the Koidu Kimberlite Project, led to the project categorised at a Category A project.





Project Description


The proposed project consists of the following main project components:


• Increase of the K1 and K2 open pit diamelers and depths over the first four years of the


mine plan, prior to switching to underground mining of the kimberlite pipes, dyke zones


and blows. The associated increase in the blast radius around the open pits to 500 m will


extend beyond the existing mining lease boundary into an area referred to as the new


Extended Affected Area. No mining will lake place within the Extended Affected Area,


however, for safety reasons, resettlement of the households, community structures and


businesses will be required;


• Increase the LoM by another 15 years;


• Construction of a security perimeter (in line with international best practice in the


diamond mining industry and to ensure compliance with the Kimberley Process) around





RES 965 ii


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








the mining lease area, necessitating the diversion of the Koidu-Gandorhun Road around


the southern boundary of the mining lease area;


e Management and storage of additional tailings, slimes and waste rock;


• Construction of a new plant, employee accommodation camp and other Infrastructure;





• Diversion of the Koidu-Gondorhun road; and


• Resettlement of people currently residing within the extended 500 m blasting envelope


(Extended Affected Area).








Project Benefits & Motivation


Despite the high quality of diamonds contained in the Koidu kimberlite pipes, dykes and


blows, the small size of the two kimberlite pipes, which are the main source of production, is


a major factor governing the options for the future mining operation. In addition, the relatively


low grade of the larger of the two pipes (K2) and the lack of immediate access to ore from


the richer pipe (K1) adds further complications. Various scenarios and options were


considered in terms of the scale of the operation that could be supported by the diamond


resources as currently understood, taking into account the limitations posed by the close


proximity to the community, realistic mining rates and schedules and the economics related


to each of these options.


With the reliance on the tower grade K2 pipe for the early part of the mine plan until access


to K1 ore (either through significant waste stripping for continued open pit mining or decline


development for an underground operation) and the lower revenue due to the lower grade


and value per carat, maintaining the existing plant configuration and processing tonnages


was shown to be uneconomic and that the mine would operate at a loss.


This scenario was found unattractive to all stakeholders, with the implication that the mine


would close. Therefore, in order to get the economies of scale right and ensure the


continued economic viability of the operation, an economic optimisation study was


undertaken, in which the 180 tph processing capacity was identified as the best option.








Environmental Status


A number of specialist studies were undertaken in 2003 to understand the impacts


associated with the development of the Koidu Mine. For the proposed expansion of the


mine, a desktop review of the 2003 information was done and where possible, the 2003


baseline information was updated with recent studies to reflect current baseline conditions


and to understand the additional impacts of the proposed expansion project.


Additional specialist studies were undertaken to update the baseline information and to


quantify anticipated impacts on the environment associated with the Project. An extensive


public consultation and disclosure process (PCDP) was conducted to involve relevant


stakeholders in the ESIA process. The impact assessment did not indicate any fatal flaws


that would hamper the commencement of the expansion of Koidu Kimberlite Project. A


summary of the site specific environment is outlined below.








RESS65 ni


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Climate


The regional climate is described as wet tropical monsoon, with a single wet season each


year between mid-May and mid-November. The average rainfall is approximately 2 540 mm,


with the wettest month usually in August and rivers attaining maximum discharge in mid-


September. The dry season is between December and February. River discharge is at its


lowest in March and April, and begins to increase gradually in May with the onset of the


rains. Groundwater levels do not rise significantly until late July.





Normal temperature range is 20°C to 33°C, although it can drop as low as 10DC at night


during the Harmattan season in January. Day temperatures average 31°C in the dry season


and 28°C in the wet season.


Topography


The site is located at an elevation of approximately 390 mamsl, and is undulating with the


significant natural topographical feature being Monkey Hill, which has a peak elevation of


approximately 470 mamsl and is characterised by slopes which are steeper than that of the


rest of the site. The topography of the site has been altered by historical and current mining


activities (both formal and artisanal). Since the site is already topographically disturbed, the


additions! impacts associated with the Koidu Kimberlite Project are estimated to be of low


significance.





Air Quality


In the quantification of fugitive dust emissions, use was made of emission factors which


associate the quantity of a pollutant to the activity associated with the release of that


pollutant. Use was made of the comprehensive set of emission factors and equations


published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) in its AP-42 document


Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors. The US-EPA AP-42 emission factors are of


the most widely used in the field of air pollution. Particulate emissions and dust fallout from


potential sources were calculated using a combination of emission limits, design


specifications, mass balance calculations and emission factors. In characterising the


dispersion potential of the site reference was made to hourly average meteorological data


recorded at Koidu for the years 2009 and 2010.


The predicted air pollution concentrations and dust-fallout rates were compared to proposed


international standards to facilitate compliance and impact assessments. These


concentrations were summarised and form the basis of the compliance assessment and


evaluation.


Predicted average daily dustfall levels as a result of operations at the proposed Koidu





Kimberlite Project and the town of Koidu were predicted to result in lower levels than the


international limits. Dustfall levels predicted at the proposed resettlement area were below


the respective SANS Target and Residential Action levels of 300 and 600 ug/m*-day.

















RES 965 iv


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project *. <3








Noise


From the study it is expected that the noise levels generated by the proposed plant will not


impact on the ambient noise levels in Koidu town due to the distance of the location of the


proposed plant being too great. The open pit mining activities are expected to impact on the


ambient noise levels at measured locations K5 and K6 during the night time w. These


impacts are expected to be moderate and will cease once mining progresses underground.


It is expected that the blasting activities will also impact on certain locations in Koidu town





during the operational phase. Blasting activities will only take place for a period of four years,


after which open pit mining will cease. However, if the recommended mitigation measures


are applied the significance of the impact can be reduced from Moderate to Minor.


Soils


Almost all the soils in the uplands and the swamps within the project lease area have been


previously mined out by historical commercial and illicit artisanal mining pre-2003. This has


resulted in the loss of topsoil. The operations conducted by Koidu Holdings have resulted in


minimal topsoil loss but management has taken remedial actions to reverse the damage


done by historical artisanal mining by stockpiling any topsoil found in the lease area for


rehabilitation and creation of agricultural land. By continuing the soils management


measures that Koidu Holdings conducts as part of its daily operations, the identified impacts


of the proposed Koidu Kimberlite Project on the soils within the mining lease area are of low


significance.


Geology


The Koidu kimberlite cluster comprises two main pipes and several small blows associated





with four main sub-vertical to vertical kimberlite dyke zones that extend for approximately


5 km along strike, The dykes both pre-date and post-date the formation of the pipes that


were emplaced into Archean granitoids of the Man craton approximately 146 million years


ago. Significant quantities of high quality macro-diamonds have been recovered from the


dykes, pipes and blows with grades ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 carats per tonne (cpt).


The main pipes, named K1 and K2 are smooth, steep sided pipes that are morphologically





similar to those mined in the Kimberley area of South Africa. Surface expressions of the


pipes are approximately 0.3 hectares (ha) for Kt and 0.5 ha for K2. The external morphology


and infill present within the pipes is consistent with a diatreme setting and significant erosion


of the pipes has occurred. The pipes are infilled by multiple phases of kimberlite


characterised by contrasting textures due to different emplacement processes (highly


explosive vs. intrusive). Texturaily, the infill within the bodies is dominated by massive to


locally bedded volcaniclastic kimberlite classified as tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (TKB).


Fauna and Flora


During field work 64 plant species were encountered, of these 22 species were of medicinal





use or edible. One exotic species was encountered with five weed species found. The tree


species Albizia ferruginea, recorded on site is currently vulnerable according to the iUCN.

















RES 965 v


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project '1








Eight mammal species were encountered during the field work. This low number was


expected with the close proximity of the site to Koidu Town, as the animal numbers are a


function of the available habitat and the level of threats present, which were poor and severe


respectively.





The avifauna component yielded 68 bird species during the field work. Bird habitat on the


concession area included open areas, forests, ridges and wetlands. The species found were


very well established communities. Common bulbuls, swallows, turacos and bee-eaters were


found to dominate the ridge area. In the more forested sites, hornbiils, woodpeckers and


sunbirds were abundant. Open areas were dominated by doves and crows, and finally


wetlands and rivers included birds dependant on these systems such as herons, kingfishers


and ducks.





A tota! of three amphibian species and six reptile species were recorded during the survey.


Aquatic Environment





An integrated water resources assessment was conducted for the Koidu Kimberlite Project.


This specialist study consisted of a separate assessment of the lotic systems (rivers and


streams) and lentic systems (wetlands and dams). The aim of the study was to determine


the current ecological state and functioning of the available surface water resources and to


determine the severity of the proposed expansion associated with the Koidu Kimberlite


Project on these resources, both with and without recommended mitigation measures.


Methodologies recognised both in South Africa as well as internationally were implemented


for the two specialist components. Methodologies described by the River Health Programme


of South Africa and the United States Environmental Protection Agency were considered for


the assessment of the Meya River and associated streams. Additionally, methodologies


recognised by the Department of Water Affairs of South Africa and the United States Army


Corps of Engineers were considered for the assessment of the wetland areas.


The Koidu region has been mined both commercially as well as by artisanal miners in


excess of 70 years. This has resulted in the water resources associated with the project area


being severely modified, in addition to this, the local artisanal mining and agricultural


activities continue to impact on these water resources. In addition to this, the bathing and


ablutions by locals into the system have also impacted on the state of the system. The


primary ecological service provided by the systems is cultivated foods for the local users,


whereas services suitable for the enhancement of water quality and the maintenance of


biodiversity have largely been lost.


The Koidu Kimberlite Project has not directly impacted on the integrity and functioning of the


Meya River, but this system should continue to be monitored in order to determine temporal


and spatial trends for the system. The Koidu Kimberlite Project will result in the loss


wetlands due to the placement of the tailings and slimes dams in these areas. Hie severity


of this impact is considered to be minor prior to mitigation, as well as minor post mitigation.


This may be attributed to the poor current state of these systems.


In light of this development, it has been recommended that the wetland areas which will not


be lost should be rehabilitated in order to provide a form of compensation for foe lost areas








RES 965 vi


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for Ute Koidu Kimberlite Project








and lost services. As a result of this, the conservation of biodiversity as well as the


management of sustainable natural resources would be addressed as a requirement for the


project. Additionally, monitoring of the wetland areas and Meya River should continue for


the life of the project.


Surface Water


The project area lies within the Meya stream sub-catchment covering an area of about 188


km2, which is a tributary of the Bafi River. Many of the streams which flow directly or


indirectly into the Meya stream have their source at Monkey Hill and run through the project


area. The regional drainage is from south to north.


The bulk of the water supply in the area comes from rivers, streams and swamps. The pH of


the water in the major rivers in Sierra Leone ranges between 6.5 and 7 in the wet season


and 6.2 and 6.5 in the dry season. The pH of water in the swamps ranges between 5.2 and


6.0. The pH for samples selected in the project area ranges between 6.4 and 7.6 with a


mean value of 6.9.


The catchments are summarised as follows:





• Catchment A includes the catchment to the south of the mine area. The catchment is


presently minimally impacted upon by mining and the river flows to the south. In the


future expanded mine this catchment will include the tailings dump, plant, offices, change


houses, clinic and workshops and will form the hub of the mining;





« Catchment B includes the existing K1 pit and the water drains to the North West of the


mining area;


® Catchment C in an area to the north west of the ate and the river from catchment B flow®


into catchment C;


a Catchment D is to the west of catchment A and presently is not impacted upon by the


mine but is in a catchment that is a possible site for the tailings dump. The river in this


catchment flows to the south of the mine;


a Catchment E includes the present day plant area and main dam and the water exits the


site to the east; and


« Catchment F G, H and I and smaller catchments presently flowing into the K2 pit.


Water quality of the surface water at five locations within the mining lease area was


measured. It was found that water quality exceeds the required standards for drinking water


set by the World Health Organisation (WHO).


Groundwater





A conceptual hydrogeologic model of the Koidu mine area was developed based on the


hydrologic data from previous investigations and the data that were collected at the site in


2009 including groundwater levels and hydraulic conductivities of the granite and leached


granite, the depths and shapes of the kimberlite bodies provided by Koidu. and site-specific


rainfall data collected over the past 5 years.


The groundwater inflows to the K1 and K2 pits will reach a maximum of about 1,400 and


1,200 m3/day, respectively. The maximum groundwater inflows to the K1 and K2








RES 96S vil


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Kotdu Kimberlite Project





underground mines will reach a maximum of about 2,250 and 2,400 ms/day, respectively.


Active dewatering utilising a ring of drainholes at the 150 mamsl level in the K2 underground


will initially intercept about 1,200 m3/day and reduce inflows to the K2 pit by about


600 mJ/day during early mining. More importantly, however, this active dewatering will also


reduce pore pressures in the highways of the K2 pit, beneficial with respect to the relatively


weak leached granite that will form part of the highwalis. Inflows to Dykes A and B East and


Dyke B West are estimated to reach cumulative maximums of about 4,000 and


3,000 ms/day, respectively. These relative larger inflows are primarily a factor of their


lengths.


All of the above inflows are relatively small and should be easily manageable without major


impacts on the planned mining. Sumps and pumping capacity will, of course, have to be


designed for both pits to manage the direct precipitation and runoff, including that from high


intensity rainfall events.





Analysis of potable water quality within the Koidu Holdings lease area indicated that the


measurements of the parameters tested were all within the permissible limits recommended


by the World Health Organisation (WHO). It also indicated that the water had high chemical


bacteriological qualities and is good for human consumption.





Visual


The mine is not highly visible and there are numerous disturbances due to previous mining


activities on and adjacent to the site. It can be seen by comparing the two viewshed models


that the visibility of the mining activities within the local area will increase. The fact that the


area surrounding Kono Town is already aesthetically disturbed together wilh the


rehabilitation of vegetation within the mining lease area reduces the significance of this


impact.


Archaeological and Cultural





The objective of the archaeological study was to use internationally recognised measures to


identify, document and assess potential sites of archaeological and heritage significance in


the project area in order to conserve, mitigate and manage heritage sites and artefacts


according to the recommendations and criteria of the relevant heritage authorities and


legislation.


Three sites were identified during the fieldwork, as Indicated below:


• A possible residential settlement on a low hill to the south-west of Monkey Hill;





• A metalworking site on the southern slope of Monkey Hill; and


• A metalworking site and possible residential settlement on the crest and upper slopes


of Monkey Hilt.


in order to assess the significance of the identified sites, a literature review and additional


research were undertaken. This determined that a) there are known archaeological sites in


the project area, and b) these sites may be significant in terms of the archaeological history


of the area, as well as providing an understanding of the expansion and Influence of West


African cultures southwards.








RES 965 vim


Environmental end Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Currently, the significance of the three sites identified has been preliminarily rated. However,


the significance of these sites will only be determined once dating and data collection, which


is currently being done, have been finalised.


Socio-Economic Status





The resettlement of a significant number of households residing in the 2003 mining lease


area required the development of a RAP for implementation prior to and during the


exploitation of the deposits. A detailed RAP was developed in 2003, which was in line with


the World Bank Standards at the time.


In support of the 2003 RAP, a household survey was undertaken with households located


within the blasting envelope. When mining activities resumed in 2008, a second household


survey of the lease area was undertaken to cover all households who were not included in


the 2003 survey. At present, all the households within the 2010 confirmed mining lease area


have been surveyed and they form part of the 2003 RAP as amended and agreed upon in


August 200S.


A total of 144 houses have been constructed between 2004 and April 2011 and another 112





(use end May figures) households still need to be resettled. All replacement houses are


provided with Ventilated Improved Pit latrines (VIPs) and shower facilities on the residential


stand, Current community facilities in the resettlement village include community taps, a


market and a recreational field.





The project site shows a mixture of commercial and residential plots and limited agriculture


activities (vegetables) due to the dense settlement pattern. There are three settlements


expected to be impacted by the proposed expansion, namely Saquee Town, Yormandu and


New Sembehun. These settlements partially fall within the extended 500 m blasting


envelope, and the affected households will therefore have to be resettled. A Resettlement


Action Plan (RAP) is cun-enlly being developed for the Extended Affected Area. In addition to


replacing all affected dwelling structures, community services and facilities affected in the


Extended Affected Area will also be replaced.








Main Biophysical Impacts Identified


A summary of the impacts which have been regarded as high and medium high are


summarised below. Biophysical impacts of medium-high significance are expected during


construction and operation due to noise and impacts on the fauna within the lease area.


After the appropriate mitigation measures are implemented, these impacts will however, be


of medium significance. During decommissioning of the mine, natural habitat for fauna will


be restored and will be of medium positive significance. Air quality impacts of medium


significance may occur during the decommissioning of mining infrastructure however, after


the recommended mitigation measures are implemented, the impacts will be of low


significance. A detailed evaluation of all the anticipated biophysical impacts can be found in


Appendix A.














RES 965 ix


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Biophysical impacts rated as mcdlum-hlqh and high during construction








Activity, Phase and Impact Impact before m t ation Imp act Rati no (after mitigation)


1 5


]


1 I


Impacted z


S


* B


1


} 8


E E


V e | E 5


Environment 9 E j i


a | 1 o


* ■» f


I


Activity Summary of Impact CO | I! | jj i 1 E | 8 S i


Mining & Material Noise of machinery and vehicles may


Noise dumping area impact on noise receptors in the vcinity of N 4 2 6 1 7 77 N 4 2 4 10 i 50


preparation the project


Site clearance during the construction of N 4 6 5 If 7 106 N 3 5 4 12 i 7?


Fauna Site clearance mining infrastructure may negative impact


on the existing fauna within the mining N 3 6 6 78 N 2 3 4 9 5 45


lease area 41 15





B iphvs i .ll Impacts rated as medium-high and high during operation








Activity, Phase and Impact lm pact to 0 mlt g Bon Imp cctR, nine (aftor m tlaatlon)


I £ E £ *T


• ~ s


E 5 c |


j 6 E o £•


° s E o ? to C a O


| | S3 n O 8 B E


f Vt S3 33 2


Impacted c n 2 f £ c


o. c 9 ?


Environment Activity Summary of Impact II Hi 1 . 1 Q. V) o CO <3 a.


Open pit mining N 4 3 5 2 7 84 'l 4 3 4 11


Noise Noise from blasting, vehicles and


Underground mining mining activities vvil impact on N 4 5 4 3 6 78 N 3 5 3 11 4 44


senstdive receptors n the area








Biophysical impacts rated as medium-high and high during decommissioning





Activily, Phase and Impact Impact before mitigation Impact Rai after mitigation)


73 E f 1 o 5


s. O E a <3 o E


E E TO c s


8 O Cv 3 & s


°; s I E £ | s co c B u


T5 2 2 T5 o •c 5 <0 «c


| 3 ir. n e 0) S3 1


Impacted Ilf 1 IS > C o o>


I CL 3 o


Environment Activity Summary of Impact ill Cfl £ 55 IS CO Q CO 5 Q. CO


Rehabilitation of Rehabilitation of the final void and


Fauna void and mining mining area may will lead to an p 3 4 5 12 7 84 No mitigation for Positive


areas increase in habilal lor fauna species.


Decommissioning During decommissioning of mining


Air Quality of mining infrastructure, air quality impacts N 3 5 5 6 13 78 N 1 i 1 1 3 3


infrastructure (mainly dust) may negatively impact the


adiacerrt environment





Heritage and Archaeology


The following impact assessment on archaeological and heritage resources was completed





in compliance with the impact assessment criteria implemented for the environmental impact


assessment report, as well as in accordance with significance ratings and archaeological














RES 965 x


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ta





impact assessment criteria established by the Association of Southern African Professional


Archaeologists (ASAPA) and applicable international best practice guidelines.





All potential impacts will occur during the construction phase, thus, no additional impacts are


expected during the operational and decommissioning phases.


Currently, the significance of the impacts on archaeological resources is rated as medium-


high prior to mitigation. However, after mitigation impacts will be of medium and low


importance. It has to be noted that Koidu Holdings is currently in the process of


implementing the recommended mitigation measures. Once this process is complete, the


significance of the sites found will be defined.





Impacts on archaeological resources during construction


Recommended l}i| l|i|


Slta, Phase and Impact


mitigation


Tailings facility Archaeological


mitigation of site that


RES967/001 C will impact on may include test


excavation, mapping,


site surface sampling and


materials analyses 117 33


Tailings facility Archaeological


mitigation of site that


RES967/002 C will impact on may include test


excavation, mapping,


site surface sampling and


materials analyses 117 33


Expat camp and Archaeological


mitigation of site that


RES967/003 c associated may include test


excavation, mapping,


infrastructure surface sampling and


materials analyses vv. 33








Main socio-economic impacts assessed


Impacts have been assessed in terms of anticipated effects of the Project on the receiving





socio-economic environment, on directly affected households and stakeholders at the local,


district, national and international level (where applicable).


The overall project impacts will predominantly be of a cumulative nature. Consequently, the


assessment of impacts resulting from the Project was carried out within this context, i.e.


taking into account the combined impacts of the overall Koidu Kimberlite Project. The table


below provides a summary of impacts assessed and significance status before and after


mitigation.





--- Significance


Impact Pre-Mit’gation Post Mitigation





Physical and economic resettlement Moderate positive


Increase in government revenue Moderate positive Moderate positive














RES 965 xi


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Significance





Impact Pre-Mitigation Post Mitigation


Increased dependence of the national economy on Minor negative Minor negative


mining


Procurement of local goods and services Minor positive





Impact on local government capacity for infrastructure Minor negative Minor positive


and service delivery


Employment creation Minor positive





Community anger and resistance Minor negative


Access and mobility Minor negative Minor positive





Community well being Moderate Minor negative


negative


Local economic development Minor positive











Environmental Management Plans


In order to achieve appropriate environmental management standards and ensure that the


findings of the environmental studies are implemented through practical measures, and


provided for in engineering designs of the facility, the recommendations from this ESIA have


been used to compile an EMP.


The role of the EMP is to assist Koidu Holdings in reducing potential impacts and risks and





achieving its environmental objectives as well as fulfilling its commitment to the environment.


The EMP will be used to ensure compliance with environmental specifications, monitoring


and management measures.


The EMP will need to be implemented from site preparation through to decommissioning and


closure.








Project Timi and Implement: on


The Koidu Kimberlite Project schedule commenced in the fourth quarter of 2010, with the


ordering of the new plant and other long lead time items, such as earth moving equipment.


Construction of the plant and infrastructure is planned for the second quarter of 2011, to


ensure all civil engineering work is completed by the time the plant and equipment arrive on


site. According to current planning the resettlement of houses in the Extended Affected Area


will also commence in the second quarter of 2011.





The five year open pit mining phase of the operation will be followed by underground mining


of both K1 and K2, as well as the dyke zones and blows, for the remainder of the life of the


mine.














RES 965 xii


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project





Closure and Financial Provision


Closure costs for the Koidu Mine, inclusive of the Koidu Kimberlite Project, have been


calculated at approximately $ 13,917,964.65. The closure plan and costs will be revised


regularly and as the mine plan changes. Closure costs were calculated based on the


following objectives:





• To return the land, other than the open pits, to a land capability similar to that which


existed prior to mining;


• To ensure pits are made safe by shaping the pit walls and constructing a berm wall


around the relevant pits. Any available waste rock or tailings should be used to help


fill the pits;


• To demolish all mine infrastructure which cannot be utilised by subsequent land


users or any third party. Once demolition has occurred prompt topsoil application and


re-vegetation should take place. Where buildings can be used by a third party,


arrangements will need to be made to ensure their long term sustainable use;


• To clean up all spills on site;


• To ensure that all wetlands within the project site impacted on by the relevant mining


activities are rehabilitated such that they restore and improve the health and


functioning of the whole wetland system prior to the existence of mining;


• To annually assess the closure impacts thereby ensuring progressive and integrated


closure throughout the life of the project;


• To leave a safe and stable environment for both humans and animals and make their


condition sustainable;


» To maintain and monitor all disturbed and rehabilitated areas following re-vegetation;





° To involve ail relevant stakeholders, authorities and communities in the mine closure


process; and


« To allow for the mine to leave the surrounding community in a more economically


sustainable manner than prior to mining.





Conclusion


The Koidu Kimberlite Project is being undertaken with due consideration of biophysical,


social and economic factors, as well as the relevant legislative requirements. The economic


benefits of such a development are numerous, however, as in any mining project of this


nature there also negative impacts which will require planning, monitoring and mitigation


during construction, operation, decommissioning and post-closure. While none of these


negative impacts are considered to be fatal flaws, the resettlement of households and


community structures in particular constitutes a major impact which will require an integrated


resettlement and development approach.


The Koidu Mine is essentially the most advanced operating mine In the country of Sierra


Leone which has a focussed, technically skilled and committed management team and


which contributes to the national fiscus in a meaningful way. One of the unintended


consequences of the successful implementation of the project will be the fact that the social


environment will become disjointed as a result of the creation of a prosperous area in an


economically challenged region historically scarred by unemployment, civil strife, conflict and


massive environmental damage created during the civil war. Koidu Holdings cannot employ





RES 965 XIII


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








everybody or create individual benefits for the entire population of Sierra Leone, and the very


success of the project and the local people it employs may attract negative interventions and


pressures from persons and institutions with their own interest at heart.


National and regional leaders in the country, security services, as well as NGOs and the





international community, must interact with management to protect the Project from


unnecessary and unwanted negative interventions which may have as their sole purpose the


creation of economic advantage for individuals to whom none is due or owing.
































































































































RES 965 xiv


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project •:.3








Acronyms and abbreviations





°c Degrees Celsius





% Percentage


AMD Add Mine Drainage





BAP Biodiversity Action Plan


Cm Centimetre





cm2 Centimetre Squared





CBO Community Based Organisation


CBD Convention on Biological Diversity





CCD Convention to Combat Desertification





CDA Community Development Agreements


CEC Cation Exchange Capacity





CEPESL Creating an Enabling Policy Environment in Sierra Leone





CITES Convention for International Trade for Endangered Species





Cpt Carats per tonne


dB Decibel


DMS Dense Media Separation





EIA Environmental Impact Assessment





ESIA Environmental and Social Impact Assessment


EMP Environmental Management Plan





EPS Equator Principles





EPAA Environmental Protection Agency Act


1DM Illicit diamond miners





IFC International Financial Corporation


kg Kilogram





km Kilometre





km2 Kilometre squared


kV Kilovolts





Le Leones


LHD Load haul dumpers





LoM Life of Mine





M Metre


m2 Metre squared





m3/hr Cubic metre per hour














RES 965


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project











mg Milligram





Mg/I Milligram/litre


mg/rn3 Milligrams per cubic metres


mm Millimetre





MRCP Mine Reclamation and Closure Plan





Mt Million tonnes


NACSA The National Commission for Social Action





NBSAP National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan





NGOs Non-Governmental Organisations


NOU National Ozone Unit





NDMC National Diamond Mining Company


OD Operational Directive





ODS Ozone Depleting Substances





POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants





ppm Parts per million


PCDP Public Consultation and Disclosure Process





PS Performance Standard


RAP Resettlement Action Plan





SALWACO Sierra Leone Water Company


SIA Social Impact Assessment





SL Sierra Leone





SLEPA Sierra Leone Environmental Protection Act


SLST Sierra Leone Selection Trust





T Tonnes





TKB Tuffisitic kimberlite breccia


Tph Tonnes per hours





Tpm Tonnes per month


TSF Tailings Storage Facility





UN United Nations





UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


VRC Village Resettlement Committee





WB World Bank


WHO World Health Organisation























RES 965 ii


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








TABLE OF CONTENTS





1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................1


1.1. Terms of reference..........................................................................................2


1.2. Background and context.................................................................................2





1.2.1. Company history...............................................................................2


1.2.2. Exploration & mining history..............................................................4


1.2.3. The Koidu Kimberlite Project.............................................................4


1.3. Project motivation...........................................................................................5


1.4. Objectives of the ESIA....................................................................................6


2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION.................................................................................7


2.1. Applicant details..............................................................................................7


2.2. Project details and location.............................................................................7


2.2.1. Regional setting................................................................................7


2.2.2. Local setting......................................................................................7


2.2.3. Land tenure.......................................................................................8


2.2.4. Nearby settlements...........................................................................9


2.2.5. Accessibility......................................................................................9


2.2.6. Fuel storage and handling.................................................................9


2.2.7. Explosives storage...........................................................................10


2.2.8. Reagent storage and handling.........................................................10


2.2.9. Existing infrastructure.......................................................................10


2.3. Project description and resource requirements..............................................11


2.3.1. New infrastructure............................................................................11


2.3.2. Mine plan.........................................................................................11


2.3.3. Open pit mining................................................................................15


2.3.4. Underground mining.........................................................................16


2.3.5. Waste management.........................................................................23


2.3.6. Storm water management................................................................23


2.3.7. Water supply to local community......................................................23


2.4. Mineral processing.........................................................................................24


2.4.1. Ore receiving....................................................................................24


2.4.2. Primary sizing, secondary crushing and coarse DMS.......................24


2.4.3. Fines Dense Media Separation (DMS) and re-crusher.....................25


2.4.4. Final recovery..................................................................................25


2.4.5. Water recovery circuit and process water.........................................26


2.5. Employment opportunities..............................................................................26


2.6. Project timing.................................................................................................27


2.7. Project activities.............................................................................................27


2.7.1. Construction phase..........................................................................28


2.7.2. Operational phase............................................................................29


2.7.3. Decommissioning, closure and post-closure phases........................31


3. REGULATORY AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK...............................32


3.1. Policy development........................................................................................32


3.2. Legislative reform..........................................................................................33


3.2.1. The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Act No. 6 of 1991 ........................33


3.2.2. The Environmental Protection Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11 of


2008)................................................................................................33


3.2.3. The Mines and Minerals Act, 2009 (Act 12 of 2009).........................34


3.2.4. Forestry Act, 1988............................................................................38


3.2.5. Forestry Regulations, 1989..............................................................38


3.3. International Conventions and Protocols........................................................39


3.3.1. Convention on Biological Diversity...................................................39














RES 9G5


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








3.3.2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change





(UNFCCC).......................................................................................40


3.3.3. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer......40


3.3.4 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants..................40


3.4. IFC Performance Standards..........................................................................41


3.5. Equator Principles..........................................................................................41





3.5.1. Project categorisation.......................................................................42


3.5.2. Land acquisition and involuntary resettlement..................................42


3.5.3. Biodiversity management.................................................................43


3.5.4. Closure Requirements......................................................................43


4. PROJECT ALTERNATIVES............................................................................45


4.1. Mining method alternatives............................................................................45


4.1.1. Block caving vs open sloping...........................................................45


4.1.2. Dykes...............................................................................................45


4.1.3. Underground access........................................................................45


4.2 Beneficiation plant.........................................................................................45


4.2.1. Upgrade of the existing 50 tph Plant to 100 tph................................45


4.2.2. New 100 tph Greenfields plant.........................................................47


4.3. No-mining alternative.....................................................................................47


5. DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT..............49


5.1. Introduction....................................................................................................49


5.2. Climate..........................................................................................................50


5.3. Topography......................... 50


5.4. Air Quality......................................................................................................53


5.4.1. Atmospheric Dispersion Potential.....................................................53


5.4.2. Current Ambient Air Quality..............................................................57


5.4.3. Identification of Sensitive Receptors.................................................58


5.5. Noise.............................................................................................................58


5.5.1. Daytime noise baseline results.........................................................60


5.5.2. Night time noise baseline results......................................................60


5.6. Soils...............................................................................................................64


5.7. Geology.........................................................................................................66


5.8. Ecology {Fauna and Flora).............................................................................69


5.8.1. Flora................................................................................................69


5.8.2. Fauna...............................................................................................77


5.8.3. Conclusion.......................................................................................80


5.9. Aquatic Environment......................................................................................82


5.9.1. Water quality (in situ)........................................................................82


5.9.2. Index of habitat integrity...................................................................84


5.9.3. Invertebrate habitat assessment system..........................................86


5.9.4. Ichthyofauna assessment.................................................................86


5.9.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................89


5.10. Wetland systems...........................................................................................90


5.10.1. Wetland delineation..........................................................................90


5.10.2. Wetland unit characterisation...........................................................90


5.10.3. Wetland unit setting..........................................................................90


5.10.4. Description of unchanneled valley bottom wetlands.........................91


5.10.5. General wetland functional description.............................................91


5.10.6. Ecological functional assessment.....................................................92


5.10.7. Conclusion.......................................................................................93


5.11. Surface Water................................................................................................95


5.11.1. Rainfall.............................................................................................95


5.11.2. Rainfall statistical analysis................................................................95


5.11.3. Catchment description......................................................................96











RES 965 iv


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project J








5.11.4. Catchment characteristics................................................................96


5.11.5. Flood hydrology..............................................................................100


5.11.6. Pit inflows.......................................................................................100


5.11.7. Water quality..................................................................................100


5.12. Groundwater................................................................................................104


5.12.1. Hydrogeological Framework...........................................................104


5.12.2. Dewatering.....................................................................................104


5.12.3. Depth of water table.......................................................................105


5.12.4. Presence of boreholes, wells and springs and their estimated


yields..............................................................................................105


5.12.5. Groundwater quality.......................................................................106


5.13. Visual...........................................................................................................106


5.14 Archaeology.................................................................................................109


5.14.1. Archaeological resources at the Koidu Kimberlite Project...............109


6. DESCRIPTION OF THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT......................................112


6.1. Background.................................................................................................112


6.2. Political Context...........................................................................................113


6.3. Project Location...........................................................................................113


6.4. Legislative Framework................................................................ .114


6.5. Administrative Framework............................................................................114


6.6. Socio-Economic Baseline Conditions...........................................................116


6.6.1. National Context.............................................................................116


6.6 2. Regional context............................................................................122


6.6.3. Local context..................................................................................131


6.6.4. Extended Affected Area (EAA).......................................................139


6.7. Koidu Kimberlite Project's non-mining related activities...............................163


6.7.1. Introduction....................................................................................163


6.8. Development constraints and priorities........................................................166


6.8.1. Kono District Development Plan.....................................................167


6.8.2. Koidu-New Sembehun District Development Plan..........................172


7. ESIA LIMITATIONS.......................................................................................174


7.1. Air Quality....................................................................................................174


7.2. Fauna and Flora..........................................................................................174


7.3. Aquatic environment....................................................................................174


7.4. Heritage and Archaeology............................................................................175


7.5. Blasting Assessment....................................................................................175


7.6. Social Environment......................................................................................175


8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT...............................................176


8.1. Impact assessment methodology for biophysical and heritage impacts........176


8.1.1. Impact identification.......................................................................176


8.1.2. Impact rating..................................................................................178


9. POTENCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS.................................................182


9.1. Significant impacts identified........................................................................182


9.1.1. Significant biophysical impacts.......................................................182


9.1.2. Significant impacts on heritage and archaeology............................183


9.2. All impacts identified during construction.....................................................184


9.2.1. Topography....................................................................................184


9.2.2. Air Quality......................................................................................184


9.2.3. Noise..............................................................................................184


9.2.4. Geology..........................................................................................184


9.2.5. Soils ..............................................................................................185


9.2.6. Fauna.............................................................................................185


9.2.7. Flora..............................................................................................186


9.2.8. Aquatic Environment......................................................................186








RES 965 v


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





9.2.9. Hydrology.......................................................................................186





9.2.10. Visual.............................................................................................187


9.3. All impacts identified during operation..........................................................187


9.3.1. Topography....................................................................................187


9.3.2. Air Quality......................................................................................187


9.3.3. Noise..............................................................................................188


9.3.4. Soils ..............................................................................................189


9.3.5. Geology..........................................................................................189


9.3.6. Fauna.............................................................................................189


9.3.7. Flora..............................................................................................189


9.3.8. Aquatic Environment......................................................................190


9.3.9. Hydrology.......................................................................................190


9.3.10. Geohydrology.................................................................................191


9.3.11. Visual.............................................................................................191


9.4. All impacts identified during decommissioning.............................................191


9.4.1. Air Quality......................................................................................191


9.4.2. Noise..............................................................................................191


9.4.3. Flora..............................................................................................192


9.4.4. Geohydrology................................................................................192


9.4.5. Visual....................................... .................................192


10. SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT.................................................................194


10.1. Methodology................................................................................................194


10.1.1. Impact Assessment........................................................................194


10.1.2. Mitigation........................................................................................198


10.1.3. Residuaiimpacts............................................................................198


10.1.4. Uncertainties..................................................................................199


10.2. Assessment of identified social impacts.......................................................199


10.2.1. Introduction....................................................................................199


10.2.2. Stakeholder Issues and concerns...................................................199


10.2.3. Physical and economic resettlement..............................................200


10.2.4. Increased government revenue......................................................202


10.2.5. Increased dependence of the national economy on mining............204


10.2.6. Procurement of local goods and services.......................................205


10.2.7. Impact on local government capacity for infrastructure and


service delivery..............................................................................206


10.2.8. Employment creation......................................................................208


10.2.9. Community anger and resistance...................................................210


10.2.10. Access and mobility.......................................................................212


10.2.11. Community well being....................................................................213


10.2.12. Local economic development...........................................216


11. CUMULATIVE IMPACTS...............................................................................219


11.1. Noise...........................................................................................................219


11.2. Fauna and Flora..........................................................................................219


11.3. Aquatic Ecosystems.....................................................................................220


11.4. Social environment.................................. 220


12. CLOSURE AND FINANCIAL PROVISION....................................................221


12.1. Mine Closure................................................................................................221


12.2. Objectives for Mine Closure.........................................................................221


12.3. Activities for Mine Closure............................................................................222


12.3.1. Processing plant.............................................................................222


12.3.2. Steel and reinforced concrete structures and housing, facilities


and services...................................................................................222


12.3.3. Openpit rehabilitation.....................................................................222


12.3.4. Other components..........................................................................222











RES 965 VI


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ;-!





"12.4. General rehabilitation...................................................................................222





12.5. Maintenance and aftercare..........................................................................223


12.6. Financial Provision.......................................................................................223


13. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN..................................................226


13.1. EMP framework...........................................................................................226


13.2. Summary EMP for the Koidu Kimberlite Project...........................................227


13.3. Monitoring Plans..........................................................................................238


13.3.1. Climate...........................................................................................238


13.3.2. Fauna and flora monitoring plan.....................................................238


13.3.3. Wetland rehabilitation strategy.......................................................239


13.3.4. Aquatic biomonitoring.....................................................................240


13.3.5. Wetland monitoring........................................................................240


13.3.6. Noise monitoring plan.....................................................................241


13.3.7. Blasting..........................................................................................241


13.3.8. Vibration.........................................................................................242


13.3.9. Groundwater Monitoring Plan.........................................................242


13.3.10. Heritage and Archaeology Monitoring Plan....................................243


13.4. Air Quality....................................................................................................244


13.4.1. Dust fallout monitoring network......................................................244


13.5. Surface water...............................................................................................246


13.5.1. Methodology..................................................................................246


13.5.2. Frequency of monitoring.................................................................247


13.5.3. Monitoring data..............................................................................247


13.6. Social monitoring and evaluation................................................................248


14. CONCLUSION...............................................................................................249


15. REFERENCES...............................................................................................250


APPENDIX A: IMPACT MATRIX....................................................................................A-1





APPENDIX B: CLOSURE COSTING SHEET.................................................................B-1







































































RES 965 vii


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project V I








LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1 -1: Koidu Holdings SA company structure............................................................3


Figure 2-1: Open pit high level schedule and illustration..................................................15





Figure 2-2: Decline layouts for K1 and K2 underground access.......................................16


Figure 2-3: General layout of the mining infrastructure at a dyke zone mining


operations........................................................................................................................17


Figure 2-4: High level underground development plant for the main ore bodies...............17





Figure 5-1: Period, day-time and night-time wind roses for Koidu (2009-2010)..............54


Figure 5-2: Seasonal average wind roses for Koidu (2009 - 2010)..................................55


Figure 5-3: Diurnal temperature trends modelled at Koidu (2010)....................................56


Figure 5-4: Percentage contribution of total sensitivities of fishes collected at each


site...................................................................................................................................89


Figure 5-5: A schematic illustration of the HGM wetland types identified for the


study area........................................................................................................................90


Figure 5-6: Radial plot of functions performed by the identified wetland unit....................93


Figure 5-7: Catchment Boundaries for Water Course Outlets (SRK, 2009)......................98


Figure 5-8 : Existing and proposed mine layout (SRK, 2010)...........................................99


Figure 6-1: Age distribution of Sierra Leone (Source: Central Intelligence Agency,


World Fact Book (2011))................................................................................................117


Figure 6-2: Ethnic group® of Sierra Leone.....................................................................118


Figure 6-3: Religious groups in Sierra Leone................................................................119


Figure 6-4: Sierra Leones contributors to its GDP, 2005...............................................120


Figure 6-5: Population statistics for Koidu Town.............................................................132


Figure 6-6: Number of people (male and female) living within the Extended Affected


Area...............................................................................................................................142


Figure 6-7: Main sources of income within the Extended Affected Area........................142


Figure 6-8: Average weekly income [Sierra Leonean Leones (SLL)] for household


heads within Extended Affected Area.............................................................................143


Figure 6-9: Economic trees recorded in the Extended Affected Area............................145


Figure 6-10: Approximate number of livestock recorded for households within the


Extended Affected Area.................................................................................................146


Figure 6-11: Main sources of energy within the Extended Affected Area.......................147








RES 965


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





Figure 6-12: Main sources of water within the Extended Affected Area..........................148


Figure 6-13: Sanitation facilities utilised by households within the Extended


Affected Area.................................................................................................................149


Figure 6-14: Level of education of heads of households within the Extended


Affected Area.................................................................................................................154


Figure 8-1: Probability Consequence Matrix...................................................................181





Figure 13-1: The recommended sampling sites for the project area...............................240


Figure 13-2: Proposed locations of the dust buckets......................................................245





LIST OF TABLES


Table 2-1: Project application details.................................................................................7


Table 2-2: Coordinates for the Koidu Kimberlite Mining Area............................................8





Table 2-3: Proposed infrastructure associated with the Koidu Kimberlite Project.............12


Table 2-4: Open pit mining equipment.............................................................................15


Table 2-5: Underground mining equipment.....................................................................18


Table 2-6: Total national staff complement at full operation of the Project........................27


Table 2-7: Proposed timing, duration and sequence of Ihe project...................................27


Table 2-8: Total process water requirements for the project.............................................30





Table 3-1: Key international conventions and protocols relevant to environmental


management in Sierra Leone...........................................................................................39


Table 5-1: Minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (®C) recorded at Koidu


(2010)..............................................................................................................................56


Table 5-2: Atmospheric Stability Classes.........................................................................57


Table 5-3: Air quality levels for settlements within and close to the Koidu mining


lease area (ESIA Report, 2010).......................................................................................58


Table 5-4: Acceptable rating levels for noise in districts (IFC EHS, 2007)........................59


Table 5-5: Noise measurement locations.........................................................................59


Table 5-6: Results of the baseline noise measurements taken at receptors located


around Koidu Mine...........................................................................................................62


Table 5-7: Summary of noise sources that were audible during the baseline


measurements around the proposed site.........................................................................64


Table 5-8: General description of the soils in the Koidu Kimberlite Project area...............65


Table 5-9: Hectares of vegetation types...........................................................................70





RES 968 II


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





Table 5-10: Description of habitat types...........................................................................72


Table 5-11: Mammals that occur on the project area........................................................77





Table 5-12: Avifauna that occurs on the project area.......................................................78


Table 5-13: Herpetofauna that occur on the project area.................................................80


Table 5-14: Summary of Fauna and Flora........................................................................80


Table 5-15: The in situ water quality results for the Meya River.......................................83





Table 5-16: The scores of the IHI assessment for the Meya River...................................84


Table 5-17: The habitat parameter scores for the low gradient Meya River......................85


Table 5-18: The abundances of the sampled macroinvertebrate taxa and associated


sensitivities for the Meya River as well as the respective EPT scores..............................86


Table 5-19: The scores of the IHAS assessment for the Meya River................................86


Table 5-20: The fish species sampled for the study area and associated quantities.........87





Table 5-21: Overview of the types and abundances of fishes collected in the study


including preferences or sensitivities of types to water quality, habitat and flow and


combined or total sensitivities with species scoring 100% considered to be


extremely sensitive types (blue), 83% representing very sensitive types (turquoise),


67% representing sensitive types (green), 50% representing tolerant types (yellow),


33% representing very tolerant types (orange) and 0-17% extremely tolerant


species (red)....................................................................................................................87


Table 5-22:The definition of the different HGM wetland types occurring in the study


area [based on the system first described by Brinson (1993) and modified by


Marneweck and Batchelor (2002), and further developed by Kotze. Marneweck,


Batchelor, Lindley and Collins (2004)]..............................................................................91


Table 5-23: A listing and scoring of ecological services offered by the HGM unit


identified for the project area............................................................................................92


Table 5-24 : Rainfall measurements at the Koidu Kimberlite Project, 2005 - 2010...........95


Table 5-25: Adopted design rainfall..................................................................................95


Table 5-26: Catchment characteristics.............................................................................97


Table 5-27: Summary of flood peaks..............................................................................100





Table 5-28: Surface and groundwater monitoring points within the mining lease area ...101


Table 5-29 : Runoff into the K1 Pit.................................................................................103


Table 5-30 : Runoff into K2 Pit.......................................................................................103


Table 5-31: Archaeological sites found within the mining lease area..............................110





Table 6-1: Education facilities and enrolment for the TankoroChiefdom........................133


Table 6-2: Subjects provided for different levels of education in Koidu..........................134





RES 965 m


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project





Table 6-3: Health Care Facilities within Tankoro Chiefdom...........................................135


Table 6-4: Common diseases cases recorded for Tankoro 2010/2011 (to date)............137


Table 6-5: Native administration of project affected settlements....................................140


Table 6-6: Population Estimates for Settlements within the larger Project Area..............141


Table 8-1: Activities identified during each different phase of the project........................177


Table 8-2: Impact assessment parameter ratings...........................................................178


Table 8-3: Significance threshold limits..........................................................................181


Table 9-1: Biophysical impacts rated as medium-high and high during construction......182


Tabie 9-2: Biophysical impacts rated as medium-high and high during operation...........182


Table 9-3: Biophysical impacts rated as medium-high and high during


decommissioning...........................................................................................................183


Table 9-4: Impacts on archaeological resources during construction.............................183


Table 9-5: Predicted PM10 concentrations......................................................................188


Table 9-6: Predicted dustfall levels.................................................................................188


Table 10-1: Types of impacts.........................................................................................194


Table 10-2: Definitions for impact significance...............................................................196


Table 10-3: Overall significance criteria.........................................................................196


Table 10-4: Summary of impacts significance....................................................... 218


Table 12-1: Summary of rehabilitation for Current Infrastructure....................................223


Table 12-2: Summary of rehabilitation for Life of Mine...................................................224


Table 13-1: EMPfor the Koidu Kimberlite Project..........................................................227





Table 13-2: Chemical constituents to be analysed........................................................247








LIST OF PLANS


Plan 1: Regional setting................................................ 19


Plan 2: Local setting...................................................... 20


Plan 3: Existing mine plan............................................. 21


Plan 4: Proposed mine plan.......................................... 22


Plan 5: Regional topography......................................... 51


Plan 6: Local topography.............................................. 52





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Plan 7: Location of dust and noise measurement locations..............................................61


Plan 8: Soil types of the Koidu Kimberlite Project.............................................................68


Plan 9: Vegetation types identified...................................................................................71





Plan 10: Wetland areas identified within the mining lease area........................................94


Plan 11: Existing Viewshed............................................................................................107


Plan 12: Viewshed after the expansion of the project.....................................................108


Plan 13: Location of archaeological sites identified........................................................111






















































































RES 965 v


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project v.v-a


v*S.





1. INTRODUCTION


Digby Wells Environmental (Digby Wells), in association with Cemmats Group Ltd


(Cemmats), were appointed as independent consultants to assess the potential


environmental and social impacts associated with the expansion of the existing mine's


production plant from 50 tonnes per hour {tph) to180 tph, at the Koidu Kimberlite Project.


The Koidu Kimberlite Project is located in the Kono District of Sierra Leone, approximately


330 km east of the capital Freetown, and is owned and operated by Koidu Holdings S.A


("Koidu Holdings" or “the Company"), a company wholly owned by 8SG Diamonds Ltd, a


subsidiary of BSG Resources Ltd. Koidu Holdings was originally formed in September 2003


as a joint venture company between the previous mineral rights owners Energem Resources


!nc (formerly named DiamondWorks Ltd) and a subsidiary of BSG Resources, Magma


Diamond Resources Ltd. From incorporation onwards, various changes in the shareholding


structure of the Company took place, with BSG Diamonds progressively increasing its stake


in Koidu Holdings to 100% by February 2007.


Development of the mine commenced in 2003, with the construction of a 50 tph dense


media separation (DMS) plant and associated mining infrastructure required for bulk


sampling and trial mining of No. 1 Pipe (K1) and No. 2 Pipe (K2).


Processing of the first kimberlitic material from K1 began in January 2004 and continued


until mid-2004, when sampling switched to K2. This allowed for preparation of the planned


vertical pit at the K1, which required waste rock stripping and construction of the headgear,


hoist and winder at the collar of the planned K1 vertical pit.


Between August 2005 and December 2007, the mine focussed on extracting ore from the K1


vertical pit and initiated a comprehensive exploration programme to locate and evaluate all


kimberlite ore bodies on the property, develop an optimal life of mine (Lorn) plan and compile


a full bankable feasibility study. The exploration programme was completed in mid-2010 and


the feasibility study completed by the fourth quarter of 2010.


Koidu Holdings was awarded an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Licence for its


current 50 tph operation in September 2003. However, the proposed mine plan to increase


the life of the operation, mine larger and deeper pits and to progress to underground mining


methods requires updating of the ESIA and identification of any new impacts on the social


and physical environments within the lease area as well as beyond its boundaries.


The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the Environmental and Social impact


Assessment (ESIA) that has been undertaken for the Project, and to propose an


Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to maximise the positive aspects of the project and


to minimise or manage the negative implications.


As no mining activities are to take place within the Extended Affected Area, no biophysical


assessments were undertaken within the Extended Affected Area. Updated socio-economic


baseline information was used in the assessment of the social impacts on the affected


communities within the Extended Affected Area.


People residing within the 500 m blasting envelope (Extended Affected Area) associated


with the Koidu Kimberlite Project expansion will be resettled. For this purpose a


Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is currently being developed.








RES 965 1


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ,'3








1.1. Terms of reference


In terms of Section 24 of the Environmental Protection Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11 of 2008),


any person who wishes to undertake a project in the mining and extractive industries must


apply to the Sierra Leone Environmental Protection Agency (SLEPA) for an Environmental


Impact Assessment (EIA) licence,


The undertaking of an ESIA for the proposed expansion from 50 tph to 180 tph is also a


requirement of the Mines and Minerals Act, 2009 (Act 12 of 2009), which states that when


the holder of a mining licence proposes to make a change in its mining operations that would


cause a need for a material change in the Environmental Management Programme (EMP).


The mining licence hoider must submit an updated EMP for approval by the Director of


Mines.


This ESIA report has been compiled in fulfilment of the above legislative requirements and


further aims to comply with the Equator Principles (EPs) for socially and environmentally


responsible project finance and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) 'Environmental,


Health and Safety Guidelines, 2007.








1.2. Background and context


The following section sets the scene for the ESIA report by providing a brief description of


the history of Koidu Kimberlite Project, as well as an overview of the proposed expansion.





1.2.1. Company history


The rights to the Koidu Kimberlite Project were originally secured in 1995 by Branch Energy


Limited (“Branch Energy"). Branch Energy had obtained a 25-year mining lease for the Koidu


Kimberlite Project and initiated development of the property in November 1996.


The democratically elected government (which was elected in 1996) ratified and re-enacted





the 1994 Mines and Minerals Decree under which (he lease was issued. The Koidu mining


lease was specifically ratified by an Act of Parliament in December 1996.





In 1996, a Canadian listed company called DiamondWorks, acquired Branch Energy and all


its mineral rights. In May 1997, the project was at the plant commissioning stage when a


coup d’etat took place in Sierra Leone. Branch Energy was forced to halt its activities and


invoke force majeure and, over the ensuing 5 years of conflict, the company’s assets at


Koidu were completely destroyed and no further work could be undertaken on the


exploration properties. DiamondWorks revisited the mineral holdings in Sierra Leone after


the war in 2002, targeting the Koidu Kimberlite Project, and began construction and re¬


development of facilities damaged during the period of civil unrest.





In June 2002, DiamondWorks and Magma Diamond Resources Limited entered into a 50/50


joint venture agreement for the re-development of the Koidu Kimberlite Project. Magma was


a wholly owned subsidiary of the privately owned BSG Resources Limited (“BSG


Resources"). BSG Resources is the resources arm of the Beny Steinmetz Group (“BSG”), a


private international investment group focusing on diamonds, natural resources, real estate,


finance and asset management. BSG Resources has been involved in various major


investments in the natural resources arena worldwide, including the Simandou Iron Ore


Project in neighbouring Guinea.








RES 965 2


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





The initial joint venture was replaced by a new joint venture agreement, entered into


between inter alia DiamondWorks, Branch Energy and Magma during September. In terms


of the New JV Agreement, Magma and Branch Energy each held a 50% equity stake in the


newly formed JV Company, Koidu Holdings S.A and were obliged to fund the working capital


and running cost requirements of the Company pro rata their shareholding in the Company.


Koidu Holdings S.A was incorporated in the British Virgin Islands and licensed to do


business in Sierra Leone in terms of the Business Registration Act on 29 September 2003.


A Certificate of Registration of Business and a Licence were issued to Koidu Holdings on 1


October 2003 in accordance with the Companies Act, Cap. 249 of the Laws of Sierra Leone


1960.


Magma and Branch Energy agreed to a dilution of Branch Energy’s shareholding in Koidu





Holdings, such that the shareholding would be in proportion to the contributions made by the


Shareholders to the Company. Further, Magma and Branch Energy agreed to the


assignment by Magma of a portion of its Shareholders' loan to its holding company BSG


Resources, and the introduction of BSG Resources as a Shareholder in Koidu Holdings.





In terms of the Shareholders’ Agreement, the new shareholding in Koidu Holdings became:


40% DiamondWorks, 35% Magma and 25% BSG Resources. In January 2004, BSG


Resources assumed overall direction, supervision and management of Koidu Holdings.


In February 2007, BSG Resources acquired the shareholding of DiamondWorks (renamed


Energem Resources Ltd) in Koidu Holdings S.A. and Magma’s 25% holding was transferred


to BSG Resources. Koidu Holdings is presently wholly owned by BSGR Diamonds, Ltd,


which is wholly owned by BSG Resources (Figure 1-1).


In May 2008, the GoSL announced that it intended to review all industrial mining licences


and agreements and, at Koidu Holdings' request, the review started with the mining lease for


the Koidu Kimberlite Project.


















































Figure 1-1: Koidu Holdings SA company structure











RES 965 3


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ; A








1.2.2. Exploration & mining history


The property hosts two small diamondiferous kimberlite pipes and four diamondiferous


kimberlite dyke zones, along which four small blows or enlargements have been discovered.


Development of the mine commenced in 2003, with the construction of a 50 tph Dense


Media Separation (DMS) plant and mining infrastructure required for bulk sampling and trial


mining of K1 and K2. Processing of the first kimberlite from K1 began in January 2004 and


continued until mid-2004, when sampling switched to K2 to allow for waste stripping and


establishment of the headgear, hoist and winder and associated infrastructure required at


the collar of the planned vertical pit at K1.


During the period August 2005 to December 2007. the mine focussed exclusively on


extracting ore from the K1 vertical pit, and was successful in establishing the largest and


deepest one of its kind in operation world-wide, while attempting to minimise the impact on


the nearby Koidu community.


Given the limited lifespan of the vertical pit (maximum 80 m from collar), the Company


embarked on an exploration core drilling programme to delineate sufficient resources for at


least the remaining life of the mining lease period. From 2003 to 2008, four phases of core


drilling were completed and once the magnitude of potentially mineable resources began to


emerge, desktop studies considering the possible scenarios for the future expansion of the


mining operation were undertaken.


The full extent of the diamond resources at Koidu was understood towards the end of 2008,


at which time the Company entered the prefeasibility study stage, contracting industry


leaders in resource estimation, geohydrology, mine design and various other disciplines


required in order to ultimately bring the project to a bankable feasibility study level.


After significant additional bulk sampling exercises in 2009 and 2010, both from large scale


surface excavations and large diameter drilling programmes on K2, Dyke Zones A and B, as


well as the four blows intended to form part of the LoM plan, 4.175 million tonnes of


indicated resources and 10.162 million tonnes of inferred resources were signed-off by


independent competent persons, with an additional 3.707 million tonnes of kimberlite


identified as geological potential requiring further drilling and sampling.


While the feasibility study was being concluded and following on after the completion of the


bulk sampling programmes at K2, the first cut of the open pit mining schedule for K2 was


initiated in order to fund the operation, with the intention of dovetailing with the final pit


design determined in the feasibility study.


1.2.3. The Koidu Kimberlite Project





The feasibility study demonstrated that the optimal project plan for the expansion of


operations at Koidu was technically and economically viable. The plan includes mining both


kimberlite pipes by open pit methods, to a depth of approximately 310 m below surface for


K1 (March 2011 to September 2016) and approximately 244 m below surface for K2 (from


September 2010 to October 2015), at which time the transition to underground mining


methods would be made. Taking into account the additional production that could be derived


by mining the kimberlite dykes and blows from underground, an optimal plant size of 180 tph


has been selected, mining at a rate of 100,000 tonnes of ore per month and 1.4 million


tonnes of waste per month.








RES 865 4


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ■tm





The implications of the dramatic increase in mining and processing capacity are that an


entirely new plant and mining fleet with associated infrastructure will be required- The Project


schedule commences in the fourth quarter of 2010, with the ordering of the new plant and


other long lead time items, such as earth moving equipment. Construction of plant and


infrastructure will commence during the second quarter of 2011, to ensure all civil


engineering work is completed by the time the plant and equipment arrive on site.


The mine will continue producing with the existing 50 tonne per hour plant until the new plant


is erected, commissioned and has ramped up to full production (end June 2012), after which


the existing plant will be dismantled and relocated to the Tongo Diamond Field Project south


of Koidu.


The five year open pit mining phase (to end 2015) of the operation will be followed by





underground mining of both kimberlite pipes, as well as the dyke zones and blows, for the


remainder of the life of the mine. Construction of the underground access will commence in


early 2012 with first ore being extracted from the underground in 2016.





The Project is expected to increase the production from the two open pits from


approximately 10,000 carats per month currently being achieved to an average of 45,000


carats per month from 2012 to 2015, tapering off as production from the underground comes


on line and the operation is maintained at 100,000 tonnes processed per month.


The mine is currently in the process of constructing a security perimeter in the form of a wall


around the mining lease area in order to fall into line with international best practice with


regards to diamond mining operations as implemented in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia,


Angola and Lesotho, as well as to ensure the compliance of the Project with the Kimberley


Process, an objective which is both in the interest of the company as well as the


government of Sierra Leone. The Koidu-Gandorhun Road which runs through the mining


lease area will consequently have to be diverted around the southern boundary of the mining


lease area. The additional distance is not excessive.





1.3. Project motivation





Despite the high quality of diamonds contained in the Koidu kimberlite pipes, dykes and


blows, the small size of the two kimberlite pipes which are the main source of production, is


a major factor governing the options for the future of the mining operation. In addition, the


relatively low grade of the larger of the two pipes (K2) and the lack of immediate access to


ore from the richer pipe (K1) added further complications. Various scenarios and options


were considered in terms of the scale of the operation that could be supported by the


diamond resources delineated, taking into account the limitations posed by close proximity to


the community, realistic mining rates and schedules and the economics related to each of


these.


With the reliance on the lower grade K2 pipe for the early part of the mine plan until access


to K1 ore (either through significant waste stripping for continued open pit mining or decline


development for an underground operation) and the lower revenue due to the lower grade


and value per carat, maintaining the existing plant configuration and processing tonnages


was shown to be uneconomic and that the mine would operate at a loss.








RES 965 s


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








This scenario was found unattractive to all stakeholders, with the implication that the mine


would close. Therefore, in order to get the economies of scale right and ensure the


continued economic viability of the operation, an economic optimisation study was


undertaken, in which the 180 tph processing capacity was identified the best option.








1.4. Objectives of the ESIA


The objectives of this ESIA report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project are to:


« Provide important background information to the project and its proposed expansion;


• Describe the project and its proposed expansion in terms of the project applicant,


location, scale, timing, duration and sequence;


« Describe the need and desirability of the proposed expansion;


« Identify all legal and legislative requirements that should be fulfilled prior to the


commencement of the proposed expansion;


o Consider and analyse all possible alternatives to the proposed expansion;


• Describe the current biophysical, cultural and social environment of the project area;


« Identify the potential environmental and social impacts associated with all of the phases





of the proposed expansion and determine their significance;


® Describe cumulative impacts of the proposed expansion;


o Formulate a management plan for achieving the environmental and social objectives for


the project and mitigate the identified impacts;


• Indicate the public consultation and disclosure (PCDP) process that was conducted in


support of this ESiA; and


• Formulate a preliminary closure plan for the proposed expansion.


















































RES 965 6


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION


This chapter provides a detailed description of the Koidu Kimberlite Project in terms of the


project applicant, location, scale, timing, duration and sequence.








2.1. Applicant details


The applicant details and contact information are summarised in Table 2-1. A brief history of


the rights to the Koidu Kimberlite diamond mine was provided in Chapter 1.


Table 2-1: Project application details





Project title: Expansion of the Koidu Kimberlite Project





Project applicant: Koidu Holdings SA


Contact person: Mr Dino Coutinho --- Chief Operating Officer





Mr ibrahim Kamara - Chief Communications Officer


Postal address: PO Box 72, Freetown, Sierra Leone


Telephone no: +232 22 232257





Fax no: +232 22 232390


E-mail address: dcoutinho@koiduholdings.com





ikamara@kokJuhoidings.com





Project location: Koidu Town, Kono District, Sierra Leone








2.2. Project details and location


The Koidu Kimberlite Project Is situated approximately 2 km south of the town of Koidu


within the Tankoro Chiefdom of the Kono District in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone


(Plan 1).


2.2.1. Regional setting





The Kono District ties within the West African tropical rainforest belt of Sierra Leone.


Diamond mining has been part of the history and heritage of the Kono District.


Koidu Town lies to the north of the Koidu Kimberlite Project. Koidu is currently the 4th largest





city in Sierra Leone and serves as the capital and economic centre of the Kono District. The


town is ethnically and culturally diverse and its population includes a significant number of


foreign diamond workers, both legal and illegal artisanal miners.


2.2.2. Local setting





The original mining lease area that was issued in 1995 measured approximately 4 km2 (Plan


1: Regional setting

















RES 965 7


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for ttie Koidu Kimberlite Project ''I





). As part of the mining lease area verification for the Mining Review Process, a delegation





from the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Political Affairs visited the project site on 2


March 2010 and resurveyed ail beacons. It was confirmed that the original coordinates did


not correspond with the actual beacon positions and that those coordinates had been based


on the wrong coordinate system.


A new set of coordinates was issued by the acting Director of the Geological Survey, Deputy


Director of the Geological Survey, Government Mining Engineer for the Kono District and


Mining Cadastre Officer of the Geological Survey, The coordinates were signed off by the


Minister of Mineral Resources and incorporated into the new Mining Lease Agreement. The


new mining lease area measures 4.9873 km2 and the coordinates are provided in Table 2-2.


Table 2*2: Coordinates for the Koidu Kimberlite Mining Area








Point no. X-coordinates Y-coordinates UTM Zone


1 282268 955286 29


2 282642 955042 29


3 282662 954725 29


4 283850 955350 29


5 284251 955540 29





6 284251 955165 29


7 284780 955440 29


8 284660 953210 29


9 284500 953200 29


10 282569 953198 29


11 282283 953340 29





12 282276 953701 29


13 281930 954195 29


14 281930 954195 29


15 282268 954363 29








2.2.3. Land tenure


The mining lease issued in 1995 was valid for a 25 year period. However, due to the civil


war, force majeure was invoked in May 1997 and was lifted following the official declaration


of the end of the war on 18 January 2002. The 1995 mining lease was transferred to Koidu


Holdings, including all rights, privileges, duties, obligations, title and interest as from 1





October 2003.


In terms of the Mining Review Process initiated by GoSL in 2008, the mining lease held by


Koidu Holdings was renegotiated and a new agreement entered into between the Republic


of Sierra Leone and Koidu Holdings on 6 September 2010. The term of the mining lease was


extended to 22 July 2030 and shall continue in force until the expiry, surrender or termination


of the mining lease. The mining lease may be renewed for a further period of 15 years.

















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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








In addition to the mining lease, Koidu Holdings holds a surface lease over the land adjacent


to the western boundary of the mining lease area which is used for the accommodation


complex.


2.2.4. Nearby settlements





Within the surveyed project area there are five main settlements, namely New Sembehun,


Saquee Town, Sokogbe, Swarray Town and Yormandu. These settlements fall within or


border on the mining lease area. A sixth settlement, Manjamadu (which includes the existing


resettlement site), is located along the eastern boundary of the mine. Other neighbouring


settlements are Old Meama, Wordu and Kanya.





2.2.5. Accessibility


The primary means of access to the Koidu Kimberlite Project is by motor vehicle. The road


linking Freetown and Koidu has been upgraded since 2007 and is currently in good condition


for approximately 200 km from Freetown. The final 160 km between Makeni and Koidu is in


very poor condition, but plans to upgrade this section have been approved for the next dry


season. The aggregate to be used in the construction of this upgraded road will be sourced


from the waste rock produced from the Koidu mining operation.


Roads inside the concession area are on average 9 m wide and cover approximately


15.5 km. Roads are constructed with waste rock and topped with compacted kimberlite


tailings. Most of the roads in use are utilised by heavy mining and light vehicles and are


maintained on an ongoing basis.


The regional airstrip is situated at Yengema airfield, which is situated approximately 15 km


west of the mining license area and is accessed by the main road leading from Koidu town to


Freetown. The runway is approximately 14 m wide and 800 m long with a tarmac surface.


Maintenance on the runway and the surrounding areas is done by the local population and is


funded by Koidu Holdings.


The helipad is situated west of the security camp and covers an area approximately


2 712 m2. The helipad was constructed on a waste rock foundation and topped with


kimberlite tailings. The surface is compacted to prevent excessive dust with the landing and


take-off of helicopters. The helipad is marked and is equipped with a windsock.


2.2.6. Fuel storage and handling


The existing diesel storage area is situated between the workshop and logistical area and


covers an area of approximately 256 m2. Fuel is stored in two 40 500 L tanks and is


distributed through a metered electric pump.


Fuel is obtained from the Total (SL) Ltd depot in Freetown and is transported to Koidu by


Total fuel bowsers.


Fuel is delivered into the tank that is used for daily distribution. From there, fuel is pumped





via a fuel polishing filtration system to the main storage tank.


Heavy machinery working in the different areas of the mining lease area are supplied fuel by


a 10 000 L mobile fuel bowser which receives its fuel from the fuel station. In turn, the fuel











RES 965 9


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberfrte Project





bowser is equipped with a metered pump. A fuel consumption database is maintained by the


logistics department and audited by the finance department.


2.2.7. Explosives storage


Liquid emulsion is stored at the main logistical store and is considered non-explosive until


sensitised with sodium nitrate. The explosives magazine encompasses a fenced and gated


area of approximately 7 178 m2. The main magazine consists out of a number of roofed


containers which are situated inside a 4 m high sand/laterite berm barrier with a concealed


entrance.


Access to the magazine is strictly controlled and is only permitted in the presence of security


personnel. All issues and consumption is logged by the security department and is verified


against the registers Koidu Kimberlite Project by the key holder whom is a licensed blasting


operator.


2.2.8. Reagent storage and handling


Hydrofluoric acid is currently not utilised or handled at the mine, although some remain in


stock. The residue of the hydrofluoric acid that still remains on site is currently stored at the


plant site in polyethylene containers. The storage area is located inside the final recovery


security area inside a specially constructed container.


2.2.9. Existing infrastructure


The location of existing surface infrastructure is illustrated in Table 2-3 and includes the


following:


• Workshops and workshop offices;





• Vehicle wash bays, parking and maintenance area;


• Process plant;


• Administration offices;


o Logistical stores;





• Resettlement offices and stores;


• Brick manufacturing plant;


• Clinic;


« Core shed;





• Employee accommodation camp and recreation area;


• Security camp;


• Fuel storage area;


• Reagents storage area; and





• Explosive magazine











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Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








2.3. Project description and resource requirements


This section provides a description of the proposed project activities that will be undertaken


as part of the Koidu Kimberlite Project. An estimation of the mining equipment, employment


and capital required for the Project is also provided.


2.3.1. New Infrastructure





The infrastructure to be constructed are listed and described in Table 2-3 and indicated on


the proposed infrastructure layout plan (Plan 4).


2.3.2. Mine plan


The mine plan consists two distinct phases employing different mining methods, namely





open pit and underground mining methods. The open pit operational phase will overlap with


the construction of infrastructure for the underground mining phase in order to ensure a


seamless transition from surface to underground production.


Open pit mining at K2 commenced in October 2008 with the removal of 1,150,000 tonnes of





waste in preparation for the controlled extraction of a 5 m slice across the ore body as part of


the bulk sampling programme. The waste development and bulk sampling formed part of an


interim cut planned to generate funds and keep the mine in production during the feasibility


study period and beyond. The interim pit was incorporated in the final pit design for K2 and


the mining will continue uninterrupted.


Therefore, the No. 2 open pit will not go through another construction phase, but rather the


current operational phase will be ramped up to meet the increased tonnages required to


meet the new plant processing targets. Mining activities at K1 will get underway in March


2011 with substantial waste stripping required to cut back the vertical pit highwalls and gain


access to ore beneath the vertical pit.


Koidu Holdings, in conjunction with SRK Consulting, have conducted open pit optimisation


studies on the K1 and K2 ore bodies. The optimal pit shells were selected by considering the


trade-off between the open pit and underground operations, serving as a guide for the final


open pit designs. Due to the potential impact on the surrounding infrastructure and


community, the decision was made to increase the safe blasting radius for the open pits from


250m to 500m.


The K1 open pit will include portions of Blow A and Blow B. as well as the two dyke zones


(DZA and DZB) which bound the northern and southern extents of K1 and extend to the


blows. These pit designs will take the development of the K1 pit down to 80 mams! and K2


down to 140 mams!. The open pit operations at K1 and K2 are scheduled to be completed


by December 2015.


Current indications are that the development of the main underground access decline should


commence in 2012, with production ramp-up from underground from 2015 onwards.























RES 965 11


 3


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu KimberfKe Project








Table 2-3: Proposed infrastructure associated with the Koidu Kimberlite Project





Infrastructure Area Description


Mam gate 816 mz • The main gate with a floor space of 840 m' will only allow access to mining employees by means of a pedestrian





entrance;


• Searching facilities will ensure property security;


• A visitors counter will issue visitor permits;


• A vehicle entrance will allow access to large vehicles; and


• A security staff manning station with ablution facflilies.


• Clinic wilh a floor space of 420 m2 wil be located at the main entrance; and


Clinic 607m2 • Clinic is to consist of 3 wards, an emergency treatment centre, an x-ray facility and dental facflities.





Mine mess 898 m2 • Mine mess will provide employees with a meal prior to the commencement of their shift; and


• Mess will consist of seating facilities for 200 people, an industrial kitchen and ablutions and washing facilities.


Change house 5 640 m2 • Change house to accommodate 250 male and 80 female employees per shift;


• Locker facilities for 1000 people, with 900 and 100 locker facilities for male and female employees, respectively;


and





• Laundry facility and change house (985 m2).


SHE 534 m2 • SHE Department with a floor space of 544 m2 to be fitted with a 70 seating trainrig room; and


• PPE store with ablution facilities;


Mine stores 1 738 m2 • Mine store with a floor space of 1738 m2 to comprise of a sheeted secure building with industrial racking for


Items up to a weight of 200 kg;


• Outside lay down area for heavier items;


• Facilities for loading and off-loading trucks carrying containers up to 12 m;


• Storage area for lubricants and FeSi; and


• Ablutions facilities and dedicated office block.





• The workshop with a floor area of 2397 mz will consist of a machine shop section. 6 bays for heavy mining


Mire workshops 2397 m2 equipment, 4 bays for light duty vehicles and a separate building for tyre repairs and hydraulic pipe repairs; and


• A wash bay for the cleaning of fleet.


• Explosive store wilt have earth walls around the perimeter and a Q-deck roof will be used; and


Explosives store 905 m2


• To be constructed to provide protection should an explosion occurs.











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l I I I I t I I l i I { i I I < i ( i


| | • ! I I I l I ) I I I I I I I





Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








infrastructure Area Description


• Lightning protection will be provided





• Incinerator house consisting of a bnck building with a chimney through the roof will have a floor space of 80 m2;


Incinerator house 80 m? and


• General waste from the mine site will be incinerated.


Emulsion shed 1125 m* • Dedicated emulsion shed with an office block and plinths to support emulsion dispensing tanks.





Generator house 344 m2 • Generator house with a floor space of 344 mz vail allow for additional generators, as required.





Camp mess and kitchen 1371 mz • To be located at the foot of Monkey Hill:


• Kitchen facility will cater for 120 seated people:


• Ablution facilities, washing facilities and relaxation areas; and


• Swimming pool and gym facilities.


Main camp 4315 m2 • Accommodation for 84 personnel consisting of ablution facilities and single room bedding.





Security and fencing • Central security control centre to supply 2 tier security monitoring;





• Fencing of the entire concession area will be done consisting of a 3 m x 1 m gabion wall. The wall is to be


electrified and have surveillance cameras installed:


• The Koidu-Garcdorhun Road which runs through the mining lease area will have to be diverted around the wall;





• The store, workshops and buildings will be fenced off wilh standards perimeter fencing; and


• The plant area will have double fencing around the perimeter.


Road and conveyor 1 100 m « Upgrade of approximately 5 km of road will take place of which 70% are existing roads;


• Roads wii typically be 12 m wide with drainage furrows on the side;


infrastructure • Surfacing of roads to be done with a mixture of aggregate and finer gravel material;


• A mixed layer of 300 mm wilt be placed and compacted;


• Conveyors of the modular gantry type wll be restricted to the plant and tailings areas. Columns are to be


supported on civil bases; and


• Conveyor head pulleys will prevent spillage underneath die belts.


Power supply


• Power plant with an installed capacity of 9 MVA consisting of five prime mover low voltage generators;


• Generator cooling will be forced ventilator radiator cooling:


• Output voltage will be 400 V, stepped up to 11 kV;


• Substation to be housed fri a brick building with a steel sheeted roof; and








RES 965 1 3


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Infrastructure Area Description


• Potenlial spillage of oil and lubricants will be bunded with a suitable drainage and pumping system.





Sewage treatment « Three sewage collection networks to cater for accommodation units at Monkey HHI and planl area, respectively:


« Each treatment plant will have adequate capacity to peak and average demands:


• Treatment will take place via anaerobic and aerobic processes leading to minimum odour;


* Clean treated water will be discharged to the environment through reed beds.


Waste disposal • Waste will be stored at demarcated areas within the concession and collected on a fixed roster and transported





to the incinerator:


« Two incinerators will be installed;


« One unit includes a mild steel chimney, oil burners and a control panel and is capable of burning 500 kg/hour of


general waste with a plastic content of 5%;


• One unit will be capable to dispose of 50 kg/hour waste with a plastic content of 15%;


• Incinerators comprise features leading to smokeless operation and saving of valuable fuel.


Tailings 30 ha • Tailings and grits will be stockpiled as a combined stream on one footprint;


• A conveyor with spreader will be used to transport and deposit the material;


• The tailings stockpile will have a maximum height of 50 m to elevation 420 mamsl. Total lormes slored will be


11,317,500 tonnes; and


• A total life of 14 years will be available





Slimes 37 ha • The slimes facility will be a waste rock impoundment type facility with a maximum height of 20m lo elevation 400


mamsl;


• Life of the slimes dump facility is 14 years.


• The waste rock containment wall will have a crest width of 10m and will be raised in 6m lifts.


• A downstream method of wall development will be used.


• Water from the slimes containment facility will be decanted via die penstock to a return water dam and then


pumped to the plant via the return water line.


Road Diversion ±3 km • Diversion of the Koidu-Gandorhun road to Ihe southern border of the mining lease area. This diversion is





required to ensure efficient access control lo Ihe Koidu Kimberlite mine.























RES 965 14











I i I I i 1 I I i \ ! | I i i ( I


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project tl








2.3.3. Open pit mining


An open pit optimisation and practical design exercise was carried out on both K1 and K2 ore


bodies. Both pipes will be mined by means of two interim cuts and concluded with a third and


final cut. The final open pit at K1 will be 310 m deep and at K2 will be 240 m deep (Figure 2-1).


The open pit optimisation process was constrained by an underground operation resulting in the


final pit depth of K1 being 80 m shallower than for a fully optimised open pit. This is due to the


underground starting to contribute more than the open pit operation from a depth of about 310


m with the associated waste stripping ratio of +/- 17:1.


Open pit mining will be executed by Koidu Holdings with an owner operator approach. The final


open pit plans are generally considered to be conservatively designed, with an aggressive


execution schedule applied. Figure 2-1 illustrates the open pit high level schedule and results.





K1 K2


♦/- 500m Wide March 2011 */-37Sm Wide








+/- 240m Oe


+/- 310m Deep June 2015


Dec 2015














5








Figure 2-1: Open pit high level schedule and illustration


Table 2-4 summarises the open pit mining equipment fleet required.





Table 2-4: Open pit mining equipment












































15


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Mercedes Benz - Diesel 1 0 1


Bowzer (8kl)


Mercedes Benz - Service 1 0 1


Truck


Mercedes Benz - Charging 2 0 2


T rucks


Flyght BIBO Pumps 2 0 2


LDV’s 4 0 4





Volvo - SD160Dx Compactor 1 0 1





Slope Radar 0 1 1


Geomoss Survey Monitoring 1 1 2


System








2.3.4. Underground mining


The main underground operation will be accessed through a single decline, protected by a “cut


and covered” portal on surface (Figure 2-2). Dyke Zone B West will also be accessed through a





decline developed from the existing open trench. Return air will be directed to return air passes


which will also be equipped to serve as emergency outlets. Blast Hole Open Stoping is the


mining method proposed for the K1 and K2 ore bodies, with no crown pillar left in-situ between


the open pit and underground operations. Figure 2-2 illustrates the general lay-out of the open


stopes beneath the K1 and K2 open pits.
























































Figure 2-2: Decline layouts for K1 and K2 underground access





Mechanised Long Hole Stoping (non-entry) is the proposed mining method for the Dyke Zones,


with a 30 m crown pillar left in-situ between surface and the first working levels of the dyke


zones. The ore strike drives will be developed to the currently determined dyke limits, with


production blasting then commencing targeting only the dyke zone portion between two


consecutive drives (20 m vertically apart). The blasted material will be loaded by small load haul


dumpers and dumped into a series of ore passes. These passes discharge on every fifth level,








16


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








on which a haulage is also developed. The ore is then re-handled out of the passes into 20


tonne dump trucks and transported through a haulage, access spiral and decline ramp to the


plant. Figure 2-3 illustrates the general lay-out of the mining infrastructure at a dyke zone mining


operations. Figure 2-4 illustrates the high level underground development plan for the main ore


bodies.










































































Figure 2-3: General layout of the mining infrastructure at a dyke zone mining operations.


Standard trackless diesel powered mobile equipment will be used in the underground operation.


The fleet will consist of development rigs, long hole production drilling rigs, load haul dumpers,


haul trucks and other utility type equipment. Table 2-5 summarises the underground mining


equipment fleet purchase schedule.

































































Figure 2-4: High level underground development plant for the main ore bodies.








17


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project











Table 2-5: Underground mining equipment.





Underground Fleet Description 201 201 201 201 201 201 Tota


Purchases 2012 3 4 5 6 7 8 I


Sandvik 00320 12 X Boom) Dev Rio 1 2 3


Sandvik 00210 (1 x Boom) Dev Riq 1 1 1 3


Sandvik DL320-7 (89 mml Prod Ria 1 1 2


Sandvik DL210 (64 mm) Prod Ria 1 1 2


Sandvik LH 307 (6.5T) Prod LHD 2 2 2 6


Sandvik LH203 (3.5T) Dev LHD 1 1 1 2 2 7


LHD *


Sandvik LH301 + Hammer Hammer 1 1


LHD +


Sandvik LH203 + Hammer Hammer 1 1


Sandvik 30SX (30 T) Prod Truck 2 3 5


Sandvik TH320 (200 Dev Truck 2 1 1 1 1 6


Sandvik TH205L (Casette) Utility 1 2 2 1 6


Sandvik TH205L (S/Llft) Utililv 1 3 2 1 7


Sandvik TH205L (Blast) Blastlnq 1 2 2 1 6


Tovota Land Cruiser Utility 1 3 1 2 1 8








2.3.4.1 Waste rock management


All hard rock will be drilled by a fleet of hydraulic self-propelled drill rigs and then blasted using


bulk emulsion explosives. The blasted material will be excavated by a fleet of excavators and


hauled to surface by a fleet of articulated dump trucks. The waste material will be loaded and


hauled to designated waste rock dumps in close proximity to the pits.


2.3.4.2 Ore handling





All the ore materia! will be loaded, hauled and tipped into the primary crusher at the processing


plant. Excess ore production will be stockpiled for limited periods on designated stockpiles


adjacent to the new processing plant, from where it will be fed into the process plant on


demand.


A fleet of utility vehicles including dozers, graders and re-fuelling trucks will be deployed to


ensure sufficient support to the main production fleet.









































18


 Dailola • • Plan 1


Dalaba . Kouroussa





Koidu Kimberlite Project


Fria Mamou Kankan Regional Setting


b


* Guinea. •





Kintiip Faranah Legend


10‘00'N*





a Project Location





onakry © Cities


Forecsariah





Settlements


International Boundary


Kissidougou


□ Provincial Boundary





Makeni











Gueckedou Macenta


^^^*^^Valniama




















Kenema











Yomou

















Liberia


Gbamga





DIGBY WELLS


Robertsport ENVIRONMENT!


Africa





Kakata PlOjecton UTM 29 N VVGSS I Rel - aiiK RES9oS2CI!C4 004


Bento I False EdsCng. SCCCCCin RcMfioi Number: 1


Central Meridian: 9’W Dale. 04/0*201:





Monrovia 0 12.5 25 50 75 100


Kilometres





1:2,000,000





C D«Uy Wen. & Associates


 mom/ 275OCO 300 COO 325 CGO





Plan 2








Kolnaduflu Koidu Kimberlite Project


DWkt


Local Setting


Kume a








Legend





Project Location


; Mountain


Cities





Settlements





Cayima Roads





Rivers





Water Areas


International Boundary





5edu □ Provincial Boundary





Baqbema District Boundary


Outlet





Chiefdoms


Sefadv


- .Koidu P


Vengema JauuwBiiid


Tonkollll


Dto*kt





























m





DIGBY WELLS


tmiRDHMUIIA!


lr! 07 II WW


KerMma Projection UTM 29 N WGSM Ret* am.- KES9(iS.20il0-l 005


Dlttfcl False EaitnE SOOCGOm Revision Number 1


Crntia! Ntnidjn: 9®W Date 04/040011


N 0 2.5 5 10 15 20


t\ “ " (ilo metres


1:400,000





«• ihgry We& * Auorutci








1111(111


I i


 Plan 4





Koidu Kimberlite Project


Proposed Mine Plan











Legend








■■ " New Road


Paths





Roads


Proposed Additional Infrastructure


Mining Lease Area





Resettlement Boundary


Comp Extension


Rivers





Mine Plan


Blast Radius


Dumps





Mine Buildings


Offices





--- Water Pools


Artisinal Workings





Land Use


Cultivated Land





Dams


Swamps

















DIGBY WELLS








Projection UTM29NWGS84 Rel » ante RES96S201104 007


False E«tny SOODDDm Rrvtsicn Number »


Ccnlxal Meridian 9'W Dale 03/0^2011








Marcs


1:15,000





: I>5f0y WciM A: Auocutei








i I ! I I I I I I


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project Mm





2.3.5. Waste management


2.3.5.1 Domestic waste


No hazardous waste is generated during operations and all domestic waste that is generated


will be collected and disposed of by use of the incinerators.


2.3.5.2 Tailings and slimes management


Once the diamonds have been recovered from the Kimberlite, there are two waste streams that


come from the plant that need to be disposed. There is a -0.5 mm slimes portion and a -28+0.5


mm tailings portion.


The -0.5mm slimes is pumped into a slimes dump. This dump is an impoundment type dam that


has walls constructed out of waste material from the pit. The tailings are disposed of via several


deposition points into the tailings storage facility (TSF). The TSF is equipped with a penstock-


this is used to recover water from the dam, and is equipped with trenches to catch any water


that leaks out of the dam. All water recovered from the dam will be channelled into a return


water dam. From the return water dam, the water will be pumped into the processing plant for


re-use.


The tailings will be transported by a conveyor belt to the tailings deposition dump. A tripper and


spreader arrangement will be used on the dump to deposit the tailings in a heap. The tailings


will be deposited such that it is a maximum of 50 m from the ground level. Additional conveyor


segments will be constructed to ensure that the deposition can take place.


2.3.6. Storm water management


Storm water will be pumped out from the open pits by means of electrical submersible pumps


powered by diesel-driven generators. Adequate water storage and pumping capacity will be


provided for the underground workings in order to ensure a safe underground working


environment.


2.3.7. Water supply to local community


Several dewatering boreholes were drilled in 2007 around the perimeter of Kt and pumps were


introduced into these boreholes in an effort to control water influx into the vertical pit. The


discharge from these pumps was directed away from K1 into a drainage system that would


carry the water into the stream flowing into the Meya River. The 7.5 kW pumps were


approximately 90 m deep and had a water delivery capacity of 8 000 L per hour. The discharge


of one of the pumps was located near to where the local community could benefit from the use


of the water.


A borehole was drilled in 2008 in the planned resettlement area and is equipped with a diesel


engine driven mono-pump installed to a depth of 73 m, with a water delivery capacity of 18 000


L per hour. A system of water tanks has now been erected at strategic points to supply water to


the community in the area, water samples were taken from this water source, and was deemed


fit for human consumption by the Sierra Leone Water Company (SALWACO).


Installation of a water reticulation system which wili benefit the resettlement community is


currently in progress. Four large water tanks, each with a capacity of 30 000 L. have been


erected on at the highest point in the resettlement area, a water reticulation pipe system has








23


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidli Kimberlite Project :W








been installed to provide every four houses with a water outlet point. The current delivery


capacity is approximately 400 000 L per day.


2.4. Mineral processing


The following section details the mineral processing to be followed.


2.4.1. Ore receiving


The ore will be tipped into a receiving bin which is fitted with a 600 mm square aperture static


grizzly. Any oversize material that has not passed through the 600 mm opening will be either


broken using a static rockbreaker or hydraulically lifted and removed.


The material that passes through the 600 mm static grizzly will be drawn out of bin using an


apron feeder and discharged onto a vibrating grizzly feeder. The vibrating grizzly feeder has a


setting of around 120 mm and any material that does not pass through the opening is


discharged into a primary jaw crusher. The jaw crusher has an open-side setting of around


90 mm and delivers a discharge product of around 150 mm.


Both the jaw crusher product and the vibrating grizzly undersize discharge onto the primary feed


conveyor. The primary feed conveyor discharges into a 2.4 x 6.0 m roller supported scrubber.


The scrubber has been included in the circuit to allow for flexibility in material processing,


should the characteristics of the material from the pit change. Although the plant should be


treating very competent Kimberlite, there is still the possibility that the plant will be fed with


material that contains clay. The scrubber is able to process the material and remove the clay.


2.4.2. Primary sizing, secondary crushing and coarse DMS


The scrubber discharges onto the 1 830 mm x 3 600 mm primary sizing screen. The primary


sizing screen is a double deck fitted with 28 and 1.2 mm panels. The >28 mm material is then


feed to the secondary crushing section. The 1.2 to 28 mm fractions are classified as fines and


the <1.2 mm as slimes.


The >28 mm material discharges onto the secondary screen feed conveyor. The secondary


screen is a double deck 2 100 mm x 4 200 mm screen fitted with 55 mm and 28 mm panels.


The >55 mm material is conveyed to the secondary crusher surge bin. This conveyor is fitted


with a weightometer for accounting purposes. The material is drawn out of file surge bin with a


750 mm x 1 500 mm vibrating pan feeder into a Sandvik CH440EC secondary cone crusher.


The cone crusher product is discharged onto a conveyor and is re-circulated back to the


secondary screen.


The 28 to 55 mm fractions report to the 150 tph coarse DMS feed conveyor. This conveyor is


fitted with a weightometer for accounting purposes. The coarse DMS has been designed with a


large diameter 800 mm DMS cyclone to handle the bigger size fractions delivered to it.


Due to the fact that there is a good chance of a large diameter diamond being present in the


feed, it is important that the possible recovery of this diamond is maximised before the material


goes to secondary crushing.


The coarse DMS can handle a high tonnage throughput. The size fraction being fed into the


coarse DMS has been set at around 55 mm. This allows utilisation of the DMS to its capacity


and reduction of the DMS requirements downstream. The coarse DMS is fitted with a 2 440 mm


x 4 270 mm floats screen. Once the material has passed through the DMS. the floats portion is


conveyed to the secondary crusher.





24


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Khnbertite Protect





The sinks from the coarse DMS is conveyed using a specialised and secure pipe conveyor to


the final recovery building.


2.4.3. Fines Dense Media Separation (DMS) and re-crusher


The <28 mm material from the primary and secondary screens is conveyed to the fines 260 t


DMS surge bins. The fines DMS surge bins discharge onto the DMS feed conveyors using two


750 mm x 1 500 mm variable speed vibrating pan feeders. The pan feeders are connected to a


weightometer which regulates the feed to the DMS.


The fines DMS modules are configured as 130 tph DMS utilising two 510 cyclones each. The


DMS has a double deck floats screen with an 8 mm aperture. The >8 mm material is conveyed


to the re-crush 2 500 t stockpile. The re-crush stockpile conveyor is fitted with a weightometer


for accounting purposes.


The re-crusher feed is drawn out from underneath the stockpile using two 750 mm x 1500 mm


variable speed vibrating pan feeders and will discharge into the tertiary crusher feed conveyor.


The conveyor will feed two Sandvik CH440F tertiary cone crushers. The cone crushers will be


wet flushed (if required) to assist in the crushing process and will discharge directly onto the re¬


crusher sizing screen.


The re-crusher sizing screen is a 2 440 mm x 4 200 mm double deck screen fitted with an 8 and


1.2 mm aperture. The >8 mm material is transported back to the re-crusher stockpile. The <8


mm is conveyed back the fines DMS surge bin and the <1.2 mm material reports to the water


recovery section.


The <8 mm material from the fines DMS is conveyed to a camel back movable stacker conveyor


that will deposit the tailings onto the tailings dump. The sinks material from the fines DMS is jet


pumped to the final recovery


2.4.4. Final recovery


The concentrate from the fines DMS jet pump is received into a concentrate holding bin. The


concentrates are drawn out of the holding bin into the attrition scrubber. The 1 m x 3.5 m


attrition scrubber has been designed for a 12 minute retention time to give adequate scrubbing.


The material is then jet pumped up to the 1 220 mm x 2 440 mm primary de-watering screen.


The primary de-watering screen is fitted with 1.2 mm2 polyurethane panels and is inclined at 5°


to facilitate maximum drainage.


The oversize from the de-watering screen discharges onto the 610 mm x 4 270 mm x-ray sizing


screen. Here the material is sized into 16 to 28 mm; 8 to 16 mm; 4 to 8 mm; 2 to 4mm and 1.2


to 2 mm fractions. These fractions are stored in the 1 m3 x-ray surge hoppers under the screen.


The undersize from the de-watering screens drains to a splitter box. The splitter box operates as


a decanting device which allows for the separation of the fine material and water. The fines


material separated in the splitter is diverted to the final tailings screen. The water from the


splitter is then diverted back to the jet pump motive sump for re-use.


The 28 to 55 mm material is delivered to a 15 t surge bin from where it is drawn out and sorted


through a single pass, wet x-ray sorter. All other size fractions are fed through double stage wet


x-ray sorters.











25


Environmental and Sadat Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project m








The rejects from the x-ray sorters that are larger than 8 mm report to the recrush section for


further crushing and diamond recovery. All -8mm rejects is stockpiled in the recovery yard on a


tailings stockpile.


The concentrate from the uitrafine x-ray sorters is discharged into a tube feeder and the


concentrate from the x-ray sorters treating the fines, middlings and coarse fractions is


discharged into another tube feeder. Both tube feeders discharge into the concentrates bin


ahead of the dryer.


All effluent from the other operations in the recovery plant, namely x-ray effluent and dewatering


screen effluent, report to the final tailings pump. The final tailings pump delivers the effluent to


the thickening section of the plant.


Ail concentrates are then fed through the Infrared dryer. This dryer is a rotary belt dryer utilising


both low frequency infra-red drying and hot air blowers to dry the concentrate. Once dried, the


concentrates are discharged onto the sort house gloveboxes.


Ail glove box pickings are sent from the glove boxes to the accounting glove box. Here the


diamonds are weighed and sized. A drop safe is attached to the accounting glove box to


facilitate direct deposit of packaged diamonds. All pickers' rejects are conveyed out of the sort


house and onto the recovery tailings conveyor which will exit the side of the recovery building


and discharge onto the recovery tailings stockpile conveyor.


2.4.5. Water recovery circuit and process water


Alt <1.2 mm material from the primary screen, secondary screen, re-crusher screen and both


DMS plants will be pumped to a degrit plant. From the degrit plant, the slurry is separated into a


+0.5 and a -0.5mm fraction via a cyclone. The +0.5mm fraction reports to the tailings conveyor


for disposal while the -0.5mm fraction is sent to the thickener. The thickener is a high rate type


thickener as currently used on the Koidu site.


The slimes being pumped to the thickener will receive flocculent addition from an automated


flocculent make-up and dosing plant. Thickener underflow will be pumped to the slimes dam at


a distance of 400 m using steel and high pressure high-density polyethylene (HOPE) piping.


Clear water overflow from the thickener will be collected in process water dam situated next to


the thickener. The process water dam will have the plant process water pump connected to it.


Make up water from the river water pump at a distance of 2 000 m will supply any short fall of


water required due to the loss of water through slimes pumped to the slimes dump. Slimes


dump return water will also be returned to the process water dam through a penstock ring and


overflow dam with pumps which have been provided.








2.5. Employment opportunities


During the construction of the infrastructure and plant 200 local employment opportunities will


be created. Post construction, in excess of 1000 employment opportunities (skilled, semi-skilled,


unskilled) will be created. The total national staff complement at full operation is indicated in


Table 2-6.














26


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report tor the Koldu Kimberlite Project








Table 2-6: Total national staff complement at full operation of the Project





Nationals No of Staff





Strategic Management 1


Freetown Office 14





Mine Management 36


Mining Department 563





Metallurgy Department 167


Engineering Department 144





Support Functions 261


Security Department 2


Total 1 188








2.6. Project timing





The proposed expansion project schedule commences in October 2010 as indicated in Table


2-7, with the ordering of the new plant and other long lead time items, such as earth moving


equipment. Construction of plant and infrastructure will commence in January 2011, to ensure


all civil engineering work is completed by the time the plant and equipment arrive on site.


The mine will continue producing with the existing 50 tph plant until the new plant is erected,


commissioned and has ramped up to full production, after which the existing plant will be


dismantled and relocated to the Tongo Diamond Field Project south of Koidu.





The five year open pit mining phase of the operation will be followed by underground mining of


kimberlite pipes, as well as the dyke zones and blows, for the remainder of the life of the mine.


Construction of the underground access will commence with first ore being extracted from the


underground in 2015.


Table 2-7: Proposed timing, duration and sequence of the project





Project Implementation Expected commencement Expected duration


date


Ordering of equipment Quarier4 of 2010 3 months





Construction of plant Quarter 1 of 2011 12 months


Construction of underground


access Quarter 1 of 2012 24 months





UG Infrastructure Development Quarter 4 of 2013 9 months








2.7. Project activities


The project activities have been categorised into three project phases, namely the construction


operational and decommissioning, closure and post-closure phases.











27


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





2.7.1. Construction phase


The following activities will be conducted during construction of the Koidu Kimberlite Project


expansion:


2.7.1.1 Preparation for mining


During the project construction phase, the mining operations will be executing the open pit


mining plans for both the K1 and K2 pits. Preparing for open pit mining will consist of the


following activities:


• Procurement of new earth moving fleet;


• Recruitment and training of new employees to man the expanded fleet;


• Mining and material dumping area preparation; and


■ Establishment of dewatering infrastructure.


2.7.1.2 Site clearance


This project is expanding a current brownfields operation and the site clearance for mining


areas will consist only of dozing and levelling of areas that will fail within the mining push-back


zone and the waste-dumps' expansion foot print. There are plans for the topsoil to be stockpiled


separately for future use.


The construction areas will also be cleared and levelled by means of dozers and other earth


moving equipment. Attempts will be made to preserve indigenous fauna as far as practically


possible.


2.7.1.3 Sourcing of construction materials


Concrete and buliding aggregates will be sourced locally. Sand will be made available from


existing borrow pits. Stone will be produced by crushing waste rock from the mining operation,


thus alleviating the amount of unusable material being generated during mining.


Cement will be procured locally. Bricks will be manufactured locally with sand from the


borrowing area. All other materials of construction will be sourced from South Africa and Europe


and Imported to site.


2.7.1 A Disturbances to natural water courses


Wherever the installation of a new facility interferes with a natural water course, the course will


be replaced and re-routed by a suitable furrow or canal or be linked to the drainage network and


be joined up with the natural course downstream.


In the instance of a road crossing a natural water course, a practical and suitable culvert wiil be


instaiied to allow normal continuation of the water. Silt traps will collect the majority of silt from


the drainage networks before it deposits its water back into natural courses,


Velocity breakers by means of a sudden drop in canal floor depth and width will also be utilised


to minimise the force with which the drainage network deposits water into the natural courses.


2.7.1.5 Construction of new infrastructure


The infrastructure to be constructed are listed and described in Table 2-3.











28


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project





2.7.1.6 Diversion of the Koidu-Gandorhun road


Diversion of the Koidu-Gandorhun road to the southern border of the mining lease area is


required to ensure efficient access control and security to the Koidu Kimberlite Mine. The total


length of Use road diversion route is approximately ± 3km.


2.7.1.7 Resettlement


Resettlement under the 2003 RAP is on-going. Households located between the 250 and 500


meter blasting envelope (the Extended Affected Area) will be resettled during the construction


phase following the completion of the RAP for this area.


2.7.2. Operational phase


During the operational phase, the activities described below will take place. Mining and


processing will be done according to existing practices as described in Section 2.4


2.7.2.1 Access to resource


During the open pit operations, the resource will be accessed by means of a spiral ramp


developed as part of the mining operations. This 20 m wide ramp will be developed at a


gradient of 10% and the road surface compacted and graded to ensure a smooth and safe


running surface for the mining trucks.


The underground resources will be accessed through an access decline tunnel. This 5 m x 5 m


tunnel will be developed at a gradient of 14% and will be protected on surface by means of a


portal. Once the decline tunnel reaches the ore horizon levels in the ore bodies, access to it


changes to access spirals in close proximity to the ore bodies.


2.7.2.2 Fuel and chemicals storage and use


A dedicated cordoned off area for refuelling will be constructed. The area will consist of a


55 000 L tank into which diesel will be received. It will be transferred via a filtration plant into ten


separate 55 000 L diesel storage tanks. It will then go via another filter plant prior to the diesel


being dispensed for refuelling.


These storage tanks will be stationed within a bunded concrete area, which will be capable of


containing 110% of diesel in the tanks, should some catastrophic failure cause a complete spill.


There will be three double fuelling stations, of which two will service big machinery and one bay


will service light vehicles. The area will have a dedicated lab for quality control of the incoming


and outgoing diesel. The area will also include an emergency fire suppression area.


Chemicals will be stored in demarcated areas, which wilt be controlled, in the main store facility.


Should there be any requirements to treat a spill of any of these chemicals the store area will


ensure that correct requirements are in place.


Emulsion for blasting (non explosive until pumped into the blast hole) will be manufactured on


site and stored in dedicated silos at the emulsion manufacturing facility. Blasting Accessories


which are considered high explosives, will be stored in dedicated explosives storage areas, with


the area securely fenced-off and accessed controlled.








2.7.2.3 Transport and roads








29


 Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








All equipment, supplies and material will be transported in by truck or car via road. Access on


site is by means of 12 m wide graded dirt roads. These roads are maintained periodically by the


mine. New access roads will be established as per the general site lay-out plan.


Mine haul roads are constructed for the exclusive use of mining equipment. These haul roads


link the pits to the waste rock dumps and/or the ore process plant. These roads are maintained


by the mining department and dust allayed by means of periodical sprinkling with a water


bowser.


2.7.2.4 Water requirements and supply


Process plant


The 180 tph processing plant will require a total of 610 m3 water per hour. Of this requirement,





550 m3/hr will be re-used from the return water from the thickening system that will be installed


with the plant. The remaining make-up water will be pumped from the main storage dam that is


situated approximately 1.5 km from the plant at the foot of Monkey Hill.





As the TSF is built up and brought into operation there will be a return water supply from the


TSF which will then reduce the quantity of water required from the main dam. The total water


requirements for the proposed expansion are summarised in Table 2-8.


Table 2-8: Total process water requirements for the project








Water use Quantity





Plant process water 778 m3/hr


Process water treated and re-circulated 700 mJ/hr





Process water required from water storage dam 78 m'/hr








Potable water


Raw water will be pumped from a local borehole to a temporary storage tank of approximately


100 000 L capacity. Thereafter the water will go through a treatment plant into another 100 000L


surge tank, prior to being pumped into a storage tank of approximately 250 000L which will be


situated on Monkey Hill.


Surface water drainage


Rainfall will be collected via a gutter system and channelled to intermediate V-shaped drainage


canals. As these join together and the volumes of water increase, these canals will be replaced


by U-shaped canals, channelling water towards natural water courses.


Silt traps will be allocated to these waterways, whereby a method of slowing the water speed in





certain areas will be used to settle fines and gravel out of the water. This material will be


deposited in suitable areas that need to be backfilled.


Water storage





Water pumped from the main dam will be stored in the plant's 300 m3 process water dam for


use within the plant. The process water tank is of a galvanised sectional design and is erected








30


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








on site during the construction phase. Treated water will be stored in 2 x 50 000 L closed


reservoirs and a 10 000 L water tower.


Process water and treatment facility


The process water from the main treatment plant circulates at volumes of 778 m3'hr. All process


water used by the plant will be pumped to a high-rate thickening system. With the aid of


flocculent addition, the solid particles will be settled out and pumped to the slimes dump. The


clear water overflow from the thickener is transferred to the process water dam for re-use.


The slimes will be pumped to the slimes dump at a rate of 10 to 15 tph and will consist of -0.5


mm solids with an SG of 1.2 to 1.35. The slimes dump will be fitted with penstock rings to allow


water return from the slimes dump. This return water will be channelled to a return water dam


located next to the slimes dump from where it will be pumped back to the process water dam in


the plant for re-use.


2.7.3. Decommissioning, closure and post-closure phases


The majority of the area disturbed during the operation of the mine will be restored to a land


capability as close as possible to that practiced before operations commenced. For reasons of


safety, and in order to protect certain rehabilitation works from damage, portions of the mine


area may. however, be designated as areas not available for farming. Access to such areas by


humans and/or livestock will be discouraged until such time as they are deemed safe and the


rehabilitation has been stabilised. The protected areas will predominantly apply to the areas of


ongoing rehabilitation during the LoM. After closure, flooding of open pits will occur. The pits


can be used for water storage and fish farming.


in terms of ciosure cost assessment, it is assumed that all infrastructure will be removed and the


area will be stabilised and revegetated. A framework closure plan forms part of the ESIA and a


detailed closure plan will be developed closer to the time of closure.






























































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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








3. REGULATORY AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK


The legislative and administrative framework in respect of environmental and social


management of mining projects in Sierra Leone has changed significantly in the past few years.


The following section presents a brief history of environmental and mining policy development in


the country, with specific reference to the Koidu Kimberlite Project.








3.1. Policy development


A Core Minerals Policy (CMP) was developed in 2003. with the aim of providing an enabling and


investor-friendly environment for the sustainable development of Sierra Leone's mineral


resources. The objective of the policy was to facilitate foreign and domestic investment in the


minerals sector, to provide economic benefits to the people, and to ensure protection of the


environment.


In line with this policy, specific reforms have been undertaken by government through the World


Bank and DFID in the areas of fiscal, legal and regulatory frameworks as well as institutional


capacity strengthening through the formulation of a National Minerals Agency transformation


plan leading to the enactment of a law to govern the administration of the institution. The CMP


was updated in 2009, but has not yet been published.


The Creating an Enabling Policy Environment in Sierra Leone (CEPESL) Project was designed


by USAID to support the Government of Sierra Leone in developing an enabling environment


for improved natural resources management. The project team commenced in 2009 with


information gathering and analysed information on the existing policy, legal, and regulatory


frameworks for forestry, conservation, mining and agriculture and consulted extensively with


stakeholders from the Government of Sierra Leone and civil society to identify priority reform


needs. The Forestry. Mining and Agricultural sectors required law reform measures and the


following policies and laws were identified as priority:


• Forestry Policy;


« Wildlife Policy;


® Artisanal Mining Policy;


• Forestry Act;


• Wildlife Act;


® Companies Act;


« Cooperatives Act; and


• Regulations relating to the Forestry, Mining and Agriculture sectors.


In January 2010, two draft policies were completed, namely the Forestry Policy and Wildlife


Conservation Policy. The process of developing the first draft of the Artisanal and Small-Scale


Mining Policy was also underway.


Once the draft policies are finalised CEPESL will immediately begin working with the Law


Reform Commission to draft the associated laws and regulations.








32


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





3.2. Legislative reform


Of particular importance to the ESIA process, are the recently promulgated Environmental


Protection Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11 of 2008) and the Mines and Minerals Act, 2009 (Act 12 of


2009). However, all relevant Acts and Regulations were considered in order to guide the


environmental and social studies and to ensure the projects overall compliance with national


legislative provisions. The following National Acts are therefore relevant to the Koidu Kimberlite


Project:


• The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Act No. 6 of 1991


• Environmental Protection Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11 of 2008);


• Mines and Minerals Act, 2009 (Act 12 of 2009);


• Forestry Act, 1988; and


• Forestry Regulations, 1989.


3.2.1. The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Act No. 6 of 1991


Section 15 of the Constitution states that: "... every person in Sierra Leone is entitled to the


fundamental human rights and freedoms of the individual.” This indudes protection from


deprivation of property without compensation. Section 21 (1) further stipulates that no property of


any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over


property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, except where land is required by the


GoSL in the public interest.


3.2.2. The Environmental Protection Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11 of 2008)


The Environment Protection Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11 of 2008) was enacted to establish the


Sierra Leone Environment Protection Agency (SLEPA) and to provide effective measures for


the management and protection of the environment. The Act repeals the Environment


Protection Act, 2000 (Act 2 of 2000).


In terms of Section 24 of the Act, any person who wishes to undertake any of the projects set


out in the First Schedule of the Act must apply to SLEPA for an EIA licence. The projects or


activities in the First Schedule of the Act that require an EIA licence include extractive


industries, e.g. mining, quarrying, extraction of sand, gravel, salt, peat, oil and gas.


The application for an EIA Licence must be accompanied by a description of the proposed


project to be undertaken. SLEPA must within 14 days of receiving an application decide


whether an EIA is required for the project or not. Section 25(2) requires SLEPA to take the


matters set out in the Second Schedule to the Act into consideration when deciding on whether


an EIA is required in respect of the project. The factors for determining whether a project


requires an environmental impact assessment includes the following:


• Environmental impact on the community;


• Location of the project;


• Whether the project transforms the locality;


• Whether the project has or is likely to have substantial impact on the ecosystem of the


locality;











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Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








• Whether the project results in the diminution of the aesthetic, recreational, scientific,


historical, cultural or other environmental quality of the locality;


o Whether the project will endanger any species of flora or fauna or the habitat of the flora or


fauna;


® Scale of the project;


e Extent of the degradation of the quality of the environment


« Whether the project will result in an increase in demand for natural resources in the locality;


and


» Cumulative impact of the project together with other activities or projects, on the


environment.


The applicant will be advised in writing where a decision has been taken that an E1A is not


necessary for the project. In instances where projects require an EIA Licence the applicant will


be requested to prepare and submit an ESiA in respect of the proposed project. The content of


the ESIA are included in the Third Schedule to the Act.


Section 27 of the Act provides that SLEPA must after receiving an ESIA. circulate it to


professional bodies or associations, Government Ministries and NGOs for their comments. The


ESIA must also be made available for public review and comments. Notice of the public review


must be given in two consecutive issues of the Government Gazette and two issues in a


newspaper. In respect of the newspaper publication an interval of at least seven days must be


afforded between the first and second publications. Public comments on the ESIA must be


submitted to SLEPA within 14 days of the last publication in the Gazette or newspaper. Failure


to comply with the EPA Act of 2008 is a punishable offense.


3.2.3. The Mines and Minerals Act, 2009 (Act 12 of 2009)


The Mines and Minerals Act. 2009 (Act 12 of 2009) ushers in a new era of mineral development


in Sierra Leone by consolidating and amending the previous minerals legislation and by


introducing new improved provisions for exploration, mine development and marketing of


minerals and mineral secondary processing for the benefit of the people of Sierra Leone. The


Act intends to:


• Ensure that management of the mineral sector is transparent and accountable in accordance


with international best practice;


• Promote improved employment practices in the mining sector;


• improve the welfare of communities adversely affected by mining; and


• introduce measures to reduce the harmful effects of mining activities on the environment and


to provide for other related matters.


The Mines and Minerals Act. 2009 repealed the Mines and Minerals Act, 1994 as well as the


Commission for the Management of Strategic Resources. National Reconstruction and


Development Act, 1999.


Any mineral right or permit granted under prior laws or amendments will continue to be valid


until it expires by the passage of time. The holder of a mineral right granted prior to the Mines


and Minerals Act, 2009 may apply for a mineral right covering the area subject to its existing


right on a priority basis.





34


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Protect





In terms of the Act, a mineral right is defined... “A right to explore for or to mine minerals by


holding a valid reconnaissance licence, exploration licence, artisanal mining licence, small-scale


mining licence, or large-scale mining licence, as the context requires". The mineral rights holder


is hereby defined as... The holder of a mineral right in whose name the mineral right is


registered under this Act'.


3.2.3.1 Environmental Impact Assessment


Of particular importance to the Koidu Kimberlite Project are the provisions of the Act contained


in Part XV which deals with the protection of the environment. Section 131(2) of the Act


provides that all small-scale and large-scale mining licence holders to acquire an EIA Licence


as prescribed under the Environmental Protection Act, 2000 (Act 2 of 2000). The


Environmental Protection Act, 2000 has since been repealed by the Environment Protection


Agency Act, 2008 (Act 11of 2008) and the EtA Licence must therefore be obtained in terms of


the provisions of the new Act.


The holder of a mineral right is required to carry on its operations in a manner that is reasonably


practicable in order to minimise, manage and mitigate any environmental impact including but


not limited to pollution resulting from such operations and is subject to all laws of the Republic


concerning the protection of the environment.


Section 133 provides that an EIA prepared by a small-scale or large-scale mining licence


applicant shall be based on environmental baseline assessment work and shall contain the


types of information and analysis reflecting international mining best practice which shall


include:


• A detailed environmental baseline description, backed up with applicable measurements (air


quality, water quality, etc.) to present the environment prior to any mining operations;


a A detailed description of the project including all phases of development, operations,


reclamation and closure including but necessarily limited to:


® Detailed resource requirements and emissions;


® identification of the likely major environmental and social impacts;


• Review of residual and immitigable environmental impacts;


• Broad and detailed objectives regarding each major environmental and social impact and


means of achieving them;


• Predicted or expected effect of each environmental mitigation activity;


• Timetables and budgets for implementation;


• Projected budget and budget timetable to achieve environmental objectives;


• Identification of employee position responsible for implementation of environmental


mitigation;


• Mitigation measures for each major negative social impact;


• The person or agency responsible for monitoring, the methodologies to be used for


monitoring of potential negative impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation and the source


of funding for monitoring; and


An Environmental Management Plan (EMP).


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project











The public consultation requirements are included in Section 133(2) of the Act and provide that


an applicant or mining licence holder is required to consult with the public to introduce the


project and to verify the possible impact of the project from the public and stakeholders


perspective. Further details in respect of public consultation are not provided in the Act.


However, the Act does make provision for public access to the contents of the EIA report and


the EMP [Section 133(3)], as well as the annual EMP Reports [Section 134(4)] which should be


made available for public review at the Mining Cadastre Office.


In instances where the holder of a mining licence proposes to make a change in its mining


operations that would cause a need for a material change in the EMP, mining licence holder


must submit an updated EMP for approval.


Section 134 of the Act requires a mining licence-holder to annually update the EMP Report and


to submit the updated EMP Report to the Director in triplicate. The initial update must be


submitted within a year after the first year In which commercial production first occurred. The


updated EMP Report must be sufficiently detailed so that the Director can determine whether


the EMP is succeeding. If the Director determines that the plan is not succeeding, the Minister


may suspend the licence until such time as measures are taken to insure its success. The


Director shall provide a copy of any annual EMP Report to SLEPA.


The Act also introduces the requirement to provide financial provision for the performance


against any obligation originating from an EIA and EMP. The eligible forms of financial provision


include surety bonds, trust funds, insurance policies, cash deposits or annuities.


A Section 137 directive may be issued to any mining company in order to comply with the


condition of the mineral right for the protection of the environment. The Act provides that should


a company not comply with the directive, the Minister may undertake the necessary steps or


remedial measures as provided in the directive and recover the costs thereof from the mineral


right holder. Where Iwo or more persons constitute, or constituted, the holder of a mineral right,


those persons are jointly and severally liable for the payment of any costs and expenses which


may be recovered under this section from the person who is or was the last holder of the


mineral right.


3.2.3.2 Compensation and resettlement


Section 38 of the Mines and Minerals Act introduces the rights to resettlement for parties directly


affected by mining operations. The Minister shall ensure that all owners or lawful occupiers of


land who prefer to be compensated by way of resettlement as a result of being displaced by a


proposed mining operation are resettled cm suitable alternate land. The resettlement process


must have due regard to the economic well-being and social and cultural value of the affected


parties so that their circumstances are similar to or improved when compared to their


circumstances before resettlement. Resettlement must be carried out in accordance with the


relevant planning laws.


The cost of resettlement shall be borne by the holder of the mineral right as agreed by the


holder and the owner or lawful occupier of land or by separate agreement with the Minister.


The mineral right holder shall on demand being made by the owner of any crops, trees,


buildings or works damaged during the course of such operations, pay compensation for such


damage. If the owner or lawful occupier of any land is dissatisfied with compensation offered,








36


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidli Kimberlite Project





such compensation may be determined by the Minister on the advice of the Minerals Advisory


Board.


3.2.3.3 Community development


A genera! duty is placed on holders of a mining licence to assist in the development of mining


communities affected by its operations to promote sustainable development, enhance the


general welfare and the quality of life of the inhabitants and must recognise and respect the


rights, customs, traditions and religion of local communities. Besides this general duty,


companies may be required to enter into formal Community Development Agreements (CDA). A


CDA does not replace other obligations and/or agreements associated with resettlement,


surface rents, or compensation.


The criteria used to establish whether a formal CDA is required depends on the mine's


throughput and where the licence holder employs more than 100 employees or workers on a


typical day. The CDA is intended to benefit the primary host community situated within 30 km of


any boundary defining the mining licence area.


The holder of the mining licence is required in terms of Section 139(4) to expend in every year


that the community development agreement is in force no less than one percent of one percent


(0.1%) of the gross revenue amount earned by the mining operations in the previous year to


implement the agreement.


The content of the CDA must be negotiated with the primary host community and must include


the following:


® Details of the primary host community representative;


a Objectives of the CDA;


• Obligations of the licence holder, including:


o Social and economic contributions that the project will make to the sustainability of


the community:


o Assistance in creating self-sustaining, income-generating activities, such as but not


limited to, production of goods and services needed by the mine and the community:


and


o Consultation with the community in the development of mine closure measures that


seek to prepare the community for the eventual closure of the mining operations.


• Obligations of the primary host community with regard to the licence-holder;


• The means by which the CDA will be reviewed by the licence-holder and primary host


community every five calendar years.


• The consultative and monitoring frameworks and community participation in the planning,


implementation, management and monitoring of activities carried out under the agreement;


and


• A statement defining a dispute resolution process as prescribed by the Act.


The CDA entered into by a mining licence holder and the primary host community must be


approved by the Minister who is authorised to return the CDA for further deliberation and


negotiations. In instances were parties cannot come to an agreement the Minister is


empowered to make the relevant determinations.





3?


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





3.2.4. Forestry Act, 1988


The Forestry Act is mostly concerned with the management of classified forests which could be


either national or community forests. The Chief Conservator of Forests is the responsible


authority tasked with the management of the forest resources of the country. He is required to


compile a national inventory of forest resources and a national forest management plan


designed to obtain the “...optimum combination of economic, social and environmental


benefits”.


The Act is relevant to the Koidu Kimberlite Project in respect of Section 21 and 22 of the Act


which makes provision for the Minister to declare protected areas for soil, water, flora or fauna


conservation and protected trees anywhere in Sierra Leone. There are no protected areas


within the mining iease area.


In a protected area no vegetation may be ait. burned, uprooted, damaged or destroyed without


a written permission from the Chief Conservator. Protected trees may not be cut. burned,


uprooted, damaged or destroyed without a licensed issued in terms of the Act. The removal,


destruction or exploitation of forest, without legal permission, is considered a criminal offence.


Anyone that is permitted to fell timber has to pay a deforestation fee. However, if the Mine


Company embarks on reforestation upon closure or mine decommissioning and satisfies the


requirements of the Chief Conservator, then the fee previously paid for reforestation will be


refunded.


3.2.5. Forestry Regulations, 1989


The application for a licence to fell or cut a protected tree is provided in Regulation 14 of the


Forestry Regulations of 1989. A protected tree licence shall be in the form set out in the Ninth


Schedule. A clearance licence to remove vegetation in a classified forest may be issued for


mining purposes however the removal of vegetation will only be possible under the following


conditions:


• Removal of vegetation, can be done for mining operations only within an area licensed for


this purpose;


• The specified land area, shall be cleared within a stated time, but trees requested not to be


felled, removed or damaged, are to be left standing;


• Trees to be felled shall be identified, except where total felling is authorised;


• A forest severance fee and a minor forest produce fee shall be paid in respect of all forest


produce that is merchantable, which may be removed by clearance of vegetation;


• At the completion of mining, the area shall be replanted with approved crops or trees by the


mining company, or provision made for this to be done by payment of the estimated


reforestation cost; and


» Required method of cultivation and silviculture, specified by the Chief Conservator, must be


employed.


This excludes land between the high and low water marks on both sides of the bank of any


waterway, covering a distance of one hundred feet or sacred bushes protected by stipulated


regulations.








38


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








3.3. International Conventions and Protocols


Sierra Leone has accepted its role within the international community by being a signatory party


to numerous environment agreements, treaties and conventions. Table 3-1 below provides a list


of the key environmental international conventions applicable to Sierra Leone.


Table 3-1: Key international conventions and protocols relevant to environmental management in


Sierra Leone





Convention or protocol Ratification date


The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna 26/01/1995


and Flora (CITES)


The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1994


The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) 1997


The Convention on Wetlands of Importance as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar 13/04/2000


Convention)


The Vienna Convention for the protection of the Ozone layer 2001


The Montreal Protocol on the Substances that deplete the Ozone layer 2001


The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1995


Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change 2006


The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural 7/01/2005


Heritage


Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 2003


Convention to Combat Desertification 1997








These International Conventions have particular relevance to Koidu Holdings, as the company


must be aware of commitments made by the host country under the relevant conventions to


ensure that mining activities, environmental emissions and resource use are not in conflict


therewith.


3.3.1. Convention on Biological Diversity


The GoSL signed and ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994 and 1996,





respectively. By ratifying the convention the government pledged to support the basic objectives


of the Convention namely:


• Conservation of biological diversity;


• The sustainable use and the equitable sharing of the benefits accruing from the use of





genetic resources; and


• Develop a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and to integrate the plan


into the overall development plan of the country.


The overall goal and strategic objectives of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan is


to seek conservation measures that provide the framework for the sustainable exploitation of


the country's biodiversity for the benefit of present and future generations. Koidu Holdings





should ensure that biodiversity management on the mining area takes place in accordance with


the goals set by government for the conservation of biodiversity. Performance Standard 6 of the











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Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project 3$








IFC Performance Standards requires the compilation and implementation of a Biodiversity


Action Plan.


3.3.2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


The objective of this Convention, as stated in Article 2, is "...to stabilise, in accordance with the


relevant provisions of the Convention, concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere


at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.


Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt


naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable


economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner".


Sierra Leone ratified the UNFCCC in January 1994 and as part of the Convention Sierra Leone


is required to record their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). To facilitate the government’s


responsibility under the Convention it is necessary for the Koidu Kimberlite Project to estimate


and record the GHG emissions generated from the mining activities on the basis of the chemical


composition or through direct measurements.


3.3.3. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer


Sierra Leone is a party to both the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and


the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The country acceded to


both multilateral agreements and its amendments in 2001. Sierra Leone has set up the


mandatory structures for the implementation of the Protocol in the country, which includes the


preparation of the Country Programme for the phase out of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)


and setting up of the National Ozone Unit (NOU).


Enforcement of the ODS regulation is undertaken by the National Ozone Office. The ODS


legislation is incorporated in the Environment Protection Agency Act, 2008. This legislation


regulates the importation and use ODS and ODS dependent equipment in the country.


In terms of the Protocol Sierra Leone has implemented a Terminal Phase-out Management Plan


(TPMP) which is aimed at a gradual but sustainable phase out of ODS in Sierra Leone. This


objective is to implement chloro-flourocarbons (CFC) phase out and to sustain zero


consumption of other ODSs controlled by the Montreal Protocol after 2010 except for hydro-


chloro-flourocarbons (HCFCs).


It is therefore important that in all applications in which ODS could be utilised at the Koidu


Kimberlite Project, such as refrigeration, air conditioners, degreasers, solvents and cleaning


agents, aerosols spray cans, fumigants and fire extinguishers for example do not contain ODS


which are covered by the Montreal Protocol. Suitable alternatives should be sourced and where


these do exists a programme to phase out the ODSs should be implemented.


3.3.4. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants


Sierra Leone acceded to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)


commonly known as the POPs Convention in 2003.


By acceding to the Convention, the GoSL has agreed to stop production and use of POPs. All


intentionally produced POPs are mostly pesticides and not directly applicable to the Koidu


Kimberlite Project. PCBs may however be available in transformer oils and it is recommended


that any new transformers to be installed at the mine are PCB free.











40


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project


The Stockholm Convention requires that equipment containing PCBs must be phased out by


2025. Any PCBs recovered in the interim from such equipment must be treated and eliminated


by 2028. Current in situ equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, may remain in place


and operational as long as ail reasonable steps are taken to prevent leaks which may lead to


soil and water contamination.


3.4. IFC Performance Standards


The Koidu ESIA will make reference to and aim to comply with the applicable IFC Performance


Standards and the applicable General and Industry Specific Environmental Health and Safety


(EHS) Guidelines.


The relevant IFC Performance Standards are:


® Performance Standard 1: Social and Environmental Assessment and Management System;


® Performance Standard 2: Labour and Working Conditions;


® Performance Standard 3: Pollution Prevention and Abatement;


• Performance Standard 4: Community Health, Safety and Security;


« Performance Standard 5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement;


• Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Natural Resource


Management;


« Performance Standard 7: Indigenous Peoples; and


« Performance Standard 8: Cultural Heritage.


The latest versions of the World Bank Group Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines


{known as the EHS Guidelines) have been compiled by the IFC and are applicable from 30 April


2007. The EHS Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry-


specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GHP). According to IFC


requirements, where Sierra Leone regulations differ from the levels and measures presented in


the EHS Guidelines, the Koidu ESIA is required to apply, whichever is more stringent. The


relevant Industry Sector Guideline relevant to Koidu is the Environmental Health and Safety


Guidelines for Mining.





3.5. Equator Principles


The Equator Principles (EPs) will be adhered to during the Koidu Kimberlite Project and are as


follows:


• Principle 1: Review and Categorisation • Projects are classified according to social and


environmental impacts, in Category A (significant impacts), Category B (limited impacts)


and Category C (minimal or no impacts);


• Principle 2: Social and Environmental Assessment - For Category A and B projects,


sponsors complete an Environmental Assessment;


« Principle 3: Applicable Social and Environmental Standards;


• Principle 4: Action Plan and Management System:


• Principle 5: Consultation and Disclosure;


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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





• Principle 6: Grievance Mechanism:


• Principle 7: Independent Review;


• Principle 8: Covenants;


• Principle 9: Independent Monitoring and Reporting: and


• Principle 10: Equator Principle Finance Institutes (EPFI) Reporting.


3.5.1. Project categorisation


As part of the review of a project’s expected social and environmental impacts, EPFIs use a


system of social and environmental categorisation, based on the IFC's environmental and social


screening criteria, to reflect the magnitude of impacts understood as a result of assessment.


These categories are:


« Category A - Projects with potential significant adverse social or environmental impacts


that are diverse, irreversible or unprecedented;


• Category B - Projects with potential limited adverse social or environmental impacts that


are few in number, generally site-specific, largely reversible and readily addressed


through mitigation measures; and


• Category C - Projects with minimal or no social or environmental impacts.


The anticipated impacts on the existing biophysical and social environment, associated with the


Koidu Kimberlite Project, led to the Project categorised at a Category A project. This


categorisation is furthermore supported by:


• The anticipated impacts associated with open pit and underground mining; and


• Resettlement of people from within the 500 m blasting envelope,.


3.5.2. Land acquisition and involuntary resettlement


Involuntary resettlement according to Performance Standard 5 refers to both physical


displacement (relocation or loss of shelter) and to economic displacement as a result of project


related land acquisition. Land acquisition includes both outright purchase of property and


purchase of access rights, such as rights of way.


Resettlement is considered involuntary when affected individuals or communities do not have


the right to refuse land acquisition that result in displacement. This occurs in the case of:


• Lawful expropriation or restrictions on land use based on eminent domain; and


• Negotiated settlements in which the buyer can resort to expropriation or impose legal


restrictions on land use if negotiations with the seller fail.


This Performance Standard applies to physical or economic displacement resulting from the


following types of land transactions:


• Type I: Land rights for a private sector project acquired through expropriation or other


compulsory procedures; and


• Type II: Land rights for a private sector project acquired through negotiated settlements with


property owners or those with legal rights to land, including customary or traditional rights





42


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





recognised or recognised under the laws of the country, if expropriation or other compulsory


process would have resulted upon the failure of negotiation.


In the case of Type I and Type II transactions that require physical displacement of people, the


mine is required to develop a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) or a resettlement framework.


3.5.3, Biodiversity management


In accordance with the requirements of Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and


Sustainable Natural Resource Management the ESIA process must include the assessment of


the significance of the project impacts on all levels of biodiversity. The services of a qualified


and experienced external expert must be obtained to assist in conducting an ecological


assessment of the Koidu area of Influence.


The assessment must take into account the differing values attached to biodiversity by local


communities and other interested parties and will identify impacts on ecosystem services and


must focus on major threats to biodiversity which Include habitat destruction and invasive alien


species.


Once it has been identified that the Koidu area of influence includes critical habitats or species


or legally protected areas a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) will be required for the project area.


The ecological assessment should culminate in the development of Management Plans relevant


to the protection of fauna and flora, the management of alien invasive species and the


introduction of indigenous species for rehabilitation and soil stabilisation purposes. Management


plans should also consider the remedial measures required to deal with loss of biodiversity in


the form of provisioning services and cultural services, such as the loss of grazing, use of


firewood and building materials and the use of medicinal plants.


3.5.4. Closure Requirements


The EHS Guidelines for Mining includes particular requirements for closure and post-closure


activities. Closure and post-closure activities should be considered as early in the planning and


design stages as possible and a Mine Reclamation and Closure Plan (MRCP) must be prepared


for the proposed mining operation. The MRCP should include the following key aspects:


• Drafted prior to the start of production;


• Clearly identify allocated and sustainable funding sources to implement the plan;


• Include both physical rehabilitation and socio-economic considerations;


• Be an integral part of the project life cycle;


• Designed that future public health and safety are not compromised;


• Designed that the after-use of the site is beneficial and sustainable to the affected


communities in the long term and adverse socio-economic impacts are minimized and


socioeconomic benefits are maximised;


• Should address beneficial future land use;


• Detailed consultation process which includes regulatory agencies, local communities,


traditional land users, adjacent leaseholders, civil society and other impacted parties;


• Regularly updated and refined to reflect changes in mine development and operational


planning, as vveH as the environmental and social conditions and circumstances;





43


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project m





• Records of the mine works should also be maintained as part of the post-closure plan;


• Include appropriate aftercare and continued monitoring of the site, pollutant emissions and


related potential impacts;


• The duration of post closure monitoring should be defined on a risk basis, however, site


conditions typically require a minimum period of five years after closure or longer;


• Include contingencies for temporary suspension of activities and permanent early closure.


Further objective in respect of financial feasibility and physical, chemical and ecological integrity


are included in the Mining Guidelines.





































































































44


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





4. PROJECT ALTERNATIVES


4.1. Mining method alternatives


The initial conceptual mining layout considered for the expansion of the Koidu Kimberlite Project


envisaged immediately accessing the K1 kimberlite orebody from newly developed underground


workings.


This conceptual layout was abandoned in favour of an open pit option as a consequence of the


risk that the remnants of the K1 vertical pit would pose to an underground operation directly


underneath the old vertical pit. Both safety and economic considerations thus made the


underground option from the onset of the expansion less favourable, measured both in terms of


Net Present Value (NPV) as well as the safety of workmen.


4.1.1. Block caving vs open sloping


Block caving versus open stoping was evaluated as a potential mining method for the


underground operations in the main ore bodies. Open stoping was chosen as the preferred


option due to the competent rock characlerislics of the Koidu kimberlites, the hardness of which


makes caving virtually impossible.


4.1.2. Dykes


Mechanised long holing was chosen over the labour intensive over-hand shrinkage method for


the kimberlite dyke orebodies. This was mainly done due to better integration of the mechanised


solution with the main production operations as well as the establishment of a safer work


environment for the workers working in the dyke zones.


4.1.3. Underground access


During an earlier study, alternative underground access methods were also evaluated. A


vertical shaft was compared to a declined tunnel access. The decline tunnei option was chosen


as the preferred option based on the life of mine cost benefit, with the fairly shallow operating


depth and high cost of electricity penalising the vertical shaft option. This trade-off will be re¬


evaluated in future should cheaper electricity become available in the form of hydro-power.








4.2. Beneficiation plant


4.2.1. Upgrade of the existing 50 tph Plant to 100 tph


It was envisaged that the existing plant could be upgraded from a 50 tph plant to a 100 tph. This


would assist the mine in increasing the overall tonnage treatment capacity of the mine and


would incur the least amount of capital expenditure from the mine.


in order to increase the throughput of the existing plant, it would be necessary to install a


complete new ore receiving and primary crushing section. This would comprise a larger feed bin


with a new rock breaker; the bin would also be large enough to accommodate direct tipping


from the dump trucks.


A new vibrating grizzly feeder and primary jaw crusher would be installed capable of handling


800 mm lump sizes. The primary jaw crusher will discharge onto a new primary feed belt that


will transfer the material to a new scrubber. The scrubber has a bell mouth discharge


configuration that will expel directly onto a new double deck primary sizing screen.








45


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu KimberfKe Project £








The primary double deck screen is fitted with a 45 mm and 1.2 mm deck. The -120 +45 mm


material from the screen will be transferred to a new secondary crusher installation capable of


handling the tonnages; the secondary crusher product is conveyed back to the scrubber feed


conveyor.


The -45 +1 2 mm material will be transferred via a new conveyor to a secondary sizing screen


fitted with 8mm and 1.2mm poly decks. The -45 +8 mm product from the screen will be


transferred onto a new conveyor feeding a new coarse DMS module capable of handling the •


45 mm lump size.


The -8 +1.2 mm fraction from the secondary sizing screen will be conveyed to a new 401 surge


bin that has a double chute arrangement in order to allow the product to be fed to two 50tph


fines DMS units, one new and the other utilising the existing 50 tph DMS.


The floats fraction from the coarse DMS unit will be screened on a double deck floats screen at


8 mm. The +8 mm fraction will be transferred to a new feed bin and tertiary crusher. The tertiary


crusher will discharge onto a conveyor back to the secondary sizing screen and will be sized


into the correct fraction to go through to the fines DMS units.


Product from the three DMS units wifi be jet-pumped to the final recovery; a completely new


final recovery will be needed for this function. It will comprise a feed receiving screen which will


divide the feed into four fractions. The fractions will be discharged into holding bins under the


screen until they are required to be fed through the X-ray units.


Wet X-ray machines will be utilised in the recovery section; two new ones and two from the


existing plant. The fractions will be fed through the X-ray units individually. Concentrate from the


X-ray units will discharge onto a UV!R dryer prior to being discharged Into the glove boxes in the


final sorting area.


The tailings from the X-ray machines will be attrition scrubbed and pass over a grease table for


audit of the X-ray tailings before being conveyed onto the recovery stockpile.


DMS floats from the two 50 tph DMS units will be conveyed to a floats stockpile.


The existing water recovery and thickening system will be used for this plant configuration,


along with a de-grit section to assist the thickener in handling the increase in load through the


plant.


Additional power generation and electrical requirements for the new equipment required for the


upgrade will be needed.


To upgrade the existing plant to allow the feed rate to be increased to 100 tph entails major


equipment changes and retrofitting of the existing plant, to such an extent that very little of the


existing plant equipment can be used.


Due to the extent of the changes that need to be implemented into the existing plant to enable


the plant to run efficiently at 100 tph, the cost of the changes required would be very close to


the costs that would be incurred should a total green field's plant of the same size be built.


In conjunction with the capital outlay required, the current plant would have to be taken offline


for the duration of the construction phase in order for the retrofitting to be successful, The


duration of construction would be In the order of at least 4 months to effect the changes and


upgrades required. This would mean that a total loss of production for this period would be


Incurred.








46


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





4.2.2. New 100 tph Greenfields plant


A detailed flow sheet was designed for a new 100 tph. This flow sheet is the same as that


which was developed for the 180tph plant option, with the exception of the equipment sizing


being related to a 100tph plant. The layout and concept of the plant and its philosophy remain


the same for the two plants (see 180tph plant description).


An OPEX for the two relevant plants was drawn up as well as a detailed costing schedule for


the two plants.


From the detailed OPEX and CAPEX for these two plants, it is noticeable that the CAPEX for


the 100 tph plant is not significantly lower than that required for the 180 tph plant. This is mainly


due to the fact that the two plants require very similar infrastructures and only certain elements


of the 100tph plant are in fact smaller than the 180 tph plant.


The 100 tph plant still requires the 800 mm cyclone DMS for large diamond recovery and is not


a factor of throughput but rather of lump size requirements. Thus the coarse DMS is common in


both plants.


The recovery section for the 1 QOtph plant has fewer X-ray machines, but the layout and building


requirements required for each size plant is similar.


The primary crushing station for both plants is the same in order to cater for direct tipping of the


dump trucks and for the lump size entering the jaw crusher.


The secondary and tertiary crusher requirements for the 100 tph plant are slightly smaller than


the 180 tph plant.


In conclusion, the capital outlay for a new Greenfield's 100 tph plant is only marginally lower


than that required for the 180 tph plant. In conjunction with this the cost per ton treated on the


100 tph plant is more, as the economies of scale come into play with the higher throughput of


the 180 tph plant.


Therefore, the 180 tph treatment plant is the more economically viable of the two options with


regards to a new Greenfield’s plant.








4.3. No-mining alternative


The "no go" alternative entails the maintenance of the status quo. Without the expansion of the


existing mining activities at the Koidu Kimberiite Project, the resource will not be exploited. As


all the expansion facilities are to occur within Koidu Holdings’ existing mining area, the


proposed project area will remain fallow. The current land use potential and capability to uplift


the local population would thus remain unchanged and the resource would remain unused. The


regional economic benefits associated with the project would not occur and no employment will


be created.


When considering the "no go" alternative, it must be noted that assessment of potential impacts


of the proposed expansion project would be made against the status quo, thus allowing the


“impact" of the "no go" alternative to be inferred, if the project were not to proceed, the foreign


revenue, economic activity and available jobs would not be created. This would have a negative


impact on the country as Sierra Leone has a paucity of revenue generating, profitable, operating


mines and the Koidu Kimberiite project is a technically advanced, world class mining operation.








47


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ig§








Koidu Holdings from 2003 to date has a record of delivery by management, As a direct


consequence of the mining operations and interventions by Koidu Holdings management, the


general environment has been vastly improved and much of the damage done during the time


of the civil war reversed.




































































































































































48


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report tor the Koidu Kimberlite Project








5. DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


5.1. Introduction


The Koidu Kimberlite Project is located on the southern outskirts of Koidu town and is unusual


in that the town has expanded into the mining lease area unchecked since the initial


demarcation of the larger mining lease area held by Sierra Leone Selection Trust (SLST) in


1934. The property has been subject to mining activities since the discovery of diamonds in the


area and the scale and impact of the early workings and artisanal diggings was significant.


Much of the environmental degradation in the area is as a result of these early activities by


SLST and National Diamond Mining Company (NDMC) and more recent illegal activities during


the 1990‘s. It must be pointed oul from Ihe outset that since the initiation of the operations of


Koidu Holdings in 2003, the general environment, environmental damage as a consequence of


artisanal mining, infrastructure, housing and safety and health of the general population in Koidu


town has been improved, largely as a result of initiatives by the operational management of the


mining operation.


In previous years, the absence of a boundary wall or fence which is the norm at diamond mining


and other operations worldwide, made controlling of artisanal mining activities extremely difficult


during the period SLST and the NDMC held the rights to the property, and was one of the


factors that contributed to the closure of their operations. In the current environment in 2010, the


necessity for properly securing the mine property in line with security standards in South Africa,


Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho and other diamond producing regions of the world has become a


paramount consideration for both management and government, particularly when compliance


with the Kimberley Process and the establishment of an auditable Chain of Custody for the


diamond product is a stated objective of Koidu Holdings management and in line with


government policy. Sierra Leone is a signatory to the Kimberley Process, The risk posed to the


local population by machinery in the form of heavy earthmoving equipment and metallurgical


plant can also be ameliorated by securing the lease area and restricting access lo the site.


The problem of encroachment became more pronounced from the 1990s onwards, with a


substantial influx of people into the concession area and Koidu town prior lo the


commencement of operations after the end of the war in 2002, mostly driven by an expectation


of the work and financial benefits an operational mine could possibly bring. It was against this


backdrop that Koidu Holdings undertook to develop the mine, with the understanding that the


newly elected government would take the necessary steps to enable the mine to operate safely


in order to promote economic growth in the area. Regrettably, this did not occur and the


Company was forced to manage an increasingly difficult situation and. despite 24 hour guard


patrols, illegal mining of the alluvial deposits has continued sporadically during Koidu Holdings'


tenure, as can be seen by the pock marked features of some of the drainage systems to the


south of Monkey Hill where the Company has not had a strong presence to date. With the


limited access control achieved, the vegetation on and around Monkey Hill has begun to re¬


establish itself and the clean water sources created by the mine have attracted many different


bird species Into the area.


Approximately 0.36 km2 of the mining lease area is occupied by Monkey Hill, which reaches a


height of just over 470 mamsl, surrounded by gently undulating topography (between 365 m


and 391 m amsl) where the kimberlites occur. Monkey Hill forms a watershed, with the northern


tributaries draining into the Woyie River and those to the south joining up with the Meya River.


Both of these rivers merge into the Moinde River which flows in a north westerly direction along





49


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the KoMu Kimberlite Project








the Meya-Moinde Fault. All of the water courses in the mining lease area were reported to


contain alluvial diamonds (Hall, 1969) which are easily accessible to artisanal miners and on


which all of the illicit mining in the country is focussed.








5.2. Climate


The climate in the region is described as wet tropical monsoon, with a single wet season each


year between mid-May and mid-November. The average rainfall is approximately 2 540 mm,


with the wettest month usually in August and rivers attaining maximum discharge in mid-


September. The dry season is between December and February. River discharge is at its lowest


in March and April, and begins to increase gradually in May with the onset of the rains.


Groundwater levels do not rise significantly until late July.


Normal temperature range is 20°C to 33°C, although it can drop as low as 10°C at night during


the Harmattan season in January. Day temperatures average 31°C in the dry season and 28°C


in the wet season.


Although the heavy rainfall does impact on the operation, making working conditions difficult, to


date it has not resulted in any significant production delays.








5.3. Topography


Regionally the Koidu site is located in the Tankoro Chiefdom within the Kono District of the


Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. This area (Plan 5) is on a plateau which is typically higher in


elevation in relation to the rest of the country. The Tingi Mountains, located approximately 40


km to the north of the site are one of the highpoints in the country at an elevation of 781 mamsl.


The stream directly south of the site drains in a westerly direction before turning north-west.


Thereafter, the stream heads in a south-westeriy to southerly direction and feeds into Sewa


River which eventually terminates in the North Atlantic.


Locally, the site Is located at an elevation of approximately 390 mamsl, with the significant


natural topographical feature being Monkey Hill, which has a peak elevation of approximately


470 mamsl and is characterised by slopes which are steeper than that of the rest of the site


(Plan 6). The topography of the site has been altered by historical and current mining activities


focussed primarily on the alluvial deposits surrounding the town (both formal and artisanal). The


waste rock and tailings facilities as a consequence of the mining of the K1 and K2 kimberlites


have as a matter of course minimally altered the topography of the area, but this has since 2003


been properly planned and implemented by Koidu Holdings management.


Since the site is already topographically disturbed, the additional impacts associated with the


project are estimated to be of low significance, as the waste rock and tailings deposition


facilities have been properly planned by current management in order to minimize to impact on


the topography of the area.




















50


 Plan 5








Koidu Kimberlite Project





Regional Topography


■I ft ■


Kintals





Legend


Project Location





Tingl Mountains • Cities


• Settlements





+*. ■ St, Rivers


W t/ Water Areas


.Kayima Ajo * •%, ' ... j International Boundary


rv>j Ifi * J


\ Elevation


Sumbana


.^r : Above 2,000m


■ 1,500 - 2,000





□ 1,000 - 1,500


. rn jj! 4 □ 500 - 1,000


V* .1} >*-' &Tr-\ □□ 250 - 500


Bagbema


125 - 250





50 - 125


j 0 - 50


,■5 ■ Below Sea Level

















1 t / If r» , J


/•■JT ^ i G uin»s


. 4VJ3 , y*5 *' M > .•* f*,, I


l' 'it 'if ■■'■ ’-ri ' V


9





DIGBY WELLS


INVIRONMENtAL


r«i *2? II 7BVMSJ





l*ij;cccon UTM 29 N WGS84 Rcl» ame.RESVoiJCUCJOOB


False Easting SOOOOOm Revitioi Number 1


Crniul Mention 9'W Due 04-C4201:


N 0 2,5 5 10 15 20





k

r\ 1:400,000


•S !>*&>• Wall * AuoCUtci


 282COO losrjwf 285000


| Plin 6





Koidu Kimberlite Project





Local Topography











Legend





,■ ■ I P-oposed Infrastructure Elevation (m.c





- Resettlement Boundary | 421 - 444


- Camp Extension tZ3 403 - 420


Rivers □ 392 - 402


11 ■ ■ =• Road □ 38b - 391


Paths □ 380 - 384


W>m Dump □ 374 - 379


Roads


a-setr -(T.WM feline Plan 367 - 373


Blast Radus 362 - 366


Dumps 355 - 361


] Mmc Buildings 339 - 354


Offices 307 - 338


267 - 306


| waterPoos


ArtiSiNPl Workings


fopaoil Dump





Wim Dump








r3730J -mrao-N



































DIGBY WELLS


I70*N fHVIRDNMENTAL





Tel WM


FiDjrccon ITTM ‘9NWGSH1 Ret - lime RFS96S20U0J Ii09


False Eastng SOOOOOm Revnim Number: i


Cenlul Meridian: 9'W Dale OJ'OMOli


N 0 125 250 500 750


= Metres


r\ 1:15,000





282000 <• &sTiv Weli ii Auocultl








( I I I I I I ( I < 1 ' I I I ( I {


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








5.4. Air Quality


in characterising baseline air quality, reference is made to details concerning the study area,


atmospheric dispersion potential and other potential sources of atmospheric emissions in the


area. The consideration of the existing air quality is important so as to facilitate the


assessment of the potential for cumulative air pollutant concentrations arising due to the


proposed development.


5.4.1. Atmospheric Dispersion Potential


in the assessment of the potential for air quality impacts on the surrounding environment and


human health, a good understanding of the regional climate and local air dispersion potential


of a site is essential.


Meteorological characteristics of a site govern the dispersion, transformation and eventual


removal of pollutants from the atmosphere (Pasquill and Smith, 1983; Godish, 1990). The


extent to which pollution will accumulate or disperse in the atmosphere is dependent on the


degree of thermal and mechanical turbulence within the earth's boundary layer. Dispersion


comprises vertical and horizontal components of motion. The vertical component is defined


by the stability of the atmosphere and the depth of the surface mixing layer. The horizontal


dispersion of pollution in the boundary layer is primarily a function of the wind field.


The wind speed determines both the distance of downwind transport and the rate of dilution


as a result of plume ‘stretching’. The generation of mechanical turbulence is similarly a


function of the wind speed, in combination with the surface roughness. The wind direction


and the variability in wind direction, determine the general path pollutants will follow, and the


extent of cross-wind spreading (Shaw and Munn, 1971; Pasquill and Smith, 1983; Oke,


1990).


Pollution concentration levels fluctuate in response to changes in atmospheric stability, to


concurrent variations in the mixing depth, and to shifts in the wind field. Spatial variations,


and diurnai and seasonal changes, in the wind field and stability regime are functions of


atmospheric processes operating at various temporal and spatial scales (Goldreich and


Tyson, 1988). Atmospheric processes at macro- and meso-scaies need therefore be taken


into account in order to accurately parameterise the atmospheric dispersion potential of a


particular area.


Parameters that need to be taken into account in the characterisation of meso-scale


ventilation potentials include wind speed, wind direction, extent of atmospheric turbulence,


ambient air temperature and mixing depth.


5.4.1.1 Local Wind Field


The analysis of hourly average meteorological data is necessary to facilitate a


comprehensive understanding of the ventilation potential of the site, and to provide the input


requirements for the dispersion simulations. A comprehensive data set for one year of


detailed hourly average wind speed, wind direction and temperature data are needed for the


dispersion simulations.








53


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project 61








In characterising the dispersion potential of the proposed open cast pits, reference was


made to hourly average meteorological data recorded at Koidu for the years 2009 and 2010


using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) approved AERMET


meteorological model. The AERMET meteorological data was obtained from Lakes


Environmental and comprised of surface hourly meteorological hourly average data in closer


proximity to the proposed site. Upper air data used was also obtained from Lakes


Environmental.


5.4.1.2 Surface Wind Field


The vertical dispersion of pollution is largely a function of the wind field. The wind speed


determines both the distance of downward transport and the rate of dilution of pollutants.


The generation of mechanical turbulence is similarly a function of the wind speed, in


combination with the surface roughness.


Wind roses comprise 16 spokes, which represent the directions from which winds blew


during the period. The colours used in the wind roses below, reflect the different categories


of wind speeds; the red area, for example, representing winds of 4 m/s to 5 m/s. The dotted


circles provide information regarding the frequency of occurrence of wind speed and


direction categories. The frequency with which calms occurred, i.e. periods during which the


wind speed was below 1 m/s are also indicted.


Period, day-time and night-time wind roses for Koidu are presented in Figure 5-1. The wind


regime largely reflects the synoptic scale circulation. The flow field is dominated by south¬


westerly and westerly winds, with little or no flow from the north-easterly sectors. Thermo-


topographical impacts on the flow regime give rise to distinct diurnal trends in the wind field.


During the day-time, the predominant wind flow is from the southwest, with frequent winds


also from the south and the southeast. Strong winds (> 5 m/s) occur from the westerly


sector. During night-time the decrease in winds from the south-easterly sector are evident


with the prevailing winds from the southwest. A decrease in the wind velocity is also


apparent with wind mainly between 1m/s to 3m/s for most of the time. This is typical of


night-time airflow when calm periods and low wind speeds are generally more prevalent.








Period, Day-lime and Night-lime Wind Rosa for Koidu


2009 - 2010


'u'lri VhIip < 'jlcsoiy *1) !

.‘u'le ft*ale


Wind Speed Catcgoriet (m/t) • / /'■,-! ■-


■ 2 /


--- : -1 1 KKV’i .....a


10 ----» " ' ,


S -10 : ' *?, <■


4 5


3-4 ft'' J / \\


2 3 \ • ...j...


1 -2


/





Period Day-time Night-time





Figure 5-1: Period, day-time and night-time wind roses for Koidu (2009 - 2010)


Seasonal average wind roses reflect distinct shifts in the wind field between summer,


autumn, winter and spring months. These are portrayed in Figure 5-2 overleaf. During the





54


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koitiu Kimberlite Project ta








summer months the average wind direction is from the northeast, the southeast and


southwest, with limited flow from the north. During autumn the north-easterly component


decreases with increased airflow from the southwest. During winter the field shifts towards


the west, with a distinct decrease in winds from the easterly sector. During spring time the


wind field shifts again to reflect the prevailing wind directions as in autumn (i.e. southwest


and west).





Seasonal Wind Roses for Koidu


2009-2010


Cari* Ceune Catefoiv all Wlo'r 1-2 r:j N i


........---.


,v.me o ’’ .-I--.


/ ..-i-.. \ \


iVind Speed Categories (-n/s) : \ i i \ ; \


■ . «CJ. ■ ................. ............


;n 10 , 'm' /


4 5 ' ^ < •• •• '/7JV )


3 4 0* /


1 2 3


1 2


N •' Summer ^ Autumn


/ ';W:. \ \ / / /<*...';>» \ \ \


'fit


/ ......\......."


Winter Spring





Figure 5-2: Seasonal average wind roses for Koidu (2009 - 2010)


5.4.1.3 Temperature





Air temperature is important, both for determining the effect of plume buoyancy (the larger


the temperature difference between the plume and the ambient air, the higher the plume is


able to rise), and determining the development of the mixing and inversion layers.


The seasonal and diurnal variations in temperatures recorded at Koidu are depicted in





Figure 5-3. At Koidu the average daily maximum temperature is about 30.5 °C, the minimum


temperature is 22.1°C and the average temperature of 25.9 °C.











55


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ta








Monthly Diurnal Hourly Arithmetic Mean


Temperature Aug (X) @ 10 m


in Koidu for 2010























Temperature (°C)


H JCJS


a ?;■}!)


oio-n


a ii jo


mio-is


05*10








Figure 5-3: Diurnal temperature trends modelled at Koidu (2010)


The maximum, mean and minimum temperatures recorded at Koidu are given in Table 5-1.


Annual maximum temperature of 32.5 °C was recorded during the month of May 2010 with


minimum temperatures ranging from 21 °C to 24 °C in June.


Table 5-1: Minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C) recorded at Koidu (2010)





Month Minimum Maximum Mean





January 21.1 31.2 25.9


February 22.2 31.1 26.4


March 23.4 31.7 26.9


April 24.0 32.5 27.7


May 23.4 32.5 27.6


June 22.4 31.0 26.4


July 21.3 28.9 24.7


August 21.3 28.3 24.3


September 21.2 28.5 24.3


October 21.7 29.9 25.4


November 21.9 30.6 25.8


December 21.2 30.1 25.3








5.4.1.4 Mixing Height and Atmospheric Stability


The vertical component of dispersion is a function of the extent of thermal turbulence and the


depth of the surface mixing layer. Unfortunately, the mixing layer is not easily measured,


and must therefore be estimated using prognostic models that derive the depth from some of


the other parameters that are routinely measured, e.g. solar radiation and temperature.


During the daytime, the atmospheric boundary layer is characterised by thermal turbulence


due to the heating of the earth’s surface and the extension of the mixing layer to the lowest


elevated inversion. Radiative flux divergence during the night usually results in the


establishment of ground based inversions and the erosion of the mixing layer. The mixing


layer at the proposed site ranges in depth from ground level (i.e. only a stable or neutral


56


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





layer exists) during night-times to the base of the lowest-level elevated inversion during


unstable, day-time conditions.


Atmospheric stability is frequently categorised into one of six stability classes. These are





briefly described in Table 5-2. For the model used here, atmospheric stability is described as


a continuous variable in terms of the Monin-Obukhov length and the height of the mixing


layer.


The atmospheric boundary layer is normally unstable during the day as a result of the


turbulence due to the sun's heating effect on the earth’s surface. The thickness of this


mixing layer depends predominantly on the extent of solar radiation, growing gradually from


sunrise to reach a maximum at about 5-6 hours after sunrise. This situation is more


pronounced during the winter months due to strong night-time inversions and a slower


developing mixing layer. During the night a stable layer, with limited vertical mixing, exists.


During windy and/or cloudy conditions, the atmosphere is normally neutral.





Table 5-2: Atmospheric Stability Classes





A very unstable calm wind, dear sides, hot daytime conditions





B moderately unstable dear skies, daytime conditions





C unstable moderate wind, slightly overcast daytime conditions


D neutral high winds or doudy days and nights





E stable moderate wind, slightly overcast night-time conditions





F vary stable low winds, dear skies, cold night-time conditions








For elevated releases, the highest ground level concentrations would occur during unstable,


daytime conditions. The wind speed resulting in the highest ground level concentration


depends on the plume buoyancy. If the plume is considerably buoyant (high dust velocity


and temperature) together with a low wind, the plume will reach the ground relatively far


down-wind. With stronger wind speeds, on the other hand, the plume may reach the ground


closer, but due to the increased ventilation, it would be more diluted. A wind speed between


these extremes would therefore be responsible for the highest ground level concentrations.


The highest concentrations for low level releases would occur during weak wind speeds and


stable (night-time) atmospheric conditions. Air pollution episodes frequently occur just prior


to the passage of a frontal system that is characterised by calm winds and stable conditions.


5.4.2. Current Ambient Air Quality


The quantity of dust particles in the air was recorded within and around five settlements that





will be affected directly or indirectly by the mining activities of the project. The measurements


were recorded at different times and for different durations.











57


Environmental and Social Impact Assessmant Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project m








Readings were taken using a portable micro-dust aerosol monitoring system. This was done


by carrying the equipment held above the head within and around the selected settlements.


After recording the levels, the measurements were calculated, compiled and interpreted.


Table 5-3 below indicates the air quality monitoring results in terms of the dust particle


quantity in the atmosphere at the different settlements, The maximum value ranges between


0.036 and 0.049 mg/m3 while the average value ranges between 0.033 and 0.038 mg/m3.


These values are below the WHO air quality guidelines discussed in above.


Table 5-3: Air quality levels for settlements within and close to the Koldu mining lease area


(ESIA Report, 2010)





Starting Average Maximum


Location Date time Duration values values


(mg/m3) (mg/m3)


Yamandu 05/11/2008 03:48 PM 41 mins 0.038 0.041


New Sembehum 06/11/2008 10:49 AM 3 hrs, 40 mins 0.034 0.038


Sokoqbe 07/11/2008 10:14 AM 1 hr. 40 mins 0.038 0.049


Swarrav Town 07/11/2008 04:02 PM 1 hr. 2 mins 0.033 0.036


Saquea Town 09/11/2008 10:14 AM 3 hrs, 10 mins 0.034 0.039





The results indicate that the settlements had a good air quality with respect to particulates


when the measurements were taken. Yamandu and Sokogbe have the highest average


values with Sokogbe having the highest maximum value of dust particulate in the


atmosphere. This is due to the fact that Yamandu settlement is one of the largest and


populated with significant movement of people and vehicles while Sokogbe is along a very


busy and dusty road. The lowest average and maximum values are recorded in Swarray


Town because of its small size and lower population with very limited activities.


5.4.3. Identification of Sensitive Receptors


All the residential areas in the vicinity of the proposed development should be regarded as


containing sensitive population from the point of view of health impact. These include the


town of Koidu located north of the site as well as the proposed resettlement area which is


located in the east of the mining lease area. Given the location of the site and the wind


direction distribution, both the sensitive receptors will have a lower probability of being


impacted.


5.5. Noise


The approach used in investigating noise impacts for this project is based on guidelines


provided by the IFC EHS. According to the IFC EHS guidelines, noise impacts should not


exceed the levels presented in Table 5-4 below, or result in a maximum increase in


background levels of 3 dBA at the nearest receptor location off-site.


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report (or the Koidu Kimberlite Project *3








Table 5-4: Acceptable rating levels for noise in districts (IFC EHS, 2007}





Noise level guidelines One Hour LAeq (dBA)








Receptor Daytime Night time


07:00-22:00 22:00-07:00


Residential; institutional; 55 45





educational


Industrial; commercial 70 70











Baseline noise measurements were taken at seven locations in Koidu village to measure the


general noise climate in the village. The noise measurement locations are presented in


Table 5-5 and illustrated on Plan 7.


According to the IFC EHS: 2007 guidelines, 'daytime' is defined as anytime between 07:00





to 22:00 and 'night time’ between 22:00 to 07:00. As a result of these guidelines,


measurements were taken once during the daytime and once during night time at each


location. Monitoring was taken at a measurement of 1.5 meters above ground level, and for


a minimum period of one hour.


Table 5-5: Noise measurement locations








ID Description of location GPS coordinates





Measurements were taken at a residential area off of 8®37'13.62'N; 10°59*12.06"W


N1 Mining road in the village of Koakoyima





Measurements were taken at a residential area in Koidu


N2 8‘37'58.91-N; 10°58'56.55"W


Town, near the north western boundary of Koidu Mine





N3 Measurements were taken at a residential area in Koidu 8®38'31.60"N; 10°58'31.06’W


Town, on the northern side of Koidu Mine





Measurements were taken in Gbessengumbu street, at


N4 Ansurul boys primary school, Koidu town 8638'30.32"N; 10°57'59.63,,W








N5 Measurements were taken in Bongafou village, Koidu town 8’38'0.55“N; 10°57'28.60"W





Measurements were taken in the new resettlement area on


N6 the eastern side of Koidu Mine 8’37'31.67"N; 10e5r5.15"W





N7 Measurements were taken at a residential area 430 meters 8'37'1.52-N; 10657'14.99"W


of the south eastern corner of Koidu Mine











S3


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ;:i








5.5.1. Daytime noise baseline results


The results from the daytime noise meter recordings for all the sampled locations as well as


the rating limits according to the IFC guidelines are presented in Table 5-6. The results of


the noise measurements taken of the ambient noise levels at relevant locations in Koidu


Town, indicated that the baseline noise levels are below that of the IFC daytime guideline


levels for residential districts, at N1, N2. N5 and N6.


Baseline levels measured above the daytime guidelines at N3, N4 and N7. The ambient


noise levels at KN3, KN4 and KN7 were impacted on by the noise produced by vehicular


activity, mostly motorbikes as well as the social activities by the local people.


5.5.2. Night time noise baseline results


The results from the night time noise meter recordings for all the sampled locations as well


as the rating limits according to the IFC guidelines are presented in Table 5-6.The results of


the noise measurements taken of the ambient noise levels at relevant locations in Koidu


Town, indicated that the baseline noise levels are mostly above the IFC night time guideline


levels for residential districts, the levels were only below the guidelines at KN5 an KN6.


The baseline levels measured above the night time guidelines at N1, N2, N3, N4 and N7.


The night time ambient noise levels at N1, N2, N3. N4 and N7 were mostly impacted on by


the noise produced by Gryliidae (crickets) and frogs. Additional noise producing sources


included community generators running throughout the night at KN3 as well as a cinema at


KN4 near the Ansurul boys primary school which was screening local movies.


Noise that was audible during the baseline measurements and which was responsible for the


day/night time measurements are summarised in Table 5-7.



























































60


) I 1 l











Koidu Kimberlite Project





Noise


Measurement Locations








Legend





Noise Sampling Points


Proposed Infrastructure





Mining Lease Area


New Road


Paths





Roads


Rivers


Resettlement Boundary


Camp Extension





Mine Plan


Blast Radius


Dumps





Mine Buildings


Offices


Water Pools





Artisinal Workings


























DIGBY WEI LS


ENVIRONMENTAL








Projection: Transverse Mercator So! *: arrc.ftCS965.201104.012


Datum: Hart ebecst hoc* 1994 ftevslon Number. 3


Central Meridian: 27*E Date: 03/05/2011





250 1,000





Metres


1:20,000


!■ aooy Wtfls tnvlronn'wnat


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Table 5-6: Results of the baseline noise measurements taken at receptors located around Koidu Mine





Sample


ID IFC rating limit Measurement details





Type of district Period Acceptable rating i-Areq,T dt3A Maximum/Minimum dBA Date/Time


ievef dSA








Daytime 50 39 53/32 03/02/2011; 09:00


N1 Residential


Night time 40 52/45 03/02/2011; 22:00





Daytime 50 46 58/38 03/02/2011; 10:10


N2 Residential


Nighttime 40 56/50 03/02/2011; 23:10





Daytime 50 69/41 03/02/2011; 11:20





N3 Residential Night time 40 59/57 07/02/2011; 23:15








Daytime 50 78/44 04/02/2011; 09:10


N4 Residential


Night time 40 75/48 04/02/2011; 22:00





Daytime 50 44 56/38 04/02/2011; 10:15


N5 Residential


Night time 40 39 49/35 04/02/2011; 23:10





N6 Residential Daytime 50 49 74/33 04/02/2011;11:30



































62











J ( i i i i / < t e i i ( i ( ( } (


i i i r » i i > i \ / )


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project














Sample


ID IFC rating limit Measurement details





Type of district Period Acceptable rating l-Areq.T dBA Maximum/Minimum dBA Date/Time





level dBA





Night time 40 35 48/32 04/02/2011; 22:00





N7 Residential Daytime 50 81 / 35 07/02/2011; 11:05





Night time 40 64/38 07/02/2011; 22:00





| Indicates LAeq T levels above either the daytime rating limit or the night time rating limit














Note: Lfteqj is the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level, in decibels, determined over a time period of not less than 30 minutes (the average


noise level over the specified time period). The maximum/minimum is the highest/lowest reading during the specified time period over which the measurement


was taken. ‘A-weighted’ is a standard weighting of the audible frequencies designed to reflect the response of the human ear to noise.




































































63


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








Table 5-7: Summary of noise sources that were audible during the baseline measurements


around the proposed site.





Noise source description





ID Day Duration Night Duration





Birdsong Intermittent Frogs Continuous


N1


Villagers socializing Continuous Gryllidae Continuous





Birdsong Intermittent Gryllldae Continuous


N2 Villagers socializing Continuous Frogs Continuous





Birdsong Intermittent Gryllidae Continuous





N3 Villagers socializing Continuous Generators Continuous





Motorbikes Intermittent Frogs Continuous





Birdsong Intermittent Gryllidae Continuous





N4 Villagers socializing Continuous Cinema Continuous


Motorbikes Intermittent Frogs Continuous





Birdsong Intermittent





N5 Villagers socializing Continuous Gryllldae Continuous





Motorbikes Intermittent


Birdsong Intermittent





N6 Villagers socializing Continuous Gryllidae Continuous





Motorbikes Intermittent





Villagers socializing Continuous Gryllidae Continuous


N7 Motorbikes Intermittent Frogs Continuous











5.6. Soils


Almost all the soils in the uplands and the swamps within the project lease area have been





previously mined out by historical and illicit artisanal mining prior to initiation of operations in


2003. The mining operations conducted by Koidu Holdings in the K1 pit have had a minimal


to negligible impact on the soils in the lease area, as the total area affected by ore extraction


from the kimberlite pipe is less lhan 0.5 hectares.


The mainly illicit artisanal mining activities which have never been monitored or controlled





have resulted in the previous loss of topsoil, a situation which the management of Koidu





64


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project .3








Holdings is attempting to reverse in the areas under its direct influence and control. Koidu


Holdings recovers and stockpiles the topsoil prevalent in the area on which operations are


focussed, which topsoil is earmarked for rehabilitation and the re-establishment of land


suitable for agriculture. The topsoil is recovered from its own operations as well as during the





rehabilitation of areas damaged by historic artisanal operations.


By continuing the soils management measures as currently implemented by Koidu Holdings


management, the identified impacts of the Koidu Kimberlite Project on the soils within the


mining lease area are of low significance.





The general description of the soils in the Project area is indicated in Table 5-8.








Table 5-8: General description of the soils in the Koidu Kimberlite Project area





Soil map Land form Soils


unit


A Isolated hillcrests; short to medium Shallow soils to bedrock with pockets of deep


length; almost flal with boulders and soil over saprolite (> 100cm). Well drained,


locally rocky. strongly acid


B Isolated hill slope; short, straight; steep Deep, well drained. Sandy loam to coarse


to moderately steep (15-30%), locally sandy clay loam over coarse sandy clay sub-soil


with boulders and rocks.


C Dissected low uplands with Interfluve Deep, well drained sandy clay to sandy day


crest, gentle slopes (1-2%) loam over gravely sandy day sub-soil


D Irregular Interfluve slopes; short to long Deep, well drained gravely sandy clay loam over


undulating, very gentle-to-gentle slope gravely sandy clay sub-soil


(2-5%),


E Inland valley swamps, level; 20-150 m Deep, very poorly drained silty day loam to


wide; Locally channelled; previously sandy clay loam over coarse sandy clay to clay


mined out sub soil


E1 Inland valley swamps nearly level; 20- Deep (o moderately deep, imperfectly to poorly


150m wide; locally channelled; currently drained, sandy clay loam to gravely sandy clay


mined out over coarse sandy clay.








Plan 8 contains the historic data as previously surveyed. Groups A and B represent isolated


hill crests and isolated slopes. Soils are generally well-drained. Texture ranges between


sandy loam and sandy clay loam overlying sandy clay to gravely coarse sandy clay sub soil.


Colours range between dark brown to brownish yellow in the topsoil to dark red in the


subsoil.


Groups C and D represent low uplands (interfluves crest) and interfluves side slopes. Soils





are generally well drained and of similar textures than groups A and B. Colours vary from


greyish brown to dark yellowish brown in the topsoil over brownish yellow to strong brown


subsoil. Reddish yellow and yellowish red mottles in the subsoil due to weathering of


ironstone gravels.








65


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








Group E represents soils of the inland valley swamps. These soils are extensively disturbed


by historical illegal mining activities prior to 2002. The soils are of gravelly texture but poorly


drained and as a result permanently waterlogged. The soil colours are greyish brown to


yellowish brown topsoil over light olive brown to dark greenish grey sub soils.





5.7. Geology


The Koidu kimberlite cluster comprises two main pipes and several small blows associated


with four main sub-vertical to vertical kimberlite dyke zones that extend for approximately 5


km along strike. The dykes both pre-date and post-date the formation of the pipes that were


emplaced into Archean granitoids of the Man craton approximately 146 million years ago.


Significant quantities of high quality macro-diamonds have been recovered from the dykes,


pipes and blows with grades ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 carats per tonne (cpt).


The main pipes, named K1 and K2 are smooth, steep sided pipes that are morphologically


similar to those mined in the Kimberley area of South Africa (Class 1). Surface expressions


of the pipes are approximately 0.3 ha for K1 and 0.5 ha for K2. The external morphology and


infill present within the pipes is consistent with a diatreme setting and significant erosion of


the pipes has occurred. The pipes are infilled by multiple phases of kimberlite characterised


by contrasting textures due to different emplacement processes (highly explosive vs.


intrusive). Texturaliy, the infill within the bodies is dominated by massive to locally bedded


volcaniclastlc kimberlite classified as tuffisitic kimberlite breccja (TKB).


Volcaniclastic rocks are typically associated with a high proportion (15 - 90%) of fresh


granite xenoliths and variable proportions of olivine, mantle derived indicator minerals and


mantle xenoliths. Coherent kimberlite is less common but volumetrically significant within the


pipes and occurs as main pipe infill, as well as late stage dykes and rare sills. The different


rock types or phases of kimberlite present within the pipes are characterised by different


grades.


In addition to the well-formed pipes, there are a number of blows that represent poorly


developed, small, volcanically immature pipes. These bodies are named Blow A, Blow B1.


Blow B2 and Blow B3. These bodies are characterised by more complicated external pipe


shapes compared to K1 and K2 and are dominantly infilled with coherent kimberlite, textural


transitional kimberlite (characterised by both coherent and volcaniclastic features) and less


common, well developed, massive volcaniclastic kimberlite classified as TKB.


The four main dyke zones, termed DZA, DZB, DZC and DZD, were emplaced along a


southwest to northeast structural trend and are classified as Group 1, macrocrystic,


phlogopite (± calcite and monticellite) hypabyssal kimberlites. Structurally, the dykes consist


of irregular, braided and en-echelon arrays typically made up of multiple segments each


ranging in thickness from a few centimetres to over 4 m. Simple single segment dykes are


less common. In addition to variations in external morphology, the dykes display


considerable interna! variation in the size and proportion of olivine macrocrysts, the type and


abundance of mantle derived indicator minerals, mantle xenoliths and diamond grade. The


dykes in general are characterised low proportions (<5%) of country rock xenoliths.











66


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Associated with the main pipes and blows and less commonly with the dykes are locally


extensive zones of leached granite (Si02 removed) and marginal (or contact) breccias that


contain typically low proportions (<10%) of kimberlite. The development of these zones is


interpreted to both predate and postdate the formation of the pipes and have been


incorporated into the geological models. Concentric 'onion-skin' shells of altered granite


surrounding rounded granite cores are also observed, as well as joints filled with pulverised,


angular shards of country rock around many of the dyke exposures and pipe walls. Although


these zones will in most cases not be considered as ore, these zones will have an impact on


the mine design.





























































































































07


 to-teivw wbtro'w ursritrw





Plan 8





Koidu Kimberlite Project





Soil Types


Expansion Area











Legend


m m m f


Proposed Infrastructure


• New Roads


Paths





Roads


Mining Lease Area





Rivers


Mine Plan


(=□ Blast Radius





Dumps


|_ Mine Buildings





□ Offices


^ Water Pools


Artisinal Workings





Soil Types


Soils of Dissected Low Upland





;8VN Wetland








Wi Mi Dump














Watte Dump








m





-3-3WN DIGBY WELLS


(NVIfiniiMChTAL


Tel OTI 17*99*9}


ftotccton UTM 29 N WGSS4 Rrf * atnc RES965 2C1104 007


False Eating- 500000m Rcv.iiai Number 1


Ccotia) Meridian 9*W Dmc 03/0S2O1;


|\j 0 50 100 200 300 400





A " Metres


Monhay r\ 1:8,000


£ DifOy We lit ft Auucults








l I I I I I I I I I I I


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








5.8. Ecology (Fauna and Flora)


To achieve the aim of the study the characterisation of the fauna and flora present on site


and along the road diversion route at this time was set as one of the objectives. This


objective was accomplished by following accepted methodologies used to quantify the


presence of the following habitat components:


• Vegetation, according to Braun-Blanquet (1964);


• Mammals (Visual, trapping);


• Birds (Visual);


• Reptiles (Visual, trapping); and


« Amphibians (Visual, trapping, auditory).


The above mentioned five measurable habitat components were measured according to the


methodologies set forth in fauna and flora report contained in Volume 3. The survey was


undertaken to gain insight into the current state of the habitat present on the project area.


Furthermore, the delineation of habitat units was accomplished by noting the effect that


landscape features and anthropogenic activities have on fauna and flora assemblages.


5.8.1. Flora


5.8.1.1 Regional natural environment


As a transitional habitat between the rain forests of the Guinean-Congolian region and the


dry savannas of Sudan, the Guinean Forest-Savanna Mosaic ecoregion is home to a wide


range of species. This area is a convergence zone for savanna and forest species. The


predominantly savanna habitat is checked with forest patches that run along the rivers and


streams and occasionally adorn hilltops, mountains, and ridges. Wetland areas of this


ecoregion host a diversity of waterfowl and wading birds. These varied habitats are home to


Ghana Worm Lizards, Emerald Starlings, hunting spiders, Patas Monkeys, and many other


species.


5.8.1.2 Local natural environment


The tropical rainforest cover of Sierra Leone is characterised by seven different vegetation


types: moist rain forest, semi-deciduous, montane, mangrove, wooded grassland, farm bush,


and swamp forests (Maley 1994). Farm bush arises from siash-and-burn agriculture and is


becoming the dominant vegetation type in Sierra Leone.


The vegetative cover for Sierra Leone (NAPA, 2007) indicates that the savannah woodlands


are limited to the northern parts of the country. The savannah woodlands and wooded


grasslands are increasingly being subjected to frequent fires, both man-made and natural.


Most of the moist and semi-deciduous forests are located within protected areas, often on


mountaintops and slopes (USAID, 2007).


The current vegetation cover for the project area comprises a limited coverage of secondary


forest, forest regrowth, grass cover on mined-out uplands and hydromorphlc/aquatic


vegetation in swamps (inland Valley Swamps).





69


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ‘1








5.8.1.3 HabitatA/egetation types


A total of six vegetation and/or habitat types were delineated for the project area and are


presented in Table 5-9 as well as Plan 9. Wetland habitats were investigated during an


aquatic assessment conducted as part of the Koidu Kimberlite Project Environmental and


Social Impact Assessment (ESIA).


Table 5-9: Hectares of vegetation types





Name Area in ha. Percentage of total (%)


1. Secondary Forest 41.18 4.87


2. Wooded arassland 240.46 28.45


3. Villaqes/Local Housinq 180.80 21.39


4. Deqraded Areas 216.55 25.62


4.1. Aariculture 169.91 20.10


4.2. Artisanal Mininq 46.64 5.52


5. Mininq Infrastructure 135.00 15.97


6. Aquatic Environments Refer to Aquatic Studv








The degraded areas habitat type was sub-divided to illustrate the artisanal mining and


agriculture subtypes. Topographic features were the primary consideration for the


delineation of the various units. These features included the location of the habitat type in


the landscape, influence of available soil type, influence of available moisture, gradient and


aspect. The above mentioned factors have an effect on the habitat type in isolation and in


conjunction with each other.


Secondly, anthropogenic activities were also considered to assist with the delineation of


vegetative and/or habitat types. Owing to the settlement of rural communities within the area,


plantations, previous and current artisanal mining and subsistence farming landscape


features have formed in the area, As is the case with natural factors, anthropogenic factors


could have an effect in isolation or in conjunction with other factors.





















































70


I I i I I





| Plan 9





Koidu Kimberlite Project





Vegetation Types Identified





Legend


Proposed Infrastructure





Mining Lease Area


- New Road


Paths





Roads


Rivers


Resettlement Boundary


Camp Extension


Mine Plan


Blast Radius


Dumps


Mine Buildings


CD Offices


Water Pools


Vegetation Types


1 Secondary Forest


2 Wooded Grassland


3 Local Housing


4.1 Agriculture


4.2 Artisinal Mining


5 Wetlands & Rivers


6 Mining Infrastructure








DIGBY WELLS





ihvbiihminui


Tel 42T1I7WWM


Projection UTM 29N WGS84 Kct» amc,RES96S2C:]04C!3


False Easting- SOOOOfcn Revivim Nutnbei : 4


Central Mend an 9*W Date 04W20J1





A 0 100 200 400


Metres


1:15,000


C !>£*>y WcD, * A no: n*f •


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project •1








Below in Table 5-10 the habitat types identified during the survey are summarized into


individual topographic setting, ecological functioning, ecological integrity and ecological


sensitivity. . As can be seen, secondary forest and wetland cover the two smallest portions


of the study area host the highest ecological integrity and therefore the highest ecological


sensitivity.


Table 5-10: Description of habitat types








Size Topographic Ecological Ecological Ecological


Vegetative Unit




Secondary forest 41.18 Lowland flats. Biodiversity High High


Ridges, slopes maintenance





Wooded grassland 240.46 Lowland flats. Biodiversity Medium Medium


Hills maintenance high high





Villages/Household 180.80 Lowland flats None None Low


compounds





Degraded Areas 216.55 Lowland flats None None Low


Mining Infrastructure 135.00 Lowland flats None None None





Aquatic Environment Refer to Aquatic Study





Secondary forest


Secondary forests are characterised by tall trees with a fairly closed canopy that provides


the required shade for the underlying plantations. The extent of the forests that historically


covered the lower lying areas have been reduced by subsistence farming activities with only





isolated remnants occurring in sheltered areas. These secondary forests still contain many


of the more hardy forest species found within the forest. However, the method of previous


farming and previous artisanal mining practices have destroyed much of these species and


created a patchwork of agricultural fields or farm bush and mining pits across the lower lying


and bottom slope areas of hills throughout the project site, The natural factors that played a





role in the formation of the original forest were also responsible for this vegetation type.


However, the introduction of anthropogenic pressure in the form of subsistence agricultural


has isolated many parts of the forest type, producing an attempted re-generation of the


forests, which gives rise to the secondary forest vegetation


The secondary forest vegetation type is not common within the project area (4.8%),


However, secondary forest cover is present within the project area and, is evident on the


upper slopes and crest of Monkey Hill as a direct consequence of the efforts of mine





management to maintain and protect it and the limited accessibility afforded to the general


population by mine security.


The secondary forest type is also evident in Swarray Town where it has been used to shade


cacao and coffee plantations. Other areas within the project area classified as secondary


forest comprise the cluster of fruit trees that are usually found around settlements,








72


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Protect








Wooded grasslands


The secondary forests and regenerating woodlands give way to expansive, wooded


grasslands that characterize this ecoregion (Mayaux ef a/. 1999, Justice 1997) and covers


28.4% of the study area. Most of the tail grass savannas are fire-climax communities that


generally grow on well-drained soils. Woody complexes regenerate on these grasslands


when burning is halted and seed trees are available (White 1983). Savanna woodland (and


shrubland) is more densely vegetated than Acacia savanna or wooded grassland, but not


densely enough to form a closed canopy. The open canopy allows sunlight to reach the


ground, allowing grass to grow and form a significant groundcover.


The wooded grassland areas are under constant threat from anthropogenic expansion in the


form of two identified land uses. These are firstly agricultural, artisanal mining and plantation


areas and secondly, human habitation, not necessarily in that order.


The natural factors responsible for the formation of this vegetation type has made it very


attractive to humans in the sense that these areas are low lying, relatively flat, has medium


clay content soil with good water holding capacity • this does not include the hill areas which


also counts under this vegetation type. These flat areas are suitable for agricultural practices


such as plantations and grazing areas. The hills in the study area is also partially covered


with the wooded grassland vegetation type, however the gradient of these hills have made


them un-attractive for farming and building. They do however suffer from the same


uncontrolled burning regime as the lowland moist savannah.


Degraded. Agriculture and Artisanal Mining


The degraded areas encountered within the mine lease area consisted of areas where


anthropogenic activities have impacted heavily on the natural occurring habitat types


totalling 25.6%. The practice of artisanal mining and various stages of agricultural


development were noted. The agricultural expansions consisted of uncontrolled burning that


is used to clear vegetation and prepare areas for planting crops. These fires often spread


further than the intended agricultural patch and therefore clear large areas not used for


actual planting of crops.


The natural factors that was suitable for agricultural expansion, such as slope that is not to


steep, or suitable but not excessive water accumulation, has resulted in the formation of this


sub-habitat type. These areas are exclusively used for agricultural practices, with isolated


huts being found. This land use has destroyed much if not all if the natural species in these


areas. Agricultural and plantation areas were mostly encountered on the relatively flat lower


lying areas, very similar to wooded grassland areas, except for more human disturbance.


As mentioned previously a correlation exists between habitat quality and animal species


present. The habitat quality in these areas was highly modified which has resulted in the loss


of ecosystem functioning and services offered to wild animals, such as shelter and food.


Relying on this correlation, the species diversity within this vegetation type was not expected


to be high.














73


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for (he Koldu Kimberlite Project s.'^a








Villages


Areas suitable for human habitation are reliant on natural features, these features are much


the same as what is needed for agricultural activities, and they include relatively level


surfaces, with minimal slope. The untransformed and natural vegetation type associated with


these features are tie wooded grassland and secondary forest habitat units, it therefore


stands to reason that these two natural vegetation types made way for the areas of human


habitation. This habitat type was identified as the most transformed of all six of the identified


habitat types. Subsequently its ecosystem value in terms of services that are provided has


been compromised and animal species that were reliant on these services are not expected


to occur in these areas. This habitat type occurs predominantly to the north of the mine, with


isolated areas occurring in the north east of the study area totalling 21.3%.


5.8.1.4 Conservation areas


Secondary forest


Isolated forest patches or secondary forest vegetation types were encountered where the


natural factors made the area unsuitable for agriculture and housing. The secondary forest


paths occur in areas similar to gallery forests, however as mentioned previously, these areas


are isolated. The relationship between these vegetation types go further than this in that they


share 42 % of the plant species encountered between them. Furthermore, the fact they


share certain species, will mean that a number of principles that apply for one wilt apply for


the other, such as gap formation. This vegetation type occupied 4.8 % of the total area of


concern or 41.1 ha. Within this area, 59 % of the plant species encountered during the


survey occurred here.


Once more, secondary forest occupies a relatively small area that harbours a large amount


of plant species, indicating an important area for conservation. Tree species found in these


areas included Ficus elastica, Klainedoxa gabonensis. Mitragyna stipulosa. With the shrub


component consisting of Bridelia ripicola and Sida acuta.


Wooded Grassland


On flatter and drier areas that are higher lying, the wooded grassland vegetation type was


encountered. Plant species encountered here were very often the re-growth of previous


season burning practices mixed with oil palm trees, where only a small area was deliberately


burnt but the fire spread to a larger part of the wooded grassland vegetation type.


Common grasses, many growing taller than two meters, include Andropogon spp.,


Hyparrhenia spp. and Loudetia spp. Fire-adapted woodland trees grow in varying densities,


depending on fire frequency and current or previous land use.


Upper slopes and crests of many of the hiils support wooded grasslands. The vegetation


type includes trees and shrubs, such as Albizia ferruginea, Acacia sp. and Erythrina


abyssinica with the undergrowth including species such as Trema orientalis, Spathodea


campanulata and Harungana madagascariensis.











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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report tor the Koldu Kimbsrftta Project








The herbaceous layer on drier ground is dominated by, Thaumatococcus danie/l/i,


Marantochloa congens/s, Aframomum sanguirteum, A, laurentii, and Costus lucanusianus.


Various grass species are also present. The herbaceous layer under woody vegetation is


dominated by Olyra latifolia. Mainly due to unregulated and frequent fire occurrences only


fire adapted plant species occur in these areas for more than one season,


Forest rearowth


Forest regrowth is considered to be the vegetation derived from the shifting cultivation


pattern of farming common in Sierra Leone. It is generally found on both low and high


uplands (hills of variable heights) throughout the country. Within the Koidu Kimberlite Project


area, however, this vegetation type is mainly evident on the middle and lower slopes of


Monkey Hill. This may be attributed to this area being about the only land area that presents


cultivation viability following the shifting cultivation practice. Forest regrowlh is scattered on


these slopes and generally ranges from a mixture of low shrubs, grasses, herbs and crop


remnants to thicket vegetation. Specific areas of forest regrowth are uncommon due to the


previous intensive /extensive artisanal diamond mining which depleted the area of


agriculturally viable lands, occurring over much larger areas.


The regrowth vegetation community with its undergrowth of shrubs, herbs and grasses such


as the Scleria barteri (Sword Grass), is generally much more difficult to penetrate than the


secondary forest. Tree species include Musanga cecropioides (Umbrella Leaf Tree),


Morinda geminata (Brimstone), Etaeis guineensis (Oil Palm). Terminalia ivorensis (Ronko


Tree) and Ceiba pentandra (Cotton Tree). Fruit trees such as Arisophillea laurina (Monkey


Apple), Dialum guineense (Tamarind) and Magnifera indica (Mango) are also identified. The


sensitive plant. Mimosa pudica is also evident in places helping to hinder penetration with its


thorny creeping stem.


The various species comprising this vegetation type are not rated as threatened or


endangered, because regrowth vegetation usually persists in areas where the forest was


removed for the purpose of cultivation. Often such clearing does not involve much de~


stumping and this makes it possible for the same species to regenerate when left to fallow.


Due to limited accessibility to the mining lease area, a positive impact on the vegetation


cover and rehabilitation of previously disturbed areas is observed within the mining lease


area.


5.8.1.5 Medicinal species


These plant species have properties that relieve or cure ailments and have been used by


local people or foreigners alike. Various parts of a plant may contain the substance that


possesses these properties, these include, roots, tubers, bark, stem, leaves, flowers or fruit.


Plant species with medicinal properties are very often exploited which results in their


populations and individuals being under threat and in need of conservation. The plant


species identified during the field work yielded 20 medicinal species, 24 % of the total


number of pants encountered. Of these medicinal species 50 % was exclusively found within


the confines of the secondary forest, which, as discussed earlier only occupies 4.7 % of the








75


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








total land area of the area of concern. This further emphasises the fact that forest habitat


type is of importance and must be conserved.


5.8.1.6 Alien invasive species


Alien invasive plant species are non-specific in their habitat requirements, which is one of


the characteristics that make them successful. A complete list of alien invasive species can


be found in Table 5-14.


The secondary forest habitat type contained one alien invasive species Chromoiaena


odorata. According to the ISSG (invasive species specialist group) database Chromoiaena


odorata, species that was encountered in this vegetation type is a fast-growing perennial


shrub, native to South America and Central America, it has been introduced into the tropical


regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed, Also known as Siam


weed, it forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other plant species, it is an


aggressive competitor and may have allelopathic effects, it is also a nuisance weed in


agricultural land and commercial plantations. It ranks no. 23 on the worst Invasive species in


the world (ISSG.com).


Furthermore the secondary forest contained the alien invasive. Bambusa vulgaris which


occurs spontaneously or naturalised mostly on river banks, road sides, wastelands and open


ground; generally at low altitudes. In cultivation it thrives best under humid conditions up to


1000 m altitude, but tolerates unfavourable conditions as well. Plants may become


completely defoliated during the dry season, the plants can survive low temperature (grows


up to 1200 m altitude, survives -3 degrees C) and also tolerates a wide range of soil types


(Ohrnberger 1999).


Bambusa vulgaris forms extensive monoculture stands where it occurs, excluding other plant


species. B. vulgaris coionises along streams into forest (Blundell el al. 2003).


Bambusa vulgaris is used for construction of houses, huts, boats, fences, props and


furniture; as raw material for paper pulp; shoots are rarely used as a vegetable or as


livestock fodder (Ohrnberger 1999; Quatrocchi 2006).


The plantation habitat type contained three exotic plant species and one invasive plant


species, with the exotic plants not necessarily being aggressive invaders. It was expected


that this area contained high numbers of exotic or alien plants as this vegetation unit is


actively stocked by any plant species that are edible by the local population, with no regards


given to ecological status of these plants.


5.8.1.7 Protected species


Albizia (Albizia ferruginea) is considered to be of conservation significance and has to be


protected and conserved. This tree was encountered in secondary forest only. It is listed as


being Vulnerable by the IUCN (www.fUCN.org). It is described as a widespread and often


common timber species, which has suffered heavy exploitation. The IUCN descriptive code


for Albizia ferruginea is VU A1 cd.











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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Protected plant species that could also occur in the mining concession is Entandrophragma


cyfindricum (VU Atcd), Entandrophragma angolense (VU A1cd). Militia excels (Lower


Risk/near threatened), Terminalia superba. None of the aforementioned species were


identified within the vegetation types delineated.


5.8.2. Fauna


5.8.2.1 Mammals


Table 5-11 lists the mammals that were identified and found to occur within the project area:





Table 5-11: Mammals that occur on the project area.





Scientific name Common name


Cephatopus rufSatus Red flanked duiker


Cercopithecus sabaeus Green monkey


Felis serval Serval cat


Ichn&umia albicauUa White tailed monqoose


Mus selutosus Peter's mouse


Paraxerus poenis Green squirrel


Svlvlcapra qrimmia Bush duiker


Trapglaphus scnptus Bushbucfc





Of the mammals found on site, none have a Red Data status according to IUCN red species


list and are not protected. However, it is recommended that the mammals that do occur on


site be given protection.


The fact that no Red Data species occur on site can also be related to the high


anthropogenic pressure present. Although forested areas occur on the concession area, it is


freely accessed by the local community that utilise It for firewood and food, unsustainably.


Further, the site has been severely impacted by previous and current illegal artisanal mining


activities.


However, although these species are not listed, they play a very important role in the


ecology of the site and without protection wiil become extinct within the area. Predatory


animafs such as Serval found on site play an important role in ecological systems. The


Serval Is not a commonly found species in Africa, but only a few countries protect it due to a


lack in a protected species lists/legislation in some countries such as Sierra Leone, it has not


been evaluated specific to Sierra Leone, so Its status locally is unknown.


Due to the lack of background information, any of the species found can be keystone


species that play vital part in the ecological system of the site and may need a protective


status within the country. When consultation occurred with the local community, they


indicated that they have not seen any predatory animals and that they are hard to find,


indicating the necessity to conserve where possible specifically for the predatory Felidae and


Canldae. Currently the probability that Red Data species might occur on site is seen as low,











77


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project v*«?








but with conservation efforts of forest and sensitive areas, habitat avaiiability for Red Data


species can increase to moderate to high probability.


5.8.2.2 Avifauna


The following birds were identified to occur on the project area as seen in Table 5*12.





Table 5-12: Avifauna that occurs on the project area








Scientific name Common name


ActODhllomis afrtcanus African lacana


Andropadus virens Little areenbui


Adus affinis Little swift


Ardea cinerea Grev heron





Artiaa acliath Goliath heron


Batis seneaatensls Seneaal batis


Bubo clnerascens G ravish eaole owl


Bvcanlstes fistuiator PlDina hombtH


Campaohaqa phoenlcea Red-shouldered cuckooshrike


Campethera maculosa Little qreen woodpecker


Caprlmulaus inornatus Plain nlahtiar





Centropus seneqalensis Seneaal coucai


Cen/le rudls Pled kinafisher


Columba unicincta Afeo olaeon


Con/us aibus Pied crow


Crinifer piscator Western qrev plantain-eater


Cuculus solilarius Red-chested cuckoo





Cvnnvris cuprous Copper sunbird


Cvnnvris minullus Tinv sunbird


Cypsiurus parvus African palm swift


Dendcocvona viduata White-faced duck


Dendropicos fuscescens Cardinal woodpecker


Dvaphorophvia castanea Chestnut wattle-eye





Eqretta ardesiaca Black heron


Eqretta qarzetta Liltle eqret


Epretta intermedia Yellow-billed eqret


Elminia tonaicauda African blue flycatcher


Esfrifda mefpoda Orarwe-cheeked waxbill


Gallinula chloropus Common moorhen


Gvmnobucco caivus Naked-faced barbet





Gvoohierax anpofensis Palmnut vulture


Halcyon leucocephala Greyheaded kinqfisher


Hirundo rustica European swallow


Hirundo semirufa Red-breasted swallow


Indicator minor Lesser honeyquide





Ispidina picta African pvqmv-kinqfisher





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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Laaonosticla rubricata African firefinch


Lanius coltaris Common fiscal


Macrodiotervx lonqipennis Standard-winged niqhtjar


Merops pusillus Little bee-eater


Milvus aeqvptius Yellow-billed kite


Milvus miarans Black kite


Muscicapa striata SDotted flycatcher


Necrosvrtes monachus Hooded vulture





Nettapus aurltus African Dvamv aoose


Numlda meleaqris Helmeted quineafowl


Onvchoanathus harttaubi Chestnut-winged starling


Ploceus cucuilatus Village weaver


Podica seneqalensis African finfoot


Polvboroides typus Gvm nogene


Psalidoprocne nitens Square-tailed saw-winq


Pteronetta hartiaubii Hartlaub's duck


Pvcnonotus barbatus Common bulbul


Quelea erythrops Red-headed guelea


Scopus umbretta Hammerhead


Serinus canicapillus West african seedeater





Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted canarv


Spermestes cucullata Bronze mannikin


Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eved dove


Streotopella seneaalensis Laughing dove


Tauraco oersa Guinea turaco


Tchaara mlnuta Marsh tchagra


Tchaara seneqalus Black-crowned tchagra


Temsiphona viridls African cared ise-flvcatcher


Tockus er/throrhvnchus Northern red-billed hornbill


Tockus hartlaubl Black dwarf hombill


Traron calvus African areen oiaeon





Turtur afar Blue-spotted wood-dove





None of the birds found have a Red Data status or are protected within Sierra Leone,


however this does not mean that the species do not need protection. The lack of protection


Is due to the lack of environmental studies and legislation. Sierra Leone does not have a


protected species list indicating sensitive species and by the rate that the environment is





being impacted, such an effort Is urgent.


Bird habitat on the concession area included open areas, forests, ridges and wetlands. The


species found were very well established communities. Common bulbuls, swallow, turacoes





and bee-eaters were found to dominate the ridge area. In the more forested sites, hombill,


woodpeckers and sunbirds were abundant. Open areas were dominated by doves and


crows, and finally wetlands and rivers included birds dependant on these systems such as


herons, kingfishers and ducks. Vultures and kites were found feeding on kitchen waste





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 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








around a dump site on the concession area. The current probability that Red data species


might occur is seen as medium, but with the conservation of sensitive areas and iimiting


impacts and pollution, this could be increased to a high probability.


5.8.2.3 Herpetofauna





Snakes are commonly occurring and abundant In Sierra Leone. Although the site is Impacted,


It is suggested by Menzies (1966) that this will allow for the penetration of Savannah species


into impacted forested areas, whereas forest snake species are becoming less common and


only locally occurring. Reptile and amphibians found on site are presented in


Table 5-13, None of these species have a Red Data status. The frog species found was





abundantly represented in all the aquatic habitats on site. Species were found by more than


one ecological specialist during the field survey: also local people assisted in mentioning


species they have seen. Due to the impacted nature of the site, the occurrence of Red Data


Herpetofauna is seen as medium to low.








Table 5-13: Herpetofauna that occur on the project area.





Species Name Common Name


Agama agama Agama lizard


Arthrolaptls sp. Squeaker


Mehelya poensis Forest file snake


Naja nigricollls Spitting cobra


Natriciteres varlegata Forest marsh snake


Philothamnus heterodenvus Variable green snake


5.8.3. Conclusion





The summary of the habitat types and the fauna associated with the habitat types, as per the


field work, is shown In


Table 5-14. The number equals the amount of individuals found during the field survey and


the value is seen as ecological value linked to species richness.











Table 5-14: Summary of Fauna and Flora





Habitat Flora Mammals Birds Amphibians Reptiles Value





Type


Secondary 39 5 43 - 2 High


Woodland 20 2 12 - 1 High


Wetlands 16 - 19 1 - High





Degraded 16 2 4 - - Low


Village 12 - 3 - - Low











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 Environmental end Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





Mine 3 • 6 - 2 Low








From the results discussed above, it is evident that the area of concern is under


anthropogenic pressure, most notably from the surrounding communities and to an extent


the effects of previous and current mine workings. !t is largely due to human actions that the


degree and type of differentiation between vegetation types has taken place. The


identification of these vegetation types were on the basis of presence, absence and


assemblages of plant species and the effect of natural and human factors. The subsequent


habitat types created smaller niches where animals were adapted to survive.


A major threat to natural habitat types, and subsequently wild animals, was informal


subsistence agriculture practiced by locals, in these instances a piece of natural habitat is


burnt to remove vegetation. Thereafter, the area is ploughed and planted. The effect of this


action is far reaching, firstly the natural vegetation is removed which decreases the amount


of available graze and browse, thereafter a fallow piece of land will provide good habitat for


alien and invasive species to colonise. If an area is cleared and receives a large amount of


rainfall before planting has commenced, the surface runoff will be much greater because of


the reduced infiltration, this in turn will cause erosion and a loss of valuable topsoil. A second


major threat is the practice of illegal artisanal mining within the boundaries of the mining


concession. This not only destroys the vegetation present on the footprint but also the


vegetation where the discarded soil is dumped. The frequency of these small pits and not


their size is the major contributing factor in the destruction of the vegetation type.


The subsequent reduction in natural habitat has meant that adaptable animal species have


remained in the area, with sensitive species having moved away to more suitable habitat.


However, availability of habitat is not the only driving force in the emigration of animal


species, frequent small scale hunting for bush meat has reduced the numbers of wild


animals even further. The presence of many homemade snares found during the field work


was evidence of this.


As mentioned previously the proliferation of informal subsistence farming and the





accompanied slash and bum practice has created favourable conditions for alien and


invasive plant species.


The size and condition of the habitat types identified in the area revealed an advancing


degraded land which consists of agricultural/artisanal mining (216 ha) and village (180 ha)


habitat types driven by human expansion. This expansion is as a result of the need for


natural resources to support natural as well as anthropogenic activities in Koidu Town,


resulting in a shrinking or declining secondary forest and wooded grassland type.


Furthermore, monitoring how the interfacing ecosystems advance and retreat can offer


insight into the nature and rate of environmental change over time, and into the causes of


this change (Furley 1992). Such changes between domination by secondary forest or


savanna woodland habitats are believed to have occurred many times over the past few


million years (Kingdon 1989, Maley 1994). However, the introduction of the anthropogenic


factor has changed the dynamics of the ecosystem to a large extent.





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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





During the field survey no Red Data or protected fauna species were found. Not only is this


due to the already impacted environment and the hunting pressures of the community, but


also due to the fact that no locally protected species lists exist. This is due to the fact that


there are no environmental studies defining species in Sierra Leone, no funding to conduct


such needed studies and no legislation protecting current occurring species, apart from


international legislation. Also, little Is known on the ecological processes and any of the


species that were found can be keystone species in the ecological functioning of the system.


This study did confirm there is a continuing decline of species within the study area,


specifically predatory species, and for this reason all species and its habitat need protection


before they become locally extinct. At this point the concession area is providing a form of


protection to fauna species. The Project will further promote the protection of fauna and flora


by piacing infrastructure in already disturbed or degraded areas.


In addition, a perimeter wall is currently being constructed for security purposes and to


comply with Kimberley process requirements. Access control due to the wall will also aid in


protecting fauna and flora from poaching, fires and logging.


A solid wall may result in ecological impacts by secluding the concession area from the


outside environment, and may lead to:


• Seclusion of species from other species (system limitations);


» Seclusions of food resources from included species, such as predatory animals will


have limited feeding options and will not be able to seek food outside of the


concession area; and


• Limitation on mating/reproducing opportunities (genetic limitations).


This seclusion from the outside environment will need continual, human interference,


accurate management and studies of the concession ecosystem. This is in line with Koidu


Holdings' current rehabilitation and environmental management carried out in support of


their intention to establish a nature conservation area within the concession.








5.9. Aquatic Environment


The water resources considered for this study included the associated wetland areas as well


as the local rivers/streams. In order to assess the current status of these two systems,


different methodologies were applied. Information pertaining to the different methodologies is


contained in the Aquatic Specialist Report (Volume 3).


5.9.1. Water quality (in situ)


The overall in situ water quality of the Meya River was in an acceptable state, with no water


quality parameters being considered a limiting factor for aquatic biota. The in situ water


quality results for the system are presented in Table 5-15.














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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project A





Table 5-15: The in situ water quality results for the Meya River





Parameter Acceptable Range Meya River


Temperature (*C) 5-30 21.6





pH 6.5-9.0 7.2


Dissolved Oxygen Saturation (%) 80 - 120 119.6





Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/I) > 5 10.11


Total dissolved solids (mg/I) < 1000 25





Note: denotes water quality parameter measured to be within a desired range








According to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Aquatic Ecosystems (DWAF,


1996), the temperature of water plays an important role for aquatic ecosystems by affecting


rates of chemical reactions and, therefore, also the metabolic rates of organisms. The rate of


development, reproductive periods and emergence time of organisms are all affected by


temperature. The temperature of 21.6'C recorded for the survey was within the desired


range.


According to DWAF (1996) both geology and the atmosphere has an influence on the pH of


natural waters. Fresh water systems are mostly well buffered and more or less neutral, with


a range from 6.5 to 8.5. Most species will tolerate and reproduce successfully within a pH


range of 6.5 - 9.0 (DWAF, 1996) and as result, this is the adopted range for the study. As a


result of the presence of bicarbonates of the alkali and alkaline earth metals most fresh


water systems are slightly alkaline (Bath, 1989). A pH of 7.2 was recorded for the system


which is close to natural but slightly alkaline. This value is within the required range


described.


The target water quality range for an aquatic ecosystem is between 80 - 120% of DO


saturation (DWAF, 1996). The minimum allowable values for sub-lethal and lethal DO


saturation is greater than 60% and 40%, respectively. The in situ DO saturation for the Meya


River was recorded as 119.6% and this is within the desired range.


According to Mason (1991), dissolved oxygen (DO) is possibly the most important measure


of water quality, especially for aquatic life. Both the survival and functioning of aquatic biota


is dependent on the maintenance of aquatic DO concentrations because it is required for the


respirations of all aerobic organisms. Thus, it may be stated that DO concentrations provide


a useful measure of ecosystem health (DWAF, 1996). The median guideline for DO for the


protection of aquatic biota is >5.0 mg/I (Kempster et ai, 1980). The DO concentration


recorded for the Meya River (10.11 mg/I) was double this minimum limit, indicating a suitable


concentration of dissolved oxygen within the system for aquatic biota.





Macro-invertebrate fauna appear to be sensitive to salinity, with acute toxic effects likely to


occur in most of the sensitive species at salinities in excess of 1000 mg/I. The TDS


concentration for the Meya River (25.0 mg/I) was considerably below this level.





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Environmental and Soda) Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ■'J








The overall in situ water quality of the Meya River adjacent to the mining area is in a good


state, with none of the assessed water quality variables being a limiting factor for aquatic


biota. This is important to note, considering the activities such as washing, bathing, ablutions


and artisanal mining which are abundant. It appears that the current activities and mining


operation are not having an impact on the in situ water quality of the Meya River,


5.9.2. Index of habitat integrity


The scores pertaining to the IHt assessment for the Meya River are presented in Table 5-16.


This index assesses the severity of any damage inflicted to the instream and riparian


habitats of the system caused from anthropogenic perturbations.





Table 5-16: The scores of the IHI assessment for the Meya River





Instream habitat Riparian habitat


Integrity Score Inteorltv Score


Water abstraction 0 Vegetation removal 15


Flow modification 18 Alien encroachment 12


Bad modification 23 Bank erosion 13


Channel modification 17 Channel modification


18


Water quality 3 Water abstraction 3


Inundation 8 Inundation 8


Exotic macrophytes 3 Row modification 13


Exotic fauna 2 Waler quality 18


Solid waste disposal 4


Integrity score 43 Integrity score 23





integrity class Largely modified Integrity class Seriously modified


Note: No impact (0). Small impact (1-5). Moderate impact (6-10), Large impact (11-15),


Serious impact(16-20). Critical impact (21-25)








The overall instream habitat has been “largely modified” and this may be largely attributed to


the artisanal mining activities within the system. These artisanal mining activities have


caused serious impacts to the system, modifying the flow and channel structure.


Additionally, artisanal mining activities have also imposed a critical impact on the Meya River


due to bed modification. Similarly, the riparian habitat has been “seriously modified” due to


the artisanal mining activities. These activities have had a serious impact due to channel


modification and altered water quality. Additional impacts which are considered to be large


resulting from the artisanal mining activities are the removal of vegetation, alien vegetation


encroachment due to the placement of fields in the riparian areas, bank erosion and


modifications to flow. The findings of the habitat integrity assessment indicate that the


current artisanal mining activities are having a considerable impact on the habitat integrity of


the Meya River.


5.9.2.1 Habitat assessment for low gradient stream


The results of the habitat assessment for the Meya River as per the USEPA (2006)


guidelines are presented in Table 5-17. Based on these findings, the quality of habitat


suitable for aquatic biota was determined to be “moderate” for the system. None of the





94


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Kokiu Kimberlite Project ;i








assessed habitat parameters were determined to be optimal for the system. Vegetative


protection and epifaunal substrate were determined to be the most intact and important for


the system. This component includes the relative quantity and variety of natural structures in


the stream, such as cobble (riffles), large rocks, fallen trees, logs and branches, and


undercut banks, available as refugia, feeding, or sites for spawning and nursery functions of


aquatic macrofauna, tt was evident from the study that the surrounding artisanal mining


activities are impacting on the habitat integrity of the system with the majority of the habitat


parameters determined to be suboptimal in state. These activities have resulted in excessive


sedimentation of the system, resulting in the decrease in habitat quality and a loss in habitat


diversity.


Table 5-17: The habitat parameter scores for the low gradient Meya River





Habits Parameter Score


Epifaunal substratefAvaHaUe cover 14


Poo' substrate characterization 11


Poo: variability 8


Sediment deposition 4


Channeitiow status 6


Channel alteration 12


Channel sinuosity 11


Bank stability (L)& (R) 11


Vegetative protection (L) & (R) 15


Riparian vegetative rone width (L) & (R) 7


Total score 99


Habitat percentage (%) 49.5


Habitat description Moderate





5.9.2.2 Benthic macroinvertebrates


In order to assess the macroinvertebrate community structure of the Meya River, a variety of





biotopes are sampled. These biotopes consist of various water velocities and depths, as well


as habitat structures. A total of 13 macroinvertebrate taxa were sampled during the survey


and a total of 505 individuals were sampled from the Meya River. The abundances of the


sampled macroinvertebrate taxa and the respective sensitivities are presented in Table 5-18.


Macroinvertebrates with different tolerances to poor water quality were sampled from the


Meya River. Ten of the taxa sampled are considered to be highly tolerant (1-5) to poor water


quality and three of the taxa are considered to be moderately tolerant (6-10) to poor water


quality. No taxa which are sensitive to poor water quality were sampled during the survey.





The total number of families within the three insect orders Ephemeroptera (Mayflies),


Plecoptera (Stoneflies), and Trichoptera (Caddis flies) identified for the project was three.


This metric gives an indication of the variety of the more pollution sensitive orders. Thus, this


provides a confirmation that very few taxa considered to be sensitive to poor water quality


were sampled for the study.

















85


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Table 5-18: The abundances of the sampled macroinvertebrate taxa and associated


sensitivities for the Meya River as well as the respective EPT scores





Famllv Taxon Sensitivity Abundances


AKNB.CA i' itruflrnoo 3 11


CRJSTACEA PrttflrronauieAp 3 7


4 13


ODO^TA Gciphaa© Q 9


lib»:!ulJdan A 23


i'ZVtrTERA Gorriflan r, 49


Neodao 3 5


TKJCHOTTTE7V\ i'Ndrpo£vch:dai> 2ft ao 0 og


LHMOflftfrbiskw 9 3


tup <<5011: rJ*n !. 0


O'-'TEHA Clvrrmrntoft 2 226


!».TUlld

GASTRC=ODA AirottmM i a


NurnOor of |r>dlvfriwfll® wr>


Numoar oi Taxa 13


Ephemeroptera, Ptecoptorq, Tflehoptera (EPT) 3











5.9.3. Invertebrate habitat assessment system


The I HAS assesses the quality and availability of habitat suitable for macroinvertebrate


communities. The results of the IHAS assessment for the Meya River are presented in Table


5-19. Based on these results, the quality and diversity of habitat for the system was


determined to be in a moderately suitable state. This is an indication that a large variety of


biotopes are absent from the system. Additionally, the quality and quantity of the available


habitat types and flow scenarios may be limited. These impacts are largely attributed to the


local water uses and in particular to the artisanal mining activities. The reach of the Meya


River considered for the study was largely unimpacted on by artisanal mining and


agricultural activities.


Table 5-19: The scores of the (HAS assessment for the Meya River





Biotope Meya River


Slones in current 14


V) Vegetation 8


< Other habitats 12


X Stream condition 22





IHAS score percentage (%) 56


Classification Moderate











5.9.4. Ichthyofauna assessment


In this assessment 164 individual fish were collected representing 9 types or species (known


and unknown) of fishes from five families. This included a single species from the


Charaddae family, five Cichlidaens, one Clariidae species, one Mastacembelidae species


and a single Mochokidae species. The identified genus and species as well as the


assodated quantities sampled for each are presented in Table 5-20.











86


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project 63








Table 5-20: The fish species sampled for the study area and associated quantities





Family Genus Species Local name Quantity





Characidae Brycinus nurse' Shiny fish 43


Cichlidae Hemichromis faciatus Ngog 12


Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus Ngog 45


Cichlidae Pelmatochromis buettikoferi' Ngog 32


Cichlidae Sarotherodon Unknown Ngog 17


Cichlidae Tilapia louka * Ngog


12


Clariidae Clarias sp Unknown Slippery fish 1


Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus cryptacanthus * Snake fish 1


Mochokidae Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus' Spiny fish 1


Total abundance 164


Note: (*) denotes relatively uncertainty to identify to species





In addition, the preferences or sensitivities for each of the sampled fish species to water





quality, habitat and flow and combined or total sensitivities are presented in Table 5-21. A


brief review of the families of fishes collected is provided as well as considerations of taxa


sensitivities.


Table 5-21: Overview of the types and abundances of fishes collected in the study including


preferences or sensitivities of types to water quality, habitat and flow and combined or total


sensitivities with species scoring 100% considered to be extremely sensitive types (blue), 83%


representing very sensitive types (turquoise), 67% representing sensitive types (green), 50%


representing tolerant types (yellow), 33% representing very tolerant types (orange) and 0-17%


extremely tolerant species (red).





Family Genus Species Water quality Habitat Flow Sensitivity


Characidae Brycinus nurse' Moderate Moderate Low 33%


Cichlidae Hemichromis faciatus Low Moderate Low


Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus Low Low Low


Cichlidae Pelmatochromis buettikoferi* Low Moderate Low


Cichlidae Sarotherodon Unknown Low Moderate Low


Cichlidae Tilapia louka * Low Moderate Low


Clariidae Clarias sp Unknown Low Low Low


Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus cryptacanthus* High High High 100%


Mochokidae Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus* Moderate High Moderate 67%


Note: (*) denotes relatively uncertainty to identify to species








5.9.4.1 Characids represented by the Brycinus nurse collected in the study


This is a large family of African and South American freshwater fishes (Skelton, 2001). The


Characidae family is identified by having sharp teeth and a small adipose fin. According to


Skelton (2001) there are 18 genera and over 100 species of African characins confined to





tropical water. They are considered to be a shoaling species.


5.9.4.2 Cichlidae family or Cichlids of which four were collected in the study





Cichlids form a very large family of fishes found throughout Africa, in South and Central





America, Madagascar, Arabia and India (Skelton, 2001). They are considered to be an








87


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project -





Important source of food throughout the region and are an attractive aquarium fish that is


cultured and relocated to all regions of the world. There are over 800 known species of


Cichlids in Africa specifically from the great lakes in Africa. In this survey four Cichlids


species were obtained and photographs of the sampled species are presented in Error!


Reference source not found..


5.9.4.3 Clariids represented by the one Sharptooth catfish collected in the study


Clariids are found in Africa and Asia and are very important as aquaculture and fisheries


species and as a targeted angling species. They are very hardy or tolerant and can often


outlast many other fish in desiccating environments. They have a distinct bony helmet-like


head and an elongated body with long dorsal and anal fins (Skelton, 2001). In Africa 12


genera and 74 species are known. In this study, a single Sharptooth catfish (Clarias sp) was


collected from the Meya River system. A photograph of the sampled Clarias sp is presented


in Error! Reference source not found.. These fish are extremely tolerant and are able to take


advantage of adverse environmental conditions.


5.9AA Mastacembeiidae or Spiny eels represented by one species in the study


This slender eei like fish has an unusual rostral appendage and a series of detached spines


along the back in front of the soft dorsal fin (Skelton, 2001). They are found in various


freshwater environments in tropical Africa and Asia with two genera and about 45 species


found in Africa (Skelton, 2001). In this study one species of Spiny eel (Mastacembelus


cryptacanthus) was collected from the Meya System (Error! Reference source not found ).


These Spiny eels are known to be sensitive to modified water quality and have specialist


habitat requirements. The occurrence of this fish suggests that habitat availability and


diversity as well as water quality states are suitable in the Meya River to maintain an


acceptable fish community.


It is important to note that M. cryptacanthus has not been recorded in this region of West


Africa and the presence of this species is indicates this to be a considerable range extension


(SAIAB, 2011) which should be further investigated.


Mochokideans are endemic to Africa where 10 genera and approximately 170 species have


already been identified. Distinct features of this family include their complex mouths and


tough spines in the dorsal and pectoral fins. They can be difficult to identify due to the wide


variation in features like colour patterns, teeth and barbells (Skelton, 2001). These species


are known to be habitat specialists and were collected within riffle, rapid areas of the sites


considered. In this study, only Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus was sampled from the Meya River


system.


5.9A.5 Considerations of the sensitivities of fishes obtained in the study


In this study a simple scoring system was used to score the possible sensitivities or


preferences of the fishes collected to impaired water quality states, modified habitats and


flow regimes. Results in Table 5-5 show that the fishes collected in the study have been


determined to have a wide range of sensitivities to water quality modifications with all of the


Cichlidae species and the Clarias sp having a “low" preference or determined to be


insensitive to water quality and only the Mastacembulus sp being allocated a “high" score.





83


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project a








determined to be a sensitive species. The habitat assessment revealed that only O. nilotcus


and Clarias sp were determined to have a “low” score for habitat, while the Mastacembulus


sp and C. nigrodigitatus received “high” scores. Most of the Cichlidae species and B. nurse


received “moderate” scores. B. Nurse, Clarias sp and all of the Cichlidae species received


“low" scores for flow preference. C. nigrodigitatus received a “moderate" score and


Mastacembulus sp received a “high” score. The “high” sensitivity scores recorded for the


flow component are surprising when considering the extreme low flow conditions


experienced during the survey. No clear relationships between sites and these ecosystem


components (water quality, habitat and flow) were observed.





In consideration of overall sensitivities, findings in Figure 8-8 initially reveal the total


dominance of tolerant to extremely tolerant species for the Meya River system. In spite of


this, a “sensitive” species as well as an “Extremely Sensitive" species was also sampled


from the system. The abundances of the two sensitive species was extremely low with only a


single species of each being sampled which constituted less than 1% of the sample


population. In spite of this, it is encouraging to note that species considered to be sensitive


to various driving components are present within the system in spite of the impacts on the


system.


80.00%





70.00% Ls Extremely tolerant


60.00%


& 50.00% ■ Very tolerant


ro Tolerant


c 40.00%


s Sensitive


& 30.00%


a. ■ Very Sensitive


20.00%


10.00% 0.61% 0.61% ■ Extremely Sensitive


0.00%


Meya River





Figure 5-4: Percentage contribution of total sensitivities of fishes collected at each site


5.9.5. Conclusion


The water resources associated with the project area are in a largely impacted state when


compared to natural reference conditions. This is in accordance with findings published by


the US AID (US AID, 2007) stating that the water resources of Sierra Leone have been


impacted on by rudimentary farming techniques and artisanal mining activities. The impacted


water resources are largely representative of the adjacent and surrounding areas which


have also been impacted on by local users.


The Koidu Kimberlite Mine has not impacted directly on the integrity of the Meya River with


impacts most notably originating from the local water users and artisanal miners. In spite of


this and in light of the proposed KKP expansion project, the Meya River should be


considered for future monitoring objectives.











89


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








The wetlands associated with the project area have largely been formed due to mining


activities and profiling in the area extending over a 70 year period. Thus the wetlands are not


necessarily representative of historical natural reference conditions. In addition to this, the


delineated wetland areas have been considerably impacted on by historic mining activities


as well as by local artisanal mining operations. The placement of agricultural fields by locals


within the wetlands has also impacted on the systems, but the severity is considered to be


less severe than that of the artisanal mining operations.


The study component conclusions pertaining to each of the specialist study components are


presented separately in the subsequent sections.


5.10. Wetland systems


5.10.1. Wetland delineation


The wetland area was delineated whereby features such as soil, vegetation, topography and


hydrology were coilectively considered (Rian 10). The extent of the artisanal mining and


agricultural activities within the system is a concern.


5.10.2. Wetland unit characterisation


The wetland unit associated with the Koidu mining project area was initially identified at


desktop levei and then ground truthing was conducted to confirm these findings. The


wetlands in the study area are linked to both perched groundwater and surface water. A


single HGM type of natural wetland system occurs within the area assessed. The HGM unit


identified for the project area is an unchanneled valley bottom wetland system.


5.10.3. Wetland unit setting


The identification of various wetland units is often characterised by the position of the units in


the landscape and the genera! topography of the survey area. A schematic diagram of how


the identified wetland unit for the project area is positioned in the landscape and the general


topography of the study area is illustrated in Figure 5-5. A description based on the setting of


the identified HGM unit In the landscape and the associated hydrologic components is


presented in Table 5-22.



































Figure 5-5: A schematic illustration of the HGM wetland types identified for the study area











90


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








Table 5-22:The definition of the different HGM wetland types occurring in the study area


[based on the system first described by Brinson (1993) and modified by Mameweck and


Batchelor (2002), and further developed by Kotze, Marneweck, Batchelor, Lindley and Collins


(2004)]





TOPOGRAPHIC SETTING DESCRIPTION


t/i


*3 Occur in the shallow valleys that drain Valley bottom areas without a stream channel. Are gently or steep


the slopes sloped and characterized by the alluvial transport and deposition of


material by water.


HYDROLOGIC COMPONENTS


inputs _Throughputs Outputs








Receive water inputs from adjacent


slopes via runoff and interflow. May also


I receive inpuls from a channelled system, Surface flow and


interflow may be from adjacent slopes, interflow. Variable but predominantly slream flow,


f adjacent hlllslope seepage wetlands if


these are present, or may occur


longitudinally along the valley bottom.














5.10.4. Description of unchanneled valley bottom wetlands


This type of wetland resembles a floodplain in its location and gentle gradient, with


potentially high levels of sediment deposition (Kotze et al., 2007). Extensive areas of these


wetlands remain saturated as stream channel input is spread diffusely across the wetland


even at low flows (Kotze et al., 2007). These wetlands also tend to have a high organic


content. Facultative wetland indicator plant species, comprising a mixture of grasses and


sedges, are evident as longitudinal bands within a relatively narrow zone along the valley


bottoms. Facultative wetland plant species usually grow in wetlands (67-99% of


occurrences) but occasionally are found in non-wetland areas. Lateral seep zones form part


of the adjacent hillslope seepage wetlands, this is a characteristic for all the valley bottom





wetlands. The primary drivers for these systems, owing to the shallow gradients along the


valley bottoms are diffuse horizontal surface flow and interflow. There is generally a clear


distinction in the transition in the vegetation structure between the mixed grass-sedge


meadow zones that characterise these wetlands to the more intermittently wet grassland


habitats associated with the adjacent hillslope seepage wetlands (Kotze et al., 2007).


5.10.5. General wetland functional description





Valley bottom wetlands without channels also offer a service in the enhancement to the


quality of water. This is with respect to the removal of toxicants and nitrates. This removal is


higher than in valley bottom wetlands with channels owing to the greater contact of the


wetland with runoff waters, particularly if there is a significant groundwater contribution to the


wetland (Kotze et al., 2007). According to Cronk and Siobhan Fennessy (2001) and Keddy


(2002) the phosphate retention levels may be lower because a certain amount of phosphate





may be re-mobilized under prolonged anaerobic conditions. These wetlands provide an


additional service in trapping and the retention in the wetland itself of sediment carried by


runoff waters. Valley bottom wetlands without channels reduce the flooding potential as a





91


Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project *4








result of diffuse flows over the surface of the wetland, thereby reducing the severity of floods


downstream. This depositional environment is created by the surface roughness caused by


the vegetation. The depositional environment is enhanced through the presence of dams.


These wetlands provide valuable grazing ground during winter periods and early spring as a


result of extended periods of wetness





5.10.6. Ecological functional assessment


The general features of the wetland unit were assessed in terms of functioning and the


overall importance of the hydro-geomorphic unit was then determined at a landscape level.


The level of functioning supplied by the hydro-geomorphic unit for various ecological


services for the project area is presented in Table 5-23. The result from the “WET-


EcoServices” tool for the respective wetland unit is presented below in


Figure 5-6.


Table 5-23: A listing and scoring of ecological services offered by the HGM unit identified for


the project area








Valley bottom wetland


Ecological service without a channel


Overall Score





Flood attenuation


Streamflow regulation


Sediment trapping


Phospahte trapping


Nitrate removal


Toxicant removal


Erosion control


Carbon storage





Maintenance of biodiversity


Water supply for human use


Natural resources


Cultivated foods


Cultural significance


Tourism and recreation


Education and research


Note: “Moderately high importance (3 - 4)


□ Intermediate importance (2 - 3)


□ Moderately low importance (1 - 2)


■ Low (0 - 1)








The identified wetland unit provides a variety of ecological services of varying importance.


The majority of the services provided were determined to be of low ecological importance.


Some of the assessed services considered for water quality enhancement such as


phosphate trapping and nitrate removal were determined to be of moderately low


importance.














92


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





c 03J a: e-ua' ae





















































Figure 5-6: Radial plot of functions performed by the identified wetland unit


This is important to note due to the fact that unchanneled valley bottom wetlands contribute


considerably to the improvement of water quality for such a system. The provision of


“cultivated foods" by the system was determined to be of moderately high importance. This


may be attributed to the dependence of local villages on these systems for their potatoes


and rice plantations. It may be concluded that the placement of these plantations into the


system has affected the ability of these systems to enhance water quality and this may


provide an opportunity for the KKP to rehabilitate these areas in order to restore ecological


functioning to the catchment.


5.10.7. Conclusion


The wetland system assessed for the project area has largely been formed due to extended


periods of commercial and artisanal mining as result of artisanal pit creation and profiling. In


addition to this, the current land uses, namely artisanal mining and agricultural activities


have impacted considerably on the functioning and integrity of this system. Thus important


ecological services pertaining to the enhancement of water quality and the maintenance of


biodiversity have been lost. The severity of the associated impacts is considered to be


severe.


The prevention of agricultural and artisanal mining activities within the wetland systems


within the Project area would provide an opportunity for these systems to potentially recover.


Thus, long term objectives would need to be defined for these systems in order to ensure


that none or limited future impacts are imposed onto these systems so as to assist the


recovery of ecological integrity and functioning for the catchment. The Koidu Kimberlite


Project would therefore be afforded the opportunity to contribute to the rehabilitation of these


wetland areas.














93


 | Pun 10





Koidu Kimberlite Project





Wetland Types Identified








Legend





Mining Lease Area


Rivers


Resettlement Boundary


Camp Extension


Wetland --------- New Road


Paths


Roads


Mine Plan





Blast Radius


Dumps


Mine Buildings


Offices


Water Pools


Artisinal Workings


Wetlands


: ♦ -


Wetland r Agriculture


V 'Sf Artisinal Workings


M fetes? Dam


& Re-Profiled Wetland


» Undisturbed Wetland


4


V Water Areas


V •« *sm ’-t


iinal Workings








II


DIGBY WFI.LS


[nvmONuiNUi


TeL II 7»9 W9S


Piojeccon UTM 29 N WOSS4 Rrl f .me KHS9eS201t04OH


Falie Eatng iOOOOClm Rrviticn Numtci 4


Crntnl Mend-in 9®W Dale 04/0S'2Cll


[\| 0 100 200 400 600


A - Metres


1:12,500


*■!>tfyy Wei * Auo.-utri








< l ( i ( I ( / t I ( I I / i l I


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project • '3








5.11. Surface Water


5.11.1. Rainfall


The Koidu area is extremely wet with about 2 600 mm of rain falling during the year.





Approximately 2 400 mm falls within an eight month period from April to November with five


of the months exceeding 300 mm. The rainfall measurements between 2005 and 2010 that


were recorded at the project site are summarised Table 5-24.


Table 5-24 : Rainfall measurements at the Koidu Kimberlite Project, 2005 - 2010





Month Rainfall (mm) Monthly statistics


2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Mean 1 a cv % of total


January - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0%


February - 0 g 105 95 20 46 50 109.4% 1.7%


March - 68 0 126 124 97 83 52 62.7% 3.2%


April 93 159 113 229 80 178 152 58 38.1% 5.8%


May 178 218 147 145 158 315 197 30 154% 7.5%


June 153 309 246 219 333 402 302 73 24.1% 11.5%


July 153 481 430 361 500 150 384 142 36.9% 14.6%


August 150 402 571 590 550 321 528 86 16.2% 20.1%


September 290 36 629 402 363 - 465 244 52.6% 17.6%


October 325 482 327 307 416 - 383 81 21.2% 14.5%


November 229 72 85 59 156 - 93 43 46.6% 3.S%


December 7 0 0 3 2 - 2 2 237.7% 0%


Total - 2 655 2 556 2 545 2 776 1161 2 632 - - 100%








The evapo-transpiration for the area is approximately 1 400 mm and therefore there is


significantly more rainfall than there is runoff at the mine and spillages and discharges will


occur (UNDP/FAO- TR5, 1980).


5.11.2. Rainfall statistical analysis


A statistical analysis was done on rainfall data for the last 4 years, as well as 1 day data, that





were available for the Koidu site In Sierra Leone. The mean annual precipitation for the study


areas was determined from the rainfall data as 2 600 mm for the catchments. The adopted 1


day rainfall depths of the respective areas for the various return periods are given in Table


5-25.





Table 5-25: Adopted design rainfall





Duration Return Period Rainfall (mm)


1:2 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:50 1:100 1:200


1 day 122 155 181 209 251 288 330











95


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report lor the Koidu Kimberlite Project





5.11.3. Catchment description


As outlined in the 2003 EIA, the project area lies within the Meya stream sub-catchment


covering an area of about 188 km2, which is a tributary of the Bafi River. Many of the


streams which flow directly or indirectly into the Meya stream have their source at Monkey


HHI and run through the project area. The regional drainage is from south to north.


The bulk of the water supply in the area comes from rivers, streams and swamps. The pH of


the water in the major rivers in Sierra Leone ranges between 6.5 and 7 in the wet season


and 6.2 and 6.5 in the dry season. The pH of water in the swamps ranges between 5.2 and


6.0. The pH for samples selected in the project area ranges between 6.4 and 7.6 with a


mean value of 6.9.


The mine area has been divided into nine areas and each of the areas is described in more


detail below. Figure 5-7 indicates the catchment boundaries while Figure 5-8 indicates the


proposed and existing layout of the mine. Included in the mitigation measures are initial


thoughts on the clean and dirty water diversions that will be updated during the next few


weeks as more information is made available.


The catchments are summarised as follows:


« Catchment A includes the catchment to the south of the mine area. The catchment is


presently minimally impacted upon by mining and the river flows to the south. In the


future expanded mine this catchment will include the tailings dump, plant, offices, change


houses, clinic and workshops and will form the hub of the mining;


® Catchment B includes the existing K1 pit and the water drains to the North West of the


mining area;


a Catchment C in an area to the north west of the site and the river from catchment B flows


into catchment C;


• Catchment D is to the west of catchment A and presently is not impacted upon by the


mine but is in a catchment that is a possible site for the tailings dump. The river in this


catchment flows to the south of the mine;


• Catchment E includes the present day plant area and main dam and the water exits the


site to the east; and


• Catchment F G, H and I and smaller catchments presently flowing into the K2 pit.


5.11.4. Catchment characteristics


A catchment area is defined as the total area drained by a river or stream, measured from


the mouth of that particular water body. Assuming an evenly distributed rainfall event, a


bigger catchment in area will collect, and based on its slope, feed its water body with more


water than a small catchment. This is one, amongst others, of the catchment characteristics


such as, slope, vegetation cover, soii type, hydraulic length, etc that affect the volume of


water running in a river given the type and duration of rain failing. The catchment sizes, their


hydraulic lengths, and average slopes (measured from 10-85% of hydraulic length) are given


in Table 5-26 below. Refer to Figure 5-7 for the delineated catchment areas.











86


 Environmental and Social impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project








Table 5-26: Catchment characteristics








Catchment Incremental Longest 10:85 slope Tc (hrs) C-F actor


name area (km2) watercourse (m) (m/m)


A 0.395 925 0.0076 0.37 0.401


B 0.638 1120 0.0339 0.24 0.401


C 0.034 350 0.0486 0.08 0.396





D 0.230 916 0.0677 0.16 0.396


E 0.573 1288 0.0023 0.74 0.421





F 0.011 158 0.0823 0.04 0.365


G 0.022 243 0.0206 0.09 0.417





H 0.3 248 0.0323 0.08 0.395


I 0.675 1 704 0.0017 1.03 0.378





Please note:


« These catchment characteristics were determined using 1 m contour detail and aerial


photographs in GiS.


• 10-85 slopes denote hie slope of the catchment from a point 10% from the end point and 85%





of the distance to the furthest point.


• Time of concentration denotes the length of time it takes for a raindrop to travel from the


furthest point of the catchment to the outlet point.


« The runoff factor was adopted to describe the runoff response of the specific catchment to the


design rainfall. _






















































































97


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project











"SfiK ccnr.uftlnv


3ttT40 auoa :&3’»r js*mo ^'t*o jes^o »* 49 ?34?« :i*‘*o ?mt4o


' mU* * ■





* w' *


* tv /ii v - ^> v ~ l«*rt





►, • ,S*7 • • * ' v • .. %*_ £ . T J V/.


IrWJJI L«i 1


* •« Cd.r-'w*:






























































>19722


J.VnfoWS „p*>d







Figure 5-7: Catchment Boundaries for Water Course Outlets (SRK, 2009)














98














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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project














-I.*-' • il > * a -8.





£ * ■ NM





.1^___ . CM ---i



















































































Figure 5-8 : Existing and proposed mine layout (SRK, 2010)




















99


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project I








5.11.5. Flood hydrology


Flood hydrological methods used in this study include the Rational method and the SCS





method. These models are suited for a catchment of these size ranges. The Universal


Programs for Discharge software incorporates the Rational method and the VisualSCS


software incorporates the SCS method. These programs were therefore used by SRK


Consulting to model the flood peaks.


Table 5-27 below gives a summary of the 1:50 and 1:100 year flood peaks calculated using


the methods described above.





Table 5-27: Summary of flood peaks





Catchment Area Return period years (m3/s)


name (kmJ) 2 5 10 20 50 100 200


A 0.395 6.60 9.10 11.30 13.80 17.50 20.80 24.50


B 0.638 13.60 18.70 23.30 28.30 35.90 42.60 50.30


C 0.034 14.00 19.0 24.0 29.0 36.0 43.0 51.0


D 0.230 6.00 8.20 10.30 12.50 15.80 18.80 22.00


E 0.573 6.20 8.60 10.70 13.10 16.60 19.80 23.40


F 0.011 0.80 1.10 1.40 1.70 2.10 2.50 3.00


G 0.022 0.80 1.10 1.40 1.70 2.10 2.50 3.00


H 0.030 1.20 1.70 2.10 2.60 3.20 3.90 4.50


I 0.675 5.90 8.10 10.20 12.40 15.80 18.80 22.20





The adopted peak selected for all the catchments is based on the SCS Tc Method. This


method produced the most conservative results and is a preferred method for catchments of


these sizes.


5.11.6. Pit inflows


The runoff into the K1 pit has will be substantial during a storm event to about 38 000 m3 for





a 1:50 year storm (see Table 5-29 below). An in-pit sump will be required to cater for the 1:5


year, 1 hour storm rather than the 50 year event. This will mean that during larger storms


water might be lying at the bottom of the pit for 8 to 10 days. Mining could continue on the


higher benches but it will mean more water will seep into the underlying material.


5.11.7. Water quality


Surface and groundwater samples were at five locations within the Koidu mining lease area


(Table 5-28). The hydrochemical analysis was undertaken by M&L Laboratories in


Johannesburg and included major ions, pH, EC, TDS and an ICP scan for dissolved metals


following filtering of the sample on site.




















100


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report Tor the Koldu Kimberlite Project








Table 5*28: Surface and groundwater monitoring points within the mining lease area





Sampling Point Description Co-ordinates


SW1 Near proposed new tailing dump 953299.227 283360.703 378.633





SW2 Discharge from dam below plant 954467,7 284120.21 382.549





SW3 Discharge from dam slurry dams 954553.43 284240.128 332.95


SW4 Stream down-gradient of pit 955141.481 283862.204 374.75





BH1 Borehole at main accommodation 954252.652 281810.302 386.821





BH2 Borehole at office complex 954221.822 283763.263 390.721


BH3 Borehole at resettlement 954597.873 284513.472 388.31





WBH2 Piezometer at K1 Pit 954563.462 282867,562 375.38





WBH5 Piezometer at K1 Pit 954748.97 283086.94 383.2








The following water quality results were obtained:





® Camp water supply fBH ^): The water quality is reflective of recent recharge with a


calcium/bicarbonate signature, and no evidence of chemical contamination that might


affect its use as drinking water (although it should always be disinfected for drinking).


The water is moderately saline (as indicated by the Total Dissolved Solids - TDS)





and moderately hard (as indicated by the calcium concentration). All constituents


analyzed including dissolved metals and metalloids comply fully with the WHO


Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (2008);


• BH 2. Near Plant: Low TDS and hardness, without indication of chemical


contamination, and fully compliant with the WHO Guidelines (2008).


• BH3, Background groundwater quality: Water quality is reflective of recent recharge


(calcium / bicarbonate signature), with moderately high TDS and acceptably low


hardness, and fully compliant with WHO Guidelines (2008);


• SW 1. Background Surface Water Quality; Low TDS dominated by calcium and


bicarbonate with other constituents at trace levels. The cation-anion imbalance at -


8% is slightly high but explained by the trace levels of many of the cation and anions,





analyzed at concentrations dose to their analytical detection limits. Dissolved metals


and metalloids are generally close to detection limits, apart from iron probably


derived from suspended soil particles in a slightly acid water;


• SW 2 and SW 3. Water discharged from dam below the Plant fSW 2) and from slurry


dumps fSW 31: These waters are essentially similar in composition with pH values


slightly in the alkaline range and moderately high TDS values showing evidence of


slightly elevated sulfate and nitrate values indicative of contact with mining wastes.


The cation-anion imbalance for SW 2 is higher than desirable (orange shading)


indicating minor under-recoveries of calcium and magnesium during analysis,


although these are not considered significant. Despite these minor alterations to Ihe








101


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





background water quality, these analyses remain fully compliant with the WHO


Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (2008);


• SW 4. Surface water down-gradient of the Pit: Neutral water moderately low in TDS


and hardness with no evidence of chemical contamination. Metals and metalloids


remain in compliance with WHO Guidelines except for iron soluble iron and





manganese which are widespread in these geological formations and probably


leached from the suspended soil particles in the watercourse. At these levels the iron


and manganese have nuisance value but no adverse health connotations. It is likely


that the Fe and Mn in solution interfered slightly with the cation and anion analysis


resulting in the rather high cation-anion imbalance, which is not considered


significant; and


• WBH 5 and WBH 2, Piezometer holes adjacent to the Pit: This water complies with


the WHO Guidelines except for elevated iron and manganese in WBH 5 and (of more


concern) elevated dissolved lead at levels non-compliant with the WHO Guidelines


(2008). The soluble lead indicates the presence of lead in the mineralogy around the


Pit, and this should be noted in follow-up sampling of groundwater in the area.


































































































102


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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project











Table 5-29 : Runoff into the K1 Pit





Runoff Into K1 pit (24-hr storm)


Return period


2 5 10 20 50 100 200


Curve number 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18





24 hour design rainfall (mm) 124.30 159.50 190.30 224.40 276.10 323.40 378.40





Runoff depth (mm) 85.41 118.24 147.56 180.41 230.73 277.11 331.29





Runoff from external catchment 7119 9 856 12 299 15 037 19 231 23 097 27 614





Runoff from haulroads 6 038 8 359 10 431 12 754 16 311 19 589 23 420


Direct pit area volume 1 287 1 652 1 971 2 324 2 860 3 350 3 919





Total Inflow into pit 14 444 19 866 24 701 30115 38 402 46 036 54 953














Table 5-30 : Runoff into K2 Pit





Runoff into K2 pit (24-hr storm)


Return period


2 5 10 20 50 100 200


Curve number 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18 84.18





24 hour design rainfall (mm) 124.30 159.50 190.30 224.40 276.10 323.40 378.40





Runoff depth (mm) 85.41 118.24 147.56 180.41 230.73 277.11 331.29





Runoff from external catchment 4 473 6 193 7 728 9 449 12 084 14 513 17 351





Runoff from haulroads 3 794 5 252 6 554 8014 10 249 12 309 14 716


Direct pit area volume 809 1 038 1 238 1 460 1 797 2 105 2 463





Total inflow into pit 9 076 12 483 15 521 18 923 24130 28 926 34 529























103


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





5.12. Groundwater


A hydrogeological investigation was conducted in 2009-2010 in the Koidu mine area to





define the hydrogeological framework of the area, to predict the groundwater conditions that


will most likely be encountered during proposed mining, and to predict the potential impacts


of mining and dewatering on groundwater resources in the vicinity of the mine. The field


investigation included hydraulic testing in three coreholes drilled in the granite country rock


adjacent to the K1 and K2 pits and a 3-day pumping test of the leached granite adjacent to


the K2 kimberlite. The primary analytic tool for making the predictions was a 3-dimensional


groundwater flow model.


The geohydrology is divided into the two main aquifer types present in the area, the upper


weathered aquifer and the underlying fractured aquifer. The weathered aquifer consists of in-


situ weathered host rock as well as transported material. The underlying fractured aquifer


can be subdivided into the various geological units from which they are derived.


5.12.1. Hydrogeological Framework





The K1 and K2 pits and their planned underground extensions are within slightly fractured to


massive granites with a bulk hydraulic conductivity ranging from 3 x 10-3 to 2 x 10-2 m/day.


Hydraulic testing conducted in 2009 (HCItasca, 2009) indicate that the near-surface sub¬


horizontal (exfoliation) joints and the NNW-SSE striking high angle joints observable in the


ramp to Blow A do not extend to depth, and thus have no hydrologic significance with


respect to future mining.


The only hydrogeologic unit of significance is the so-called leached granite that forms an


altered 10- to 30-m wide rind with a hydraulic conductivity of about 6 x 10-1 m/day around


the K2 kimberlite.


5.12.2. Dewatering


The peak amounts of inflow, the approximation duration of the inflows, and the total volumes


of water to be managed for the 50- and 100-year rainfall events (using data provided by


SRK) are summarised in the following table for various stages of the mine.





Recurrence 50 100


frequency(yrs)


Depth Peak Inflow Approx Total Peak Inflow Approx Total


Mine Interval (m3/hr) Duration Volume (m3/hr) duration Volume


(mamsl) (hrs) (m3) (hrs) (m3>


above 0 4,500- 48 5,500 - 48


8,000 13,000


K1 -40 to - 8,000- 24 38,000 10,000- 24 46,000


100 15,000 17,000


-120 to - 12,000- 12 17,000- 12


160 16,000 12,000


above -30 1,800 4,500 72 4,500- 48 42,000


K2 24,000 9,000


-70 to 130 2,000- 48 3,000- 48 29,000





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 Environm«nta1 and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Kofdu Kimberlite Protect i:.rl








Recurrence 50 100


frequency(yrs)


Depth Peak Inflow Approx Total Peak Inflow Approx Total


Mine interval (m3/hr) Duration Volume (mJ/hr) duration Volume


(mamsl) (hre) (m3) (hrs) (m3)


5,000 6,500


below 2,800 - 48 3,500- 48


150 5.200 6,200





These are quite large inflows and volumes of water. Koidu has designed pumping their


pumping systems based on the information above.


As a result of the overall low hydraulic conductivity of the granite country rock, the predicted


mine inflows will be managed passively (i.e., without any active dewatering) with two


exceptions:


• The water contained in the near surface joints around the K1 kimberlite that was


intercepted by wells installed by Aqua Earth in 2006 to help minimise inflow to the K1


vertical pit will be captured by a series of underground drainholes drilled from a


dewatering ring at about the 250 mamsl level; and


• The leached granite will be pre-drained by a series of underground drainholes drilled into


it from a dewatering ring around the K2 kimberlite at about the 150 mamsl level in order


to depressurise the leached granite to improve slope stability in the pit, and to minimise


inflow to the underground mine.


5.12.3. Depth of water table





It is expected that a difference in water table is present between the weathered and fractured


aquifers. Eighteen water level measurements were taken in March 2003 and the level varied


between 0.8 meter below ground level (mbgl) and 6.5 mbgl (Cemmats, 2003). All these


measurements were taken in hand dug wells and are therefore believed to be Indicative of


the weathered aquifer water levels.


Within the No. 2 pipe the water levels is 296.7 mamsl according to the levels surveyed on


site. This is expected to be an indication of the water levels within the kimberlite aquifer and


the fractured granitic aquifer is expected to have a similar level.


5.12.4. Presence of boreholes, wells and springs and their estimated yields


Twenty two wells in the study area were investigated by Cemmats (2003), but this


represents a sample of the wells and not the total number. The only indication of yield Is the


daily abstraction volume, which varies between 100 l/day and 2 500 I/d. These yields could


also be a function of the number of people utilising the wells and test pumping is required to


establish the yields.


The formations of springs are governed by the geology and are generally associated with a


pinching but of the weathered aquifer by an impermeable layer, e.g. the underlying rock bed.


No springs were recorded by Cemmats but surface water-groundwater interaction does


occur in low-lying areas as is evident from the numerous low-lying areas that are marshland


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





or are flooded. The weathered aquifer is expected to discharge in low lying areas, but this


discharge may occur below the water level of the receiving body thereby not appear as a


spring.


5.12.5. Groundwater quality


During a study conducted in 2009, the quality of potable water in the Koidu Holdings mining


lease area was sampled and analysis. During this study the following parameters were


measured:


• Physical parameters consisting of temperature, turbidity, conductivity and residual


chlorine;


• Chemical parameters consisting of Iron, Manganese, Nitrogen, Sulphate, Copper,


Allminium, Magnesium, Ammonia, Bromine, Nitrate, Phosphate, Silicone, Sulphide and


Clorine; and


• Bacterial parameters consisting of faecal coliforms.


The analysis indicated that the measurements of the parameters tested were all within the


permissible limits recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). It also indicated


that the water had high chemical bacteriological qualities and is good for human


consumption.








5.13. Visual


In order to assess the visual disturbance of the site, Viewshed modelling was employed.


Within a Geographical Information System (GIS), a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) was created


from contour information to digitally display the relief of the topography surrounding the


proposed mine. This DTM was then used to create a theoretical viewshed model which is


the total area that theoretically has a direct visual connection with the project based on


topographical features. The theoretical viewshed model does not take into account aspects


such as vegetation and atmospheric conditions such as haze or fog.


Plan 11 depicts the extent of the viewshed of the current mining activities, it is evident that


the mine does have a high visibility within the local area already and that the area is already


largely disturbed from an aesthetic point of view, largely as a result of mining activities


conducted pre-2002.


Plan 12 depicts the viewshed model based on the proposed additional infrastructure in


addition to the existing infrastructure The area surrounding Koidu Town is already historically


aesthetically disturbed. This, together with the existing rehabilitation of vegetation within the


mining lease area, reduces the potential visual impacts of the Koidu Kimberlite Project. The


mine is also compatible with the area as there are mining operations alt around and it is not


near any historical or scenic site.




















106


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| PHn 11 |


Koidu Kimberlite Project








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Mining Lease Area





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Roads & Paths





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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project





5.14. Arch aeology


5.14.1. Archaeological resources at the Koidu Kimberlite Project


As part of the environmental and social investigations required for the Koidu Kimberlite


Project (Koidu Project), an Archaeological Impact Assessment (AIA) was conducted- The


overall objective of the archaeological study was to use internationally recognised measures


to identify, document and assess potential sites of archaeological and heritage significance


in the project area in order to conserve, mitigate and manage heritage sites and artefacts


according to the recommendations and criteria of the relevant heritage authorities and


legislation.


Three sites were identified during the fieldwork (Plan 13):


• A possible residential settlement on a low hill to the south-west of Monkey Hill.


Potsherds found in close association with settlement deposit. There is evidence of


potential vegetable gardens and house mounds that may be related to sites


RES967/002 and 003.


• A metalworking site on the southern slope of Monkey Hill. Evidence of metalworking,


especially iron reduction and smithing found. Artefacts include fragments of pottery


vessels, tuyere pipes (blow pipes), iron slag, bloom and ore. May be related to sites


RES967/001 and 003. The site is at least 100 m2 in extent. The site has been partly


damaged and altered by agricultural activities, illegal woodcutting and other informal


impacts by the local community.


e A metalworking site and possible residential settlement on the crest and upper slopes


of Monkey Hill. Evidence of metalworking, especially iron and copper reduction


found. Artefacts include fragments of pottery vessels, tuyere pipes (blow pipes), iron


slag, bloom and ore. May be related to sites RES967/001 and 002. The site seems to


occupy the entire hilltop of Monkey Hill, and possibly also the upper 360° slopes of


the hill. It may represent a type of fortified site as described by DeCorse (1981,


1983).


In order to assess the significance of the identified sites, a literature review and additional


research were undertaken. This determined that a) there are known archaeological sites in


the project area, and b) these sites may be significant in terms of the archaeological history


of the area, as well as providing an understanding of the expansion and influence of West


African cultures southwards. Currently, the significance of the sites identified has been


preliminarily rated. Once dating and data capturing, which is currently being conducted, are


complete, will the significance of these sites be defined. Table 5-31 outlines the three


archaeological sites found within the Koidu Kimberlite lease area.


Currently, the significance and potential impacts were determined to be medium-high.


However, the potential impacts can be mitigated in order to decrease the severity of these


impacts. The recommended mitigation required is to excavate, sample, record, document


and map the sites according to internationally accepted archaeological techniques and


methods. Once this has been done, the appropriate significance rating can be assigned. As


the sites have already been impacted on by local farming and artisanal mining activities, this


recommended mitigation may be seen as a positive impact, Based on these results, it is





109


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project &





recommended that archaeological mitigation should take place at all three sites. The


environmental impacts will result in positive impacts if provision for the sampling, recording,


documentation and analyses of the sites are made, as this information will contribute


substantially to international research on West African archaeology and societies’ histories.


Table 5-31: Archaeological sites found within the mining lease area





Site ID GPS Location Description Illustration


A settlement - probably small T3flir£«


RES967/001 N8.62090 W10.97485 . 001


homestead - on a low hill. ■A


RES967/002 N8.62254 W10.97391 Metalworking, notably iron, and 002


possible settlement >


Metalworking, evidence of both


RES967/003 N8.62631 W10.97370 iron and copper, and possible 003 ^


fortification.















































110


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Koidu Kimberlite Project


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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project








6. DESCRIPTION OF THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT


6.1. Background


At the time of the re-establishment of the Koidu Kimberlite Project in 2003, Sierra Leone


was recovering from a particularly brutal civil war which had seen massive displacement


and forced removal of the civilian population, particularly in the diamond rich Kono


District. The war caused widespread destruction of infrastructure, dwelling structures


and agricuitural land. Kimberlite pipes near Koidu Town were left relatively untouched


during this time, as the exploitation of these requires considerable capital resources and


technical expertise. However, all mining equipment and infrastructure left on site at the


beginning of the civil war were completely destroyed.


The resettlement of a significant number of households residing in the 2003 mining lease


area required the development of a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) for implementation


prior to and during the exploitation of the deposits. A detailed RAP was developed in


2003, which was in line with the World Bank Standards at the time. In support of the


RAP, a household and agriculture survey was undertaken with directly affected


households and construction of replacement houses for affected households


commenced in 2004.


From 2003 to 2007 the Koidu Kimberlite Project experienced various challenges in


managing the impacts of the mine on surrounding communities. This was compounded


by the need to maintain security, access control and a safe working environment in line


with international norms for the diamond industry. In December 2007, mining operations


were suspended for several months following civil unrest in the project area. The Sierra


Leonean government subsequently reviewed the then mining (ease agreement and after


extensive consultation between stakeholders, a format agreement between Koidu


Holdings (KH) the Government of Sierra Leone, directly affected parties and the Tankoro


Native Administration was signed in 2008.


When mining activities resumed in 2008, a second household survey of the lease area


was undertaken to ensure that all households within the 250 meter blasting buffer zone


were surveyed. At present, ail the households within the 2010 confirmed mining lease


area have been surveyed and they form part of the 2003 RAP as amended and agreed


upon in August 2009.


A total of 144 replacement houses have been constructed between January 2004 and


April 2011. Construction delays have piagued the resettlement process since 2004, with


result that 112 households still have to be resettled. Koidu Holdings has now adopted


stringent measures in order to finalise the resettlement process.


All replacement houses are provided with Ventilated Improved Pit latrines (VIPs) and


shower facilities on the residential stand. All affected households have also been


compensated for the loss economic trees. Community facilities in the resettlement


village include community taps, a market and a recreational field.








O Digby Weds & Associates (Pry) Ltd 112


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koldu Kimberlite Project





6.2. Political Context


The Republic of Sierra Leone is situated in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the


north and east, Liberia to the south-east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south¬


west. The country covers a total area of 71,740 km2 and had an estimated population of


4.9 million in 2004 (Sierra Leone Population and Housing Census, 2004).


The British entered Sierra Leone in 1787 in search of natural resources and land for


repatriated and shipwrecked slaves from Great Britain and the United States of America


The country was established in 1792 and became a British colony in 1808. Under British


colonial rule Sierra Leone became a major trading site, as well as a source of resources


such as iron, palm kernel, diamonds, gold and chromites. Diamonds were unearthed in


the Kono District of Sierra Leone since the 1930s.


During the mid 1950s, British rule gradually diminished as Great Britain handed over


government responsibilities to the Sierra Leoneans. The country became independent in


1961 .Over time, the government became increasingly centralised which resulted,


amongst other factors, in the neglect of rural communities. Corruption, deprivation and


the abuse of power have led to political instability and poor economic growth. This has


fed to the brutal and destructive civil war between 1991 and 2001. The war officially


ended in 2002.


6.3. Project Location


The Koidu Kimberlite Project is located in the Kono District of Sierra Leone. The Kono


District is located in the eastern part of Sierra Leone. The administrative capital is Koidu


Town. The District is bordered by Kenema and Kailahun districts to the south, Tonkolili


and Koinadugu districts to the east and Koinadugu District to the north respectively. It


has a land size of about 5,641 km2 and is densely populated.


The Koidu Kimberlite Project is located near Koidu Town in the Tankoro Chiefdom of the


Kono District. The project area is surrounded by six settlements, namely, New


Sembehun. Saquee Town, Sokogbe. Swarray Town. Yormandu and Manjamadu (the


resettlement site). These settlements fall within or border on the existing mining lease


area. Other neighbouring settlements are Old Meama, Wordu and Kanya.


The Extended Affected Area is approximately 58 ha and is situated at the southern limits


of Koidu Town, to the north of the mining lease area (Figure 6-1) Three townships will be


affected by the proposed expansion project (excluding potential host communities at


resettlement sites). These townships are Saquee Town, Yormandu and New Sembehun.


They partially fall within the extended 500 m blasting envelope, and the houses located


within this area will have to be resettled. According to current planning all residential


houses, businesses and public/community facilities affected in the Extended Affected











Digby Wells & Associates (Pty) Ltd 113


 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project d








Area will be replaced. A comprehensive RAP is currently being developed for the


Extended Affected Area.





















































Figure 6-1: Extended Affected Area


6.4. Legislative Framework


The legislative framework relevant for this ESIA report is discussed in Section 3.


6.5. Administrative Framework


Administratively, Sierra Leone is divided into four distinct areas; the Northern Province


with its headquarters in Makeni, the Southern Province with Bo as its headquarters, the


Eastern Province with Kenema as its headquarters and the Western Area comprising the


Freetown Peninsular with Freetown as its headquarters.


Provincial government


Provincial administration is governed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural


Development. The Minister is assisted by a Resident Minister in each of the provinces


whose offices are in the respective provincial headquarter towns. The resident ministers








© Digby Wells & Associates (Pty) Ltd 114


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report for the Koidu Kimberlite Project ...M





are assisted by provincial secretaries. Provinces are divided into districts which are


divided into chiefdoms headed by Paramount Chiefs.


District government


Following the enactment of the Local Government Act of 2004, decentralized


governance was re-introduced in Sierra Leone in 2004. Local councils were established


and a number of activities and functions of government ministries, departments and


agencies (excluding the Sierra Leone Police and the Armed Forces), were devolved to


district councils. The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development coordinates


district councils and oversees decentralization of local government reform. District


administration is carried out by district councils.


The Kono District capital is Koidu Town (also referred to as Koidu-New Sembehun City


in order to include more recent township additions). The District comprises 14


chiefdoms, 70 sections, eight parliamentarian constituencies and 29 wards and 36


townships. They are responsible for the overall management of the districts including the


provision of critical social services to the population. Local administrators assist the


councils.


Local Government


The Local Government Act of 2004 provides for Local and/or Town Councils, which are


the highest political authority in the locality, with legislative and executive powers, and


the responsibility for promoting the development and welfare of the people in die locality


with the resources at its disposal.


The Local Council is responsible, among other things, for:


• Mobilising human and material resources necessary for the overall development and


welfare of the people of the locality;


• Promoting and supporting productive activity and social development;


• Initiating and maintaining programmes for the development of basic infrastructure


and provide works and sen/ices;


• initiating, drawing up and executing development plans for the locality;


• Overseeing Chiefdorrt Councils in the performance of functions delegated to them by


the local councils; and


• Determining the rates of local taxes, approving the annual budgets of Chiefdom


Councils and overseeing the implementation of such budgets.








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Local councils play an important role in the management of its development


programmes and the collection of licenses and taxes within their localities. Generally,


mining surface rent payments are made to local authorities as compensation. Cash


compensation is also paid for housing and cultivation within the surface rent area, should


relocation of these be necessary.


Koidu Town is administered by the Koidu-New Sembehun City Council. The Council is


one of 15 councils in the Kono District constituted by the provision of the Local


Government Act of 2004. Koidu-New Sembehun City Council lies within the confines of


Koidu and New Sembehun, the administrative capitals of the Gbense and Tankoro


chiefdoms respectively. The Council includes 15 councillors, seven of which are elected


from the Tankoro Chiefdom and eight councillors from the Gbense Chiefdom.


Representatives of the key line ministries serve on the Council's Technical Planning


Committee.


Chiefdom





Districts are divided into chiefdoms. Each of the chiefdoms in Sierra Leone is headed by


a Paramount Chief who is ultimately responsible for the administration, maintenance of


law and order, and the development of his chiefdom. The Paramount Chief inherits


custodian rights over the land within his chiefdom.


Chiefdoms are administered by chiefdom councils with the Paramount Chief as


chairman. Paramount Chiefs are assisted by Chiefdom Speakers. Paramount Chiefs are


elected for life-long terms by Chiefdom Councillors, who in turn are selected by the


residents of their chiefdoms. The Paramount Chief is assisted by a Chiefdom


Committee, Council of Elders and a Native Administration. The primary function of the


chiefdom structure is the distribution of land, collection of land taxes and the settlement


of disputes.


The Chiefdom is divided into sections comprising a number of villages. Tankoro


Chiefdom comprises three sections. Each section is headed by a Section Chief and


each town by a Town Chief Sections are further divided into areas.


The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, in consultation with


Paramount Chiefs, appoints local court chairmen in the 149 chiefdoms in the country.


The local court houses are known as court barriers, of which there are 287 throughout


the country.


6.6. Socio-Economic Baseline Conditions


6.6.1. National Context


6.6.1.1 Demographic aspects











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Population


According to the results of the Sierra Leone Population and Housing Census (2004), the


population of Sierra Leone was estimated at 4.9 million in 2004. Population growth rate


for the period 1985 to 2004 was estimated at 1.8 percent. Approximately 64 percent of


the population resided in rural areas.


Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, had a population density of 1,224 persons per km2


whereas Koinadugu, the largest district in Sierra Leone, had a density of 21.4 persons


per km2.


Age and mortality rates


The country’s population is young, with 41.8 percent being younger than 15 years


(Figure 6-1). Life expectancy is low, estimated at an average of 40 years, and the infant


mortality rate is amongst the highest in the world at 165/1000 live births (World Health


Organisation, 2006).












































Figure 6-1: Age distribution of Sierra Leone (Source: Central Intelligence Agency, World Fact


Book (2011))


Ethnicity


According to the CIA World Factbook (2011) the two largest and most dominant ethnic


groups in Sierra Leone are the Mende and Temne, each comprising 31 percent and 35


percent of the total population respectively. The Mende is predominantly found in the


South-Eastern Province and the Temne in the Northern Province. The third and fourth


largest ethnic groups are the Limba comprising eight percent and the Kono comprising 2


percent of the total population respectively (Figure 6-2). The Kono is primarily found in


the Kono District in eastern Sierra Leone. Other ethnic groups in Sierra Leone include








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the Kriole1, Mandingo, Loko, and migrants predominantly including people from Europe,


Lebanon, Pakistan, and India.














y Femne


Mende


. Limba


y Kono


Kriole


. Maningo


Loko


Other








31%


Figure 6-2: Ethnic groups of Sierra Leone


Source: Central Intelligence Agency, World Fact Book (2011)


Lang,, i - i: 1 QQ


According to the CIA World Factbook (2011), English is the official language of Sierra


Leone, but Krio (language derived from English and several African languages and


native to the Sierra Leone Krio people), is the most widely spoken language in nearly all


parts of Sierra Leone. The Krio language is spoken by 97 percent of the country's


population and unites the different ethnic groups.


According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) report on


International Religious Freedom in Sierra Leone, 2010, followers of Islam are estimated


to comprise 77 percent of Sierra Leone's population. According to the same report, 21


percent of the total population are followers of Christianity; and 2 percent of the


population practice indigenous beliefs (Figure 6-3).

















Descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late 18th century, also known as


Krio.











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2%

















Islam


Christian


Indigenous Beliefs




















Figure 6-3: Religious groups in Sierra Leone


Source: Report on International Religious Freedom in Sierra Leone, 2010 (UNHCR)


6.6.1.2 Economic overview


Sierra Leone was ranked last among the 177 countries surveyed globally in the


2007/2008 United Nations Human Development Index, with a per capita GDP of about


US$806. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 2007/2008 Human


Development Report estimates that in 2005 about 52 percent of the population lived on


less than US$1 a day (UNDP, 2007).


Despite all the natural resources, the country, like all developing countries, is still


dependent on the developed world for the export of its primary products. The country is


also highly dependent on donor support and foreign companies, especially for


restructuring and poverty alleviation programmes, including expansion of the mining


sector.


According to the Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey (2008), Sierra Leone's


GDP grew by 6.4 percent in 2007. The economy has been unable to create jobs at a


rate to match the rising labour force demand.


Figure 6-4 shows Sierra Leone’s sector contribution to GDP for 2005. The largest


contributor was the agriculture sector followed by industry. Agricultural products include


rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs and fish.


Agriculture is also a very important occupation for people living in rural areas mainly as a


source of food. Industry consists largely of diamond mining, small-scale manufacturing,


petroleum refining and small commercial ship repair (CIA, World Fact Book, 2010).








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21%











Agriculture


49% Industry


Services











30%











Figure 6-4: Sierra Leones contributors to its GDP, 2005


Source: Central Intelligence Agency, World Fact Book (2011)


6.6.1.3 Health


Health care provision in Sierra Leone is predominantly the responsibility of government.


In April 2010, the government has instituted the Free Health Care Initiative which


commits to free services for pregnant and lactating women, and children under the age


of 5. This policy has been supported by increased aid from the United Kingdom and is


recognised as an initiative that other African countries may follow. The maternal death


rate is at 2,000 deaths per 100,000 live births (World Health Organisation, 2006). The


country suffers from epidemic outbreaks of diseases including yellow fever, cholera,


Lassa fever and meningitis. According to the Sierra Leone Demographic and Health


Survey (2008), acquired immune deficiency syndrome( AIDS) awareness is relatively


high among Sierra Leonean adults aged 15-49, with 69 percent of women and 83


percent of men saying that they have heard about AIDS.


The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the population is 1.5 percent among adults aged 15 to


49. This is higher than the world average of 1 percent but lower than the average of 6.1


percent in Sub-Saharan Africa (Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey 2008).


6.6.1.4 Education


According to the Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey (2008), Sierra Leone’s


education system has been unstable for more than 10 years as a result of the civil war;


however, restructuring of the infrastructure and educational programme is being


undertaken by the government. The war resulted in the destruction of 1,270 schools, and


in 2001 approximately 67 percent of all children were no longer attending school. The








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government of Sierra Leone has since adopted a policy of free primary education in all


government schools for all children. In addition, the government is also undertaking


renovation of infrastructure that was damaged during the war, and it is revising and


expanding programmes in the educational system.


Despite the restructuring of the educational system, it is still faced with a shortage of


schools and teachers. However, the situation has improved considerably since then with


primary school enrolment doubling between 2001 and 2005 and the reconstruction of


many schools since the end of the war. According to the UNESCO Institute for


Statistics, Sierra Leone has a low level of literacy among adults with only 39.8 percent of


adults being literate in 2008.


According to the Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey (2008) approximately 58


percent of women and 46 percent of men in Sierra Leone have no education. Only one


in four women (25 percent) and 28 percent of men have some primary education. A low


percentage of men and women (22 and 12 percent respectively) attended secondary


school.


6.6.1.5 Poverty


For many years, Sierra Leone has been ranked at the bottom of the Human


Development Index (HDI). The Sierra Leoneans HOI indicators, including illiteracy,


primary school enrolments, life expectancy, maternal deaths, malnutrition, and child


mortality rates, are about the worst in the world. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is about


165/1000, while life expectancy at birth is 40 and 37 years for females and males


respectively (World Health Organisation, 2006) compared to 46 years in Sub-Saharan


Africa (UNDP, 2004). The adult literacy rate is estimated at 30 percent, while


approximately 57 percent of the population has access to safe drinking water (World


Health Organisation, 2006). Approximately 70 percent of the population lives in absolute


poverty, with expenditures below 1 US$ a day.


Approximately 26 percent of the population is too poor to buy food on a daily basis and


rural villagers struggle to remain at subsistence levels [Poverty Reduction Strategy


Paper, (PRSP) 2005], Poor health indicators reflect the lack of access to basic services


specifically health, sanitation and safe drinking water. Sanitary conditions are poor as


sewage and refuse disposal systems do not exist or function effectively (PRSP, 2005).


The PRSP (2005) reported that poverty is highest in the rural sector with approximately


79 percent of those engaged in the subsistence agricultural sector being poor.


Households headed by farmers have the highest rate of poverty estimated at 83 percent


(PRSP, 2005).


Approximately 70 percent of the 4,9 million inhabitants of Sierra Leone are rural (PRSP,


2005). According to the Agriculture Sector Review Report, 2000, the major causes of








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poverty in the rural areas are lack of social services (such as health, education, safe


drinking water and sanitation, lack of agricultural inputs, market access and low incomes


from the sale of produce); weak infrastructure (e.g. bad road networks, lack of storage


facilities); lack of economic and employment opportunities; devastation by the war; and


social barriers (such as large family size within the rural communities).


The lack of sufficient food is concentrated mainly in rural areas. About 68 percent of the


population cannot afford enough food to eat. It is reported that about three out of four


people in rural areas outside Freetown do not attain the minimum daily calorie intake


(2700 calories). A poor and undernourished population is more susceptible to various


diseases. Rising maternal and child mortality rates, increasing illiteracy rates and rising


unemployment levels characterize the living conditions in many parts of Sierra Leone


(Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, March 2005).


6.6.2. Regional context


The Kono District is located in the North Eastern part of Sierra Leone. It covers an area


of approximately 5,641 km2 and is densely populated. The District’s capital is Koidu New


Sembehun City. The Kono District borders with the Republic of Guinea to the east and


Koinadugu, Tonkolili, Kenema and Kailahun Districts to the north, west, and south


respectively. The district comprises 14 Chiefdoms, 70 Sections, eight Parliamentarian


Constituencies, 29 Wards and 36 Townships (Digby Wells Focus Group Meeting with


Township Chiefs, 16 April 2011).


6.6.2.1 Environment: Natural and mineral resources


The main natural resources of the district comprise arable land base clay and sand


deposits. Sand and clay mining are carried out along streams sides and swamps, which


have led to the degradation of soil fertility (Kono District Development Plan. 2010 -


2012).


A large part of the district population depend on natural resources from forests and rivers


for the use of foodstuff, fuel (fuel wood and charcoal), construction materials, crafts,


medicinal plants and recreational materials (raffia, ornaments). The wildlife population


has. however, been significantly reduced during the civil war and through hunting


practices. Although fishing is not predominantly undertaken in the district, it is


undertaken at inland rivers in the country (Kono District Development Plan, 2010 -


2012).


According to the Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012). major threats to


biodiversity and the environment include subsistence agriculture, livestock farming,


forest exploitation, energy exploitation, mining, transportation, urbanization and waste


disposal.











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The main mineral resources found in the district are diamonds and gold. Mining activities


have also contributed to the degradation of the environment, causing air and water


pollution as well as food contamination.


6.6.2.2 Demographic aspects


Population


Kono has had one of the highest population displacements in the country as a result of


the civil war. According to the Sierra Leone Population and Housing Census (2004), the


population for the Kono District was 335, 401 in 2004. The census was however


affected by a large number of immigrant miners from northern Sierra Leone moving out


of the Kono District at the time when the census was undertaken in search of alternative


resource deposits in the country (Kono District Development Plan, 2010-2012).


The district has a low population density of approximately 30 persons per km2. The low


population density in the district can be attributed to the decrease in the availability of


mining resources and the damage to housing and community infrastructure as a result of


the civil war. The 2004 population and household census show that the average


household size for the district is 5.7. Family planning is not commonly practiced in the


district (Kono District Development Plan, 2010-2012).


Ethnicity


Ethnic affiliation in the district is largely homogeneous with the Konos constituting 55%


of the population. The other ethnic groups in the district are the Kissis. Kurankos,


Mandigos and Temne.


6.6.2.3 Health


According to the Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012) the main illnesses and


diseases affecting the residents in the district are: malaria, diarrhoea, skin diseases,


hypertension, pneumonia, anaemia, intestinal worms, rheumatism, ear infection and


onchocerciasis. The main causes of the above-mentioned diseases include the breeding


of mosquitoes in stagnant pools of water, poor sanitation facilities, improper refuse


disposal, the use of contaminated water, unhealthy dietary habits and the lack of


personal hygiene.


The Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012) also reported that teenage


pregnancy is a source of concern in the district. Most residents in the district showed


some knowledge and understanding (awareness) of HIV/AIDS. Recent statistics for the


levels of HIV/AiDS in the district is however difficult to be ascertained. This may be due


to the fact that people are shy to speak about having HIV/AIDS. A Voluntary


Confidential Counselling Team has been established at the district hospital for this


purpose.











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* •<}





According to the Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012), the district's healthcare


system has gone through three stages subsequent to the civil war:


* Stage 1 - a transitional period of emergency development during early 2004;


e Stage 2 - a period of health system reform with the decentralization of healthcare


delivery to the District Councils and the formation of the district health board; and


® Stage 3 - the termination of the operation of some international health service


organizations due to the lack of funding.


The district has also improved access to healthcare facilities. The district has 67 health


facilities including one hospital that is now fully operational with three doctors and a total


of 294 medical staff, including an anaesthetist, pharmacists and laboratory technicians.


The hospital has two ambulances, eight motorbikes and two vans to transport patients to


and from healthcare facilities.


In addition to the hospital, the district has 11 Community Health Centres, 25 Community


Health Posts and 33 Maternal Health Posts.


The district has trained 500 Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) who have been provided


with “child birth kits" from UNICEF. Two collaborative centers for TBA/Leprosy


Management have been established at Jaiama Sewafe and the hospital. These centres


mainly provide maternal health care services to the population. These facilities


collectively provide healthcare services to approximately 60 percent of the district


population.


Health care in the district has been focussed on reducing maternal and infant mortality


and improving the general health status of the community. The healthcare system in the


district and the management thereof is however compromised by a lack of resources,


specifically personnel in the form of doctors and administrative staff.


Nutrition


The morbidity trends among children specifically are indicative of general poor and mal¬


nutrition in the community. A typical meal for the majority of the population in the district


comprises mainly rice, cassava and/or potatoes. Protein and vitamin intake is low even


though households in the district grow and produce citrus and vegetables. The


prevalence of certain diseases further suggests that the majority of the population live on


an unbalanced diet (Kono District Development Plan. 2010 - 2012 and Sierra Leone


Demographic and Health Survey. 2008}.


According to the Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012), the district Health


Management Team is aiming to alleviate this problem by providing iodized salt


supplements to the population and through nutrition surveillance programmes. These


programmes aim to strengthen and reinforce the regular growth monitoring at maternal


and child health clinics at Ihe sub district level. The district also provides supplementary








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feeding programmes at Periphery Health Units (PHUs). Vitamin A supplements are also


available to the population in all PHUs.


Immunisation


!n addition to undertaking feeding programmes, the district Health Management Team


has undertaken immunisation programmes among children in the Kono District. The


programme aims to enhance resistance in children against the main life-threatening


diseases in the district namely: measles, diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus.


6.6.2.4 Education


The District Directorate of the Ministry of Education Science and Technology is


responsible for managing and overseeing the education system in the district. This


includes formal, non-formal, public and private schools.


The population density in the chiefdoms has been a major determinant in the placement


of schools. The uneven distribution of schools and the low enrolment rates are major


concerns for the development of education in the district, The other major concern is the


number of children dropping out of schools at the primary level. The main reasons for


this, according to the Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012), are poverty and


accessibility to schools (travelling distances). Other factors contributing to poor


education in the district are: inadequate and insufficient leaching and learning material


for science and technology, ill-equipped laboratories, ill-equipped libraries, insufficient


furniture and lack of decent accommodation facilities for teachers.


6.6.2.5 Economic overview


The main economic activities in the district comprise mining (diamond and gold), and


agriculture (rice, oil palm and other crop plantations e.g. coffee and cocoa). Goods are


traded with people moving through the district from neighbouring towns.


The district is predominately rural, with most of its residents engaged in crop and


livestock agriculture. Most agricultural activities are undertaken at subsistence level and


commercial agriculture is not evident. According to the Kono District Development Plan


(2010 - 2012) the district has the potential to become an agricultural driven economy if


the relevant resources and mechanisms are implemented.


Mining2 is the other main economic activity undertaken by the people in the Kono District


and approximately 50 to 55 percent of the total population of the district total population


depends directly or indirectly on mining. Mining leases and surface rent paid to











' “Miiiinfi" in ihj ili'.lriut consists prciiunuiMnilv of.ini'.mill (illuvial mining











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government enables small scale mining undertakings by chiefdoms and the district at


large {Kono District Development Plan, 2010 - 2012).


Other economic activities in the district include owning/running bars, as well as petty


trading (selling of assorted items including cell phone products, clothing, food stuff)


(Kono District Development Plan, 2010 - 2012).


Taxes





Community members are obliged to pay monthly taxes to the Kono District Council.


According to the Kono District Development Plan (2010 - 2012), residents above the


age of 18 have to pay a monthly fee of Le 5000. The taxes are divided between the


District Council and Native Administration at 40 and 60 percent respectively.


The District Council utilises the money for various official expenditures including salaries


for staff, payments to government (including the Ministry of Health and Sanitation, the


Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Ministry of Social Welfare and the Ministry of


Education) and community development projects.


6.6.2.6 Services and infrastructure


Roads and transport


The main form of transport in the Kono District is by land (road) and water (rivers and


canoes). The population of Kono rarely owns private vehicles and they predominantly


walk or rely on public transport (taxi vans and motorbikes) for transport (Kono District


Development Plan, 2010 - 2012).


The roads in the Kono District are not tamed and during the raining season, heavy rains


lead to soil erosion (Photo 1) resulting in poor and dangerous road conditions and


damage to vehicles.















































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Photo 1: Motorbike taxi travelling on eroded gravel road


Source: flickr.com


Communication


The majority of the population of Kono communicate by using cell phones through the


Zain and Sierratel cell phone services providers (Kono District Development Plan, 2010


- 2012). Communication by land-line telephones is limited. Koidu Town has a post


office, which is not currently operational due to damage caused during the civil war.








Housing


The Kono District suffered 94% housing infrastructure loss as a result of the burning of


houses (Photo 2) during the war. Despite the efforts made by NGOs, most community


members still live in partially constructed/burnt houses with trampoline/plastic sheet


covers used for walls and roofs (Photo 3). Some houses have been re-constructed with


sandcrete and mud bricks (Photo 4) with corrugated iron roofs. The average number of


persons per household in the district is five and the average number of rooms per house


is two in the urban areas while the rural parts have houses that may have more than


three rooms.
































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Photo 2: Burnt down house in the Kono District


Source: Digby Wells Asset Survey (Nov 2010/Jan 2011)


















































Photo 3: Burnt house with partial room


Source: Digby Wells Asset Survey (Nov 2010/Jan 2011)


Water and sanitation


People in the Kono District predominantly source water from wells (Photo 5), boreholes,


ponds and rivers. Infrastructure for piped-borne water has been installed in only 5 of the


24 wards in the district.

















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Photo 4: House constructed with mud bricks





Source: Digby Wells Asset Survey (Nov 2010/Jan 2011)





There are currently 397 standpipes in the district. According to the Kono District


Development Plan (2010 - 2012), the current water supply is not adequate to serve the


growing population. The majority of the rural communities does not have access to


potable water, and therefore are compelled to use water from streams or rivers which


are often contaminated.
























































Photo 5: Hand-dug well in the Kono District


Source: Digby Wells Asset Survey (Nov 2010/Jan 2011)


People in the Kono District predominantly make use of pit latrines. Most households


have access to a toilet on their property or a neighbour's facility. The toilets are








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generally constructed out of plastic/corrugated iron sheets with no roof (Photo 6) or a


more permanent structure constructed with bricks and a corrugated iron roof (Photo 7).


The condition of sanitation facilities is generally poor.