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Total Exploration and Production Liban Sal



Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore

exploration drilling

Environmental impact assessment – Volume 1

80754



February 2020



RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



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Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



RSK GENERAL NOTES

Project No.:



80754



Title:



Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling environmental and social

management plans



Client:



Total Exploration and Production Liban Sal



Date:



February 2020



Office:



Helsby



Status:



Rev02



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



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Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



BLOCK 4 EXPLORATION DRILLING EIA –

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction

Total Exploration & Production Liban Sal (TEP Liban) intends to carry out exploration drilling

activities in Block 4 of the Levant sedimentary basin in offshore Lebanese waters. The proposed

drilling activities comprise one exploration well, a possible second exploration well and, potentially,

one appraisal well, depending on the results of the previous exploration wells. Therefore, a

maximum of three wells may be drilled during the exploration phase. Block 4 and the priority area,

in which all three wells would be drilled, are shown in Figure ES1.

This document summarises the results of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the

project (a maximum of three wells in total). It has been produced by a team consisting of personnel

from in-country accredited consultancy Dar Al-Handasah (Dar) and international consultancy RSK

Environment Ltd (RSK), on behalf of TEP Liban. Impacts to the social components are also

included within the EIA process.

If a hydrocarbon discovery is made that can be commercially exploited, and the project goes to the

next phase of development, a further EIA will be conducted to assess the impacts of the production

phase.

Screening is the first stage in the EIA process. It determines whether an EIA is required for a

project. TEP Liban submitted on 16 July 2018 a screening application for Block 4 to the Ministry of

Environment, through the Lebanese Petroleum Administration (LPA) and the Ministry of Energy

and Water (MoEW). On 29 August 2018 the LPA informed TEP Liban that according to the Ministry

of Environment, an EIA would be required for the proposed Block 4 exploration drilling project.

A scoping report was submitted in May 2019 as part of the scoping stage of the EIA process.

Scoping is a high-level assessment of anticipated interactions between project activities and

environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors. The scoping report was opened

for disclosure and revised after the consultation period to include: (1) updates from the stakeholder

engagement (including public meetings), and (2) a scope of work for the EIA. Such scoping report

was submitted to the MoE through the LPA on 28 June 2019. The MoE approved the scoping

report provided that the EIA gives responses to the comments that were raised.

An EIA report document (Rev 0 of this document) was first produced in line with the MoE’s scoping

report comments, as far as available information allowed. At this stage, the EIA was published via

a website for consultation purposes (from 4 September to 4 October 2019) and the results of the

EIA process were presented at two public meetings in September 2019. The EIA was then

updated, where necessary, in response to comments received during that process. Revision 1 of

the EIA was submitted to the MoE on 31 October 2019. After submission, a number of comments

on the EIA were received from the MoE. Responses and clarifications were provided to these

comments, and where necessary, modifications were made to the EIA. Consequently, the EIA

report was approved by the MoE on the 18 February 2020 provided that the comments listed in

the Technical Committee Report 18/2/2020 are complied with. In addition, it was requested that a

compiled and comprehensive version of the EIA report be submitted, reflecting the comments



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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ES i



received from the MoE. This document (Revision 2) has been compiled in response to this request,

so that it constitutes the final compiled version of the EIA as approved by the MoE.



Overview of the exploration drilling campaign

TEP Liban plans to start drilling the first exploration well in Block 4 in February 2020.

A mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) will be mobilised to Block 4 and the first exploration well

(B4-1) will be drilled pseudo-vertically (deviating slightly from truly vertical) at the proposed location

shown in Figure ES1, about 20 km from shore, in 1520 m of water. The target reservoir (gas) is

around 4400 m below mean sea level.



Figure ES1: Location of Block 4 offshore Lebanon, including the priority area and first

exploration well site for drilling operations

ES ii



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The drilling programme for the first exploration well is planned to last around 60 days. The drilling

operations for any subsequent wells are anticipated to be of similar duration, though may extend

up to three months. Impacts from all three wells are included within this EIA.

Drilling operations will be supported from a logistics base that will be within the existing commercial

Port of Beirut. Facilities at the logistics base will include:









a pipe yard

warehousing

a linear jetty with laydown area and mobile cranes for vessels operations









a drilling-fluids mixing plant and cement bulk plant

areas for offices, canteen, vehicles, marshalling areas, cargo containers, waste transfer and

temporary storage (no waste treatment).



A contractor will build and operate the logistics base. The duration of the logistics base will be

dependent on the success of the of the B4-1 well and any subsequent wells.

Two to three project vessels will be used during the exploration drilling work: one vessel will be

permanently at the drill site providing safety and security surveillance, the other vessel(s) will

transfer supplies, materials, equipment and waste between the MODU and the logistics base

(estimated 8–10 return trips in total per week) during the drilling period. Helicopter transfers of

personnel will take place from Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport to the MODU (estimated 10

return trips per week). Two helicopters will support the operation, each with a capacity of 8 to 12

passengers.

Figure ES2 provides a guide to the duration of each of the activities associated with the drilling

programme and the location at which they will take place. The drilling duration shown as 2–3

months is intended to cover the duration for any of the wells, while it is anticipated that the first well

will involve only around 60 days of drilling.



Figure ES2: Duration and location of each project activity



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ES iii



Objectives of the EIA

The objectives of the EIA process are to





















identify the legal and regulatory requirements and other standards relevant to the project

(national legislation and regulations, international agreements and TOTAL’s corporate

requirements)

identify sensitive environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors in the

project’s area of influence

inform stakeholders and obtain their views and opinions (potentially affected

communities/people and other interested parties)

determine project aspects and activities that could result in environmental, socio-economic

or cultural heritage impacts, along with scoring of impact significance

develop mitigation measures to reduce potential negative impacts to acceptable levels and

enhance any beneficial environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage impacts arising

from the project

determine residual project impacts, along with scoring of residual impact significance

ensure that mitigation measures are incorporated into management plans that will be

implemented by the project sponsor and its contractors and subcontractors during the

exploration drilling programme.



Study area

The area of influence (AOI) for each environmental and social receptor has been identified based

on requirements in the MoE and LPA’s draft ‘Sector-specific EIA Guidelines for Oil and Gas

Reconnaissance and Exploration Drilling Activities in Lebanon’. The extent of the AOI differs

depending upon the type of impact being considered and the attributes of the potentially affected

receptors.

Baseline data has been collected with a focus on these AOIs, though information has been

collected from a broader study area to aid in providing context. Where different areas are used,

this is discussed in the respective section of the EIA report.



Legal and administrative framework

The Block 4 exploration drilling activities will be carried out in accordance with the environmental

and social requirements of











national legislation and regulations

applicable international conventions and agreements to which Lebanon is a party

TOTAL’s corporate commitments

international best practice.



Key legislation and guidance for this project includes









ES iv



Environmental Impact Assessment Decree 8633/2012

draft ‘Sector-specific EIA Guidelines for Oil and Gas Reconnaissance and Exploration

Drilling Activities in Lebanon’ (MoE and LPA, 2019)

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Exploration and Production Activities

Offshore Lebanon (MoEW, 2019).



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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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Other relevant legislation includes the Offshore Petroleum Resources Law (Law 132/2010); the

Petroleum Activities Regulations (Decree 10289/2013); the Exploration and Production Agreement

Decree (Decree 43, Annex 2, 2017); the Environment Protection Law (Law 444/2002); the

Procedure for Reviewing of Scoping and EIA Reports (Decision 261/1 of 2015); the Law on

Strengthening Transparency in the Petroleum Sector (Law 84/2018); and the Right of Access to

Information (Law 28/2017).



Public participation

The EIA process includes public participation, the main goal of which is to identify the views and

opinions of potentially affected people and other interested parties. Stakeholder feedback is used

to focus the impact assessment and, where appropriate, influence project design and execution.

Stakeholder engagement for this project has being undertaken in accordance with the

requirements of Lebanese legislation, TOTAL policies for stakeholder engagement and

international best practice. A project-specific stakeholder engagement plan (SEP) for Block 4 was

developed to support meaningful and effective engagement throughout the EIA process.

Public participation and stakeholder engagement meetings were undertaken during the scoping

phase and the baseline data collection phase. Whereas public participation targets the general

public, stakeholder engagement targets specific groups and individuals who may be impacted by

the project, have influence over it or have an interest in it, including authorities, international and

national agencies, civil society and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academia,

businesses and potentially affected groups.

Stakeholder questions, concerns and comments were similar across the two phases and from the

different stakeholder groups (national level, regional level and local level). However, local level

stakeholders identified issues around social topics such as employment and livelihoods whereas

national and regional level stakeholders raised more questions and concerns relating to

environmental topics. The stakeholder issues and comments received to date are addressed in

this EIA.

The report-back phase stakeholder engagement on the EIA report began in early September 2019.

The aim of the engagement was to ensure that stakeholders were informed about and comprehend

the outcome of the EIA, particularly the identified impacts and mitigation measures. Comments

provided by stakeholders during this phase have been responded to within this EIA. Stakeholder

engagement will continue after final EIA submission.



Summary of surrounding environment

To identify potential impacts of the project on receptors, an understanding of the existing (baseline)

pre-project conditions is required.

The following studies/surveys have been carried out for the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign

and used to inform the EIA:









social baseline study – bibliographic review and primary data collection

offshore environmental baseline study – bibliographic review

offshore environmental baseline survey – water and sediment sampling and chemical,

physical and biological analysis; seabed video surveillance (marine fauna and

archaeological observation); onboard watch for marine fauna (marine mammals, seabirds

and reptiles) and other sea users.



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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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ES v



Environmental receptors that could be affected by the project include





































air quality – the Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various sources of air pollution,

including long-range airborne pollutants and particles from dust storms

seawater quality – offshore seawater has low turbidity, is oligotrophic in terms of nutrients

and uncontaminated and is considered representative of conditions typical for offshore

locations for the Eastern Mediterranean, while coastal seawater is highly contaminated with

anthropogenic pollution in certain places

sediment quality – the offshore sediments comprise brownish mud dominated by fine

particles and are considered to be typical of the deep sea sediments in the Eastern

Mediterranean with low contamination except for certain heavy metals, coastal sediments

have higher concentrations of heavy metals, hydrocarbons and nutrients

coastal habitats – seagrass beds and vermetid1 reefs are features of Lebanon’s coastal

waters and contribute to criteria for coastal proposed marine protected areas

deep-water benthic communities – dominated by fauna associated with deep-water

sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean, the assemblage is considered relatively

impoverished in terms of species abundance and diversity, reflecting the low levels of

organic matter and nutrient enrichment

plankton communities – primary phytoplankton productivity offshore is low due to the

oligotrophic water column and stratification, zooplankton abundances are low but with

moderate to high diversity

fish – Lebanon’s waters contain more than 100 fish species of commercial importance, a

number of threatened fish, shark and ray species are also present

marine mammals – several species are reported from the Eastern Mediterranean region and

include species of whale and dolphin and the Mediterranean monk seal (critically

endangered in the Mediterranean). Overall, marine mammal abundances are low in

Lebanon’s waters, with the bottlenose dolphin being the most commonly sighted species.

turtles – green turtle, leatherback turtle and loggerhead turtle are present in Lebanese

waters, with foraging areas and migration routes along the coast. Nesting sites for green

and loggerhead turtles are found on sandy shorelines in south Lebanon.

birds – gulls were the most commonly sighted bird species during the offshore environmental

baseline survey in Block 4, shearwaters, skuas, duck and herons were also sighted

protected areas – the closest nationally designated site to the Block 4 priority area is Palm

Islands Nature Reserve to the north. The closest sites of conservation interest to the Block 4

priority area are Beirut Port Outer Platform proposed marine protected area and three sites

identified by OCEANA as deep-sea sites for conservation (Jouneih Canyon, Saint Georges

Canyon and Beirut Escarpment).



Socio-economic receptors that could be affected by the project include





social conditions (safety and security) in local communities – coastal communities adjacent

to Block 4, communities in the vicinity of the logistics base in the Port of Beirut, communities

along the helicopter transfer route and in the vicinity of Beirut Rafic Hariri International

Airport, and communities along project vehicle transport routes







fisheries – the fishing industry in Lebanon is artisanal, relying on a traditional, small-scale

fleet of motorised wooden vessels. Legislation restricts fishing grounds to within six nautical

miles of the shore. Fishing vessels do not use the Port of Beirut. Those engaged in fishing

generally do so on a full-time basis with no alternative livelihood activities or social security

arrangements.



1



Vermetid reefs are formed by worm snails. The shells of Vermetid snails are extremely irregular, and do not

resemble the average snail shell. They usually grow cemented onto a hard surface or cemented together in

colonies.

ES vi



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tourism – within the coastal zone tourism represents a major contributor to the local

economy. Beirut hosts the majority of tourists, although beach resorts, beaches, bathing

sites, recreational sailing marinas and scuba-diving sites are present along the coast. One

particular recreational activity that takes place along the entire coast of Lebanon is sea

angling, which occurs throughout all seasons but is most common during the summer.







shipping – the Port of Beirut is one of the largest ports in the Eastern Mediterranean and is

an important international trading station with the surrounding Arab countries. There are a

significant number of shipping routes along the southern boundary of Block 4 and up through

the western section of the block.







archaeological and cultural resources – archaeological review of seabed video surveillance

during the offshore environmental baseline survey did not identify any archaeological

features in the Block 4 priority area. Several cultural heritage sites with significant historical

importance were identified in the coastal zone, including antiquities, such as underwater

cities, ancient breakwaters and Phoenician walls. The antiquities at Aamchit are the closest

offshore site to the Block 4 priority area.







infrastructure – Lebanon has a relatively extensive network of physical infrastructure

comprising roads, ports, electricity supply, water supply and telecommunications. A growing

population and the influx of displaced persons have placed pressure on already-stressed

and ageing infrastructure.







public health – Lebanon like many countries in the Middle East, is undergoing an

epidemiological transition marked by an increasingly ageing population suffering from

chronic and non-communicable diseases. The Syrian crisis and resulting influx of displaced

persons has increased the demand for health care services and significantly increased

government’s costs in order to meet the increased demand.







general economy – Lebanon’s macro-economic structure is heavily dependent on the

services sector, with real estate constituting the largest services sector. Economic growth

has slowed since 2011 and the start of the Syrian crisis.







education and training – high levels of education were reported in all the sample

communities, educational levels amongst some groups such as fishermen (particularly

elderly) were reported to be lower than amongst the population at large.



Potential impacts of the project

Potential impacts were identified using the preliminary impact identification matrix outlined in the

‘Update on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Exploration and Production

Activities Offshore Lebanon (MoEW, 2019)’ as guidance.

Table ES1 summarises the key potential impacts resulting from the Block 4 exploration drilling

campaign. A comprehensive, systematic review and scoring of all potential impacts from the drilling

campaign is provided in Chapter 6 of the EIA. By complying with international best practice on

impact avoidance or mitigation and Lebanese legislative requirements, the residual impacts from

routine activities are expected to have minor or negligible levels of significance. The exception is

from the discharge of water-based cuttings and drilling fluids at the seabed during drilling of the

Block 4 upper well sections which has been categorised as moderate residual impact significance2.

Cuttings and fluids cannot be returned to the rig during this part of the work as these well sections

are drilled without a marine riser in place. Impacts on the water column are associated with

discharge of the inert, insoluble drilling products barite and bentonite and turbidity effects on marine

fauna.



2



There is also an option for future wells in Block 4 to use high-performance water based drilling fluids (HPWBDF)

in the lower well sections. In this case there will be discharge of water-based cuttings and drilling fluids from the

riserless well sections, plus discharge of HPWBDF cuttings from lower well sections. This option has also been

assigned a moderate residual impact significance.

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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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ES vii



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



Public health



Shipping



X



Tourism



Fisheries



General economy



Education and training



Social conditions

(security/safety)



X



Infrastructure



Plankton



X



Archaeological and

cultural resources



Fish



X



Terrestrial ecology



Benthos



X



Coastal habitats



Water quality



X



Sensitive marine habitats



Sediment quality/

composition



X



Cetaceans, turtles and

seals



Climate change



X



Seabirds



Air quality



Table ES1: Potential impacts from the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign



Routine activities

MODU mobilisation, installation, plug and abandonment

and demobilisation



X



X



X



X



X



Cuttings discharge during drilling

Option 1 – use of NADF in lower hole sections

Discharge of drill cuttings and WBDFs from riserless top

hole sections only (option selected for well B4-1 and

option for possible future exploration / appraisal wells in

Block 4)



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



Cuttings discharge during drilling

Option 2 – use of a HPWBDF in lower hole sections

Discharge of drill cuttings and WBDFs from riserless top

hole sections and discharge of HPWBDF cuttings from

lower well sections (option for possible future exploration

/ appraisal wells in Block 4)

Ship to shore of NADF cuttings and fluids (only

applicable to Option 1 above)

Cementing discharges during drilling



X



X



X



X



X



X

X



X



Pipe dope discharges during drilling



X



X



X



X



BOP testing discharges during drilling



X



X



X



X



Discharge of sanitary waste from MODU and

support/supply vessels



X



X



X



X



ES viii



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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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X



Desalination unit discharges from MODU



X



X



X



X



Discharge of drainage water (deck drainage, fire water,

bilge water and slop water) from MODU and

support/supply vessels



X



X



X



X



Uplift and discharge of cooling water from MODU



X



X



X



X



Discharge of ballast from MODU and support/supply

vessels



X



X



X



X



Generation of solid waste on MODU and support/ /supply

vessels



None providing waste managed properly



Operation of incinerator onboard MODU (not applicable

to well B4-1 as no incinerator on MODU, may be

applicable to possible future exploration / appraisal wells

depending on MODU selection)



X



X



MODU and support/supply vessel power generation

resulting in air emissions



X



X



Well test of possible future appraisal well (not applicable

to well B4-1)



X



X



Underwater noise from vertical seismic profile (VSP)

activities



X



X



X



Underwater noise from MODU and support/supply vessel

operations



X



X



X



Support activities (movement of support vessels)



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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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X



X



X



X



Public health



X



Tourism



X



Shipping



Fisheries



General economy



Education and training



Social conditions

(security/safety)



Infrastructure



Archaeological and

cultural resources



Terrestrial ecology



Coastal habitats



Sensitive marine habitats



Cetaceans, turtles and

seals



Seabirds



Plankton



X



Benthos



Fish



Water quality



Sediment quality/

composition



Climate change



Air quality

Discharge of food waste from MODU and support/supply

vessels (no discharge permitted for B4-1 well as < 12 nm

from land. Discharge permitted for possible future

exploration / appraisal wells if > 12 nm from land.)



ES ix



Chemicals transfer and storage



None providing chemicals managed properly



Logging using radioactive sealed sources (also

applicable to onshore storage and transport of

radioactive sealed sources)



None under normal operations

X

X



Public health



Tourism



Shipping



Fisheries



General economy



Education and training



Social conditions

(security/safety)



X



Logistics base operation

Logistics base operation – emissions to air



Infrastructure



Archaeological and

cultural resources



Terrestrial ecology



X



Coastal habitats



X



Sensitive marine habitats



Cetaceans, turtles and

seals



X



Seabirds



Plankton



Fish



Benthos



Water quality



Sediment quality/

composition



Climate change



Air quality

Light spill from MODU



X



X



X



X



X



X

X



Logistics base operation – discharge of drainage water



X



Logistics base operation – noise generation



X



Logistics base operation – waste management



None providing waste managed properly



Logistics base operation – chemicals management



None providing chemicals managed properly



Helicopter transfers to Beirut International Airport



X

X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



Potential accidental event scenarios

Dropped object from MODU (lifting)



X



Loss of chemical containment onboard MODU



X



Radioactive source lost in hole



X



Riser rupture, release of drilling fluid to sea

Shallow gas blowout, release of gas into water column



X



Blowout – release of condensate and gas



X



Collision of third-party ship with MODU – release of thirdparty fuel inventory, possible damage to MODU and riser



ES x



X

X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X

X



X



X



X



X



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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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Public health



Tourism



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



Earthquake resulting in loss of well integrity and release

of hydrocarbons to sea



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



X



Loss of containment during materials transfer to supply

vessels at logistics base quay side – release of drilling

fluids/diesel to sea



X



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Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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X



X



Seabirds



X



X



Plankton



X



Fish



X



Loss of containment during offshore materials transfer to

MODU – release of drilling fluids or marine diesel to sea



Benthos



Shipping



Fisheries



General economy



Education and training



Social conditions

(security/safety)



Infrastructure



Archaeological and

cultural resources



Terrestrial ecology



Coastal habitats



Sensitive marine habitats



Cetaceans, turtles and

seals



Water quality



Sediment quality/

composition



Climate change



Air quality

Loss of rig stability (rig capsize) due to severe metocean

conditions with release of fuel inventory



Helicopter crash on MODU deck – release of aviation

fuel to sea



X

X



X



X



X



X



ES xi



The impacts presented in the EIA can be grouped as follows.



Mobilisation, installation and demobilisation

Impacts from mobilisation, installation and demobilisation of the MODU are largely associated with

rig operational activities and the associated emissions (engine exhausts), noise (from engines and

dynamic positioning) and wastewater discharges (sanitary wastewater, macerated food waste,

desalination unit discharges, drainage, cooling water and ballast water). There is also potential for

impacts on shipping and fisheries from the physical presence of the MODU and its safety zone3.

A drillship has been selected for the B4-1 drilling programme. If a semi-submersible rig is used for

future exploration / appraisal wells, there is the potential for anchoring impacts on seabed

sediments and benthic communities, and any unknown archaeological features on the seabed.



Drilling operations

The drilling operations will result in discharges to the marine environment, i.e. cuttings and drilling

fluids and small volumes of cement, pipe dope and blowout preventer test fluids.

The Block 4 wells will be drilled in five sections which become progressively narrower in diameter

with depth drilled.

The first two hole sections will be drilled “riserless” (there is no potential for the recovery of the

cuttings generated during the drilling of these sections) and the cuttings and drilling fluids will be

deposited on the seabed directly around the well site. These hole sections will be drilled using

seawater and water-based drilling fluids.

For the remaining three hole sections, a marine riser will be in place and cuttings and drilling fluids

will be brought back up to the MODU. There are two options with respect to drilling fluid use in

these lower hole sections:









Option 1: Use of a non-aqueous drilling fluid (NADF) to ensure compatibility with the

geological formations encountered. In this case cuttings and drilling fluids will not be

discharged. They will be shipped to shore for treatment and disposal.

Option 2: Use of a high-performance water-based drilling fluid (HPWBDF). In this case

cuttings will be discharged to sea from the rig. The drilling fluids would be separated from

the cuttings on the rig and re-used in subsequent well sections.



Option 1 has been selected for the first B4-1 exploration well as the geological formations

downhole are currently not well known and NADF provides enhanced borehole stability. Any

subsequent wells in Block 4 will utilise either Option 1 or 2 depending on the findings from the first

well.

Disposal of cuttings and water-based drilling fluids at sea will potentially impact seawater and

sediment quality, benthic communities, water column communities (fish and plankton) and

sensitive marine habitats, as well as fisheries and infrastructure (submarine cables). The landbased disposal of cuttings will have air emission impacts associated with vessel transportation and

potential impacts on land-based receptors. It should be noted that for the first well in the Block 4

drilling programme NADF cuttings will be exported to Cyprus for treatment and disposal at the



3



500 m safety zone will be in place around the MODU.



ES xii



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Innovating Environmental Solutions Center (IESC) treatment facility. This facility is permitted

separately by the authorities in Cyprus and this disposal route is outside the scope of this EIA.

If vertical seismic profile4 of the Block 4 wells is carried out, it will introduce impulsive underwater

noise to the area for a very short period of time that may affect marine fauna, particularly whales,

dolphins and turtles. Drilling activities on the MODU will also be a source of continuous lower levels

of underwater noise.

Well testing of the Block 4 first exploration well will not be carried out. If well testing of a future well

takes place, this will have associated emissions from flaring of test fluids with potential effects on

air quality.

MODU operations can affect archaeological and cultural resources (during well spud and from

semi-submersible drilling rig anchors) and the physical presence of the MODU and its safety zone

can interfere with shipping, fisheries and potentially tourism (from changes to sea views from the

shore).



Support activities

The onshore logistics base has the potential for air and noise-related impacts from operation of

the drilling fluids mixing plant / bulk facility and any associated generator(s) and from

loading/unloading operations, as well as possible impacts on the Port of Beirut infrastructure. In

terms of positive impacts, operation of the logistics base has the potential to result in local

employment and training opportunities (although they are limited at this exploration phase).

The movement of supply vessels between the MODU and the logistics base has the potential for

impacts on marine fauna (underwater noise impacts), water quality (from vessel operational

wastewater discharges), shore-based infrastructure (Port of Beirut), shipping, fisheries and tourism

(recreational activities).

Helicopter crew transfers could have potential noise impacts on sensitive coastal habitats, local

communities and tourism.



Accidental events and transboundary impacts

Unplanned or accidental events are considered separately from planned routine activities, as they

only arise as a result of a technical failure, human error or natural phenomena such as a seismic

event.

Representative scenarios of accidental events that may occur during the Block 4 exploration drilling

campaign are shown in Table ES1 and presented in more detail in Chapter 6 of the EIA. Spill drift

modelling of two large-scale hydrocarbon releases (well blowout with release of condensate and

an instantaneous release of a large volume of marine diesel fuel in Block 4) has been conducted

as part of the EIA study. The results indicate that the northern coast of Lebanon and Syria could

be reached by some residual oil.

Controls and actions to reduce the likelihood of a spill/release incident are a key part of the

mitigation and are described in Chapter 6. TEP Liban has developed an oil spill contingency plan



4



VSP relates to measurements made using geophones inside the wellbore and a source (airgun array), at the

surface near the well. This methodology generally obtains higher-resolution geological information than a

surface-towed seismic survey.

Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2



ES xiii



that focuses on optimising response at sea in order to minimise coastal and transboundary

impacts.



Cumulative impacts

Cumulative impacts consider the additive impact of the primary activity (i.e., the current project)

with any local third-party activities.

TEP Liban’s drilling programme in Block 4 will be the first offshore exploration drilling activity in

Lebanon. The only other offshore block in Lebanese waters that has currently been awarded is

Block 9, also to TEP Liban. Block 4 and Block 9 are approximately 45 km apart, cumulative impacts

from any future simultaneous activities in these blocks are therefore not anticipated.

No other future projects are known to be taking place in the Block 4 area.



Management and implementation of mitigations

Processes are required to ensure that both TEP Liban and relevant contractors implement

commitments derived from the EIA during the exploration drilling campaign.

A commitments register has been compiled that lists all the mitigation measures identified in the

EIA. These commitments have been tracked through to Environmental and Social Management

Plans (ESMPs) developed for the drilling campaign. The ESMPs form part of TEP Liban’s Health,

Safety and Environment Management System (HSE MS).

The ESMPs form the basis for subsequent detailed management plans prepared and implemented

by the MODU, drilling fluids and cementing contractors; the logistics base contractor; and

support/supply vessel contractor who will be requested to comply with the relevant environmental

and social requirements set out in TEP Liban’s ESMPs.

Contractors will also be required to have their own HSE management systems in place.



Conclusion

This EIA report has provided an assessment of environmental and social impacts associated with

TEP Liban’s offshore exploration drilling activities in Block 4.

Alternatives to proposed project activities have been considered; the proposed location of the B41 exploration well has been selected based on the most direct drilling route to promising

hydrocarbon reserves; the drilling rig will be designed specifically to operate in the deep-water

environment of Lebanon Block 4 and will include features for high-efficiency operation; and

discharges from the drilling activities will be MARPOL 73/78 compliant.

The location of the onshore project logistics base has been selected based on the principle of

minimal disruption to existing infrastructure, with the Port of Beirut being the closest and most

suitable choice offering the required capacities without further extending its footprint.

During the EIA, all applicable environmental and socio-economic receptors were identified, their

sensitivity towards proposed project activities assessed and mitigation measures considered,

where impact avoidance was not feasible. In summary, all identified impacts in this EIA are

expected to be manageable with acceptable residual effects after mitigation.



ES xiv



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2



The proposed offshore exploration drilling project proposed by TEP Liban is the first project of this

type submitted for approval in Lebanon and therefore if exploration is successful it may have

potential beneficial impacts on the national economy of Lebanon.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2



ES xv



[This page has intentionally been left blank.]



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



‫تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪ - 4‬المل ّخص التنفيذي‬

‫مقدمة‬

‫ّ‬

‫تعتزم شركة ‪ )TEP Liban( TOTAL Exploration & Production Liban Sal‬إجراء أعمال حفر استكشافي في‬

‫قترحة حفر‬

‫الم َ‬

‫البحر في البلوك ‪( 4‬الرقعة رقم ‪ )4‬ضمن حوض المشرق الرسوبي في المياه البحرية اللبنانية‪ .‬تشمل األعمال ُ‬

‫يتم حفر‬

‫تبعا لنتائج َ‬

‫حتمل‪ً ،‬‬

‫حتمل‪ ،‬وبئر تقييمي ُم َ‬

‫بئر استكشافي ّأول‪ ،‬وبئر استكشافي آخر ُم َ‬

‫البئرْين السابَق ْين‪ .‬بالتالي‪ ،‬قد ّ‬



‫ِ‬

‫يتم حفر اآلبار الثالثة‪.‬‬

‫ثالثة آبار ّ‬

‫كحد أقصى في مرحلة التنقيب‪ .‬يوضح الرسم ‪ ES1‬البلوك ‪ 4‬ومنطقة التركيز حيث قد ّ‬



‫تم إعداده من ِقَبل‬

‫ّ‬

‫يلخص هذا المستند نتائج دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي )‪ (EIA‬للمشروع (مجموع ‪ 3‬آبار ّ‬

‫كحد أقصى)‪ .‬وقد ّ‬

‫الفنية (شاعر ومشاركوه)‪،‬‬

‫عتمد في البلد‪ ،‬دار الهندسة للتصميم واالستشارات ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫فريق مؤّلف من ممّثلين من االستشاري ُ‬

‫ذكر َّ‬

‫أن اآلثار‬

‫بالتعاون مع الشركة االستشارية الدولية ‪ ،RSK Environment Ltd‬نياب ًة عن شركة ‪ُ .TEP Liban‬ي َ‬

‫أيضا ضمن دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪.‬‬

‫االجتماعية مشمولة ً‬



‫انتقل المشروع إلى المرحلة التالية من التطوير‪ ،‬تُجرى‬

‫تم العثور على مواد هيدروكربونية قابلة لالستثمار التجاري و َ‬

‫في حال ّ‬

‫دراسة إضافية لتقييم اآلثار الناتجة عن مرحلة اإلنتاج‪.‬‬

‫يحدد ما إذا كان المشروع يحتاج إلى إجراء تقييم‬

‫المرحلة األولى في الدراسة هي "تصنيف المشروع" )‪ (screening‬الذي ّ‬



‫طلبا إلجراء مسح للبلوك ‪ 4‬وأرسلته إلى و ازرة البيئة‪،‬‬

‫لألثر البيئي‪ّ .‬‬

‫تموز‪/‬يوليو ‪ً 2018‬‬

‫قدمت شركة ‪ TEP Liban‬في ‪ّ 16‬‬

‫عن طريق هيئة إدارة قطاع البترول في لبنان وو ازرة الطاقة والمياه‪ .‬وفي ‪ 29‬آب‪/‬أغسطس ‪ ،2018‬قامت الهيئة بإبالغ شركة‬

‫قترح في البلوك ‪ 4‬إلى إجراء دراسة لتقييم األثر‬

‫‪ّ TEP Liban‬‬

‫الم َ‬

‫بأنه وفًقا لو ازرة البيئة‪ ،‬يحتاج مشروع الحفر االستكشافي ُ‬

‫البيئي‪.‬‬



‫أن "تحديد النطاق" )‪(Scoping‬‬

‫وتم تقديم تقرير تحديد نطاق دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي في ّأيار‪/‬مايو ‪ .2019‬تجدر اإلشارة إلى ّ‬

‫ّ‬



‫المستقِبالت البيئية واالجتماعية‪-‬االقتصادية والتراثية‪-‬‬

‫هو كناية عن تقييم ّأولي لآلثار المتوّقعة بين أعمال المشروع و ُ‬

‫المستخَلصة من مشاركة األطراف‬

‫تم تعميم التقرير ومراجعته بعد فترة المشاورات إلدراج‪ )1( :‬المعطيات ُ‬

‫الثقافية‪/‬الحضارية‪ّ .‬‬



‫وتم تقديم هذا التقرير إلى و ازرة البيئة‬

‫ّ‬

‫المعنية (بما في ذلك االجتماعات العامة)‪ ،‬و(‪ )2‬نطاق عمل دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ّ .‬‬

‫عن طريق هيئة إدارة قطاع البترول في ‪ 28‬حزيران‪/‬يونيو ‪ .2019‬فوافَقت و ازرة البيئة على تقرير تحديد النطاق بشرط أن‬

‫ط ِر َحت‪.‬‬

‫تُعطي دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي أجوب ًة على المالحظات والتعليقات التي ُ‬

‫تم إعداد وثيقة تقرير تقييم األثر البيئي (النسخة األساسية ‪ Rev0‬من هذه الوثيقة) ّأوًال وفًقا لمالحظات وتعليقات و ازرة البيئة‬

‫ّ‬

‫تم نشر نسخة عن تقرير تقييم األثر‬

‫على تقرير تحديد النطاق‪ ،‬وبقدر ما َ‬

‫سمحت به المعلومات المتوّفرة‪ .‬في هذه المرحلة‪ّ ،‬‬

‫‪ES Ar iii‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫األول‪/‬أكتوبر ‪ ،)2019‬كما‬

‫البيئي عبر موقع إلكتروني‬

‫مخصص ألغراض المشاورة (من ‪ 4‬أيلول‪/‬سبتمبر حتّى ‪ 4‬تشرين ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ِ‬

‫استُ ِ‬

‫ثم جرى تحديث‬

‫ضت نتائج عملية تقييم األثر البيئي خالل‬

‫اجتماع ْين َّ‬

‫عر َ‬

‫َ‬

‫عام ْين ُعقدا في شهر أيلول‪/‬سبتمبر ‪ّ .2019‬‬



‫وتم تقديم النسخة‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ ،‬عند االقتضاء‪ ،‬في ضوء المالحظات والتعليقات التي َ‬

‫وردت خالل تلك العملية‪ّ .‬‬

‫عدد من‬

‫ورد ٌ‬

‫األول‪/‬أكتوبر ‪ .2019‬وبعد التقديم‪َ ،‬‬

‫المنّقحة األولى من دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي إلى و ازرة البيئة في ‪ 31‬تشرين ّ‬



‫وتم تقديم الردود والتوضيحات على هذه المالحظات‬

‫التعليقات والمالحظات من و ازرة البيئة على دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ّ .‬‬

‫والتعليقات‪ ،‬وأ ِ‬

‫ُجرَيت التعديالت الالزمة على التقرير‪ .‬وعليه‪ ،‬وافَقت و ازرة البيئة على تقرير تقييم األثر البيئي في ‪18‬‬

‫الفنية ‪ .2020/2/18‬باإلضافة إلى ذلك‪،‬‬

‫شباط‪/‬فبراير ‪ 2020‬بشرط االمتثال للمالحظات والتعليقات الواردة في تقرير اللجنة ّ‬



‫طلِ َب تقديم نسخة كاملة وشاملة لتقرير دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ ،‬مع مراعاة التعليقات والمالحظات الواردة من و ازرة البيئة‪.‬‬

‫ُ‬

‫وتم توليف هذه الوثيقة (النسخة المنّقحة الثانية) استجاب ًة لهذا الطلب‪ ،‬بحيث تش ّكل النسخة الكاملة النهائية لدراسة تقييم األثر‬

‫ّ‬

‫وزرة البيئة‪.‬‬

‫البيئي بالصيغة التي وافَقت عليها ا‬



‫لمحة عامة عن حملة أعمال الحفر االستكشافي‬

‫األول في البلوك ‪ 4‬في شباط‪/‬فبراير ‪.2020‬‬

‫تخ ّ‬

‫طط شركة ‪ TEP Liban‬للبدء بحفر البئر االستكشافي َّ‬

‫ٍ‬

‫بشكل شبه عمودي‬

‫األول )‪(B4-1‬‬

‫ويتم حفر البئر االستكشافي َّ‬

‫تُقام وحدة حفر متنّقلة في البحر )‪ (MODU‬في البلوك ‪ّ ،4‬‬

‫قترح كما يظهر في الرسم ‪ ،ES1‬على ُبعد حوالى ‪ 20‬كلم من‬

‫الم َ‬

‫(مع انحراف طفيف عن االتّجاه العمودي التام) في الموقع ُ‬

‫متوسط مستوى‬

‫الشاطئ‪ ،‬وعلى مسافة ‪ً 1520‬ا‬

‫متر في المياه‪ .‬يبلغ عمق ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫ستهدف (غاز) حوالى ‪ 4400‬متر دون ّ‬

‫الخزان ُ‬

‫سطح البحر‪.‬‬



‫‪ES Ar iv‬‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫األول لعمليات الحفر‬

‫الرسم ‪ :ES1‬موقع البلوك ‪ 4‬قبالة الساحل اللبناني‪ ،‬بما في ذلك منطقة التركيز وموقع البئر االستكشافي ّ‬



‫يستمر‬

‫طط أن‬

‫من المخ ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المدة‬

‫الالحقة ستستغرق ّ‬



‫أن عمليات الحفر لآلبار‬

‫يوما‪ .‬ومن المتوّقع ّ‬

‫برنامج الحفر للبئر االستكشافي ّ‬

‫األول لحوالى ‪ً 60‬‬

‫نفسها تقر ًيبا‪َّ ،‬‬

‫أن دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي هذه تشمل‬

‫لكنها قد تصل إلى ثالثة أشهر‪ُ .‬يشار إلى ّ‬



‫اآلثار التي قد تنتج عن اآلبار الثالثة‪.‬‬

‫‪ES Ar v‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫ٍ‬

‫قاعدة لوجستية ضمن مرفأ بيروت التجاري‪ .‬وتشمل المرافق في القاعدة اللوجستية ما يلي‪:‬‬

‫يتم دعم عمليات الحفر من خالل‬

‫ّ‬

‫• واحة أنابيب‬

‫• مخازن‬

‫المعدات والمواد‪ ،‬ورافعات متنّقلة لعمليات البواخر‬

‫• رصيف مع مساحة لتخزين وتجميع‬

‫ّ‬

‫طة خلط سوائل الحفر ومرافق التجميع‬

‫• مح ّ‬

‫مخصصة للمكاتب والمقصف والمركبات ومساحات الفرز وحاويات الشحن ومناطق لنقل النفايات‬

‫• مساحات‬

‫ّ‬

‫والتخزين المؤّقت (ال معالجة للنفايات)‬

‫يتوّلى م ِ‬

‫أي آبار الحقة‪.‬‬

‫قاو ٌل بناء القاعدة اللوجستية وتشغيلها‪ .‬وسوف تعتمد ّ‬

‫مدة القاعدة اللوجستية على نجاح البئر ‪ B4-1‬و ّ‬

‫ُ‬

‫يتم استخدام باخرتَين أو ثالث بواخر للمشروع أثناء أعمال الحفر االستكشافي‪ :‬باخرة في موقع الحفر بشكل دائم لإلشراف‬

‫ّ‬

‫المعدات والنفايات بين وحدة‬

‫على السالمة واألمن‪ ،‬في حين تُ َّ‬

‫خصص الباخرة (أو البواخر) األخرى لنقل اإلمدادات والمواد و ّ‬

‫الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر )‪ (MODU‬والقاعدة اللوجستية ( ُي َّ‬

‫قدر العدد اإلجمالي لرحالت الذهاب واإلياب بـ‪ 10-8‬رحالت في‬



‫ظفين بطائرات الهليكوبتر من مطار رفيق الحريري الدولي إلى وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة‬

‫تم نقل المو ّ‬

‫األسبوع) خالل فترة الحفر‪ .‬وسي ّ‬



‫(ي َّ‬

‫كل‬

‫ُ‬

‫ويتم دعم العمليات بواسطة طائرتَين مروحيتَين‪ ،‬تتّسع ّ‬

‫قدر عدد رحالت الذهاب واإلياب بـ‪ 10‬رحالت في األسبوع)‪ّ .‬‬

‫اكبا‪.‬‬

‫منهما لـ ‪ 8‬إلى ‪ 12‬ر ً‬

‫شهرْين و‪ 3‬أشهر)‬

‫يعرض الرسم ‪ً ES2‬‬

‫مدة األعمال المرتبطة ببرنامج الحفر وموقعها‪ّ .‬‬

‫دليال حول ّ‬

‫مدة الحفر المذكورة (بين َ‬

‫يوما فقط للحفر‪.‬‬

‫المدة‬

‫تشمل ّ‬

‫المخصصة ّ‬

‫علما ّأنه من المتوّقع أن يستغرق البئر ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫األول حوالى ‪ً 60‬‬

‫لكل بئر‪ً ،‬‬



‫‪ES Ar vi‬‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫كل نشاط من أنشطة المشروع‬

‫الرسم ‪ّ :ES2‬‬

‫مدة وموقع ّ‬



‫أهداف دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‬

‫أهداف دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي هي‪:‬‬

‫•‬



‫عية في‬

‫تحديد المتطّلبات القانونية والتنظيمية والمعايير األخرى التي تنطبق على المشروع (القوانين واألنظمة المر ّ‬



‫•‬



‫ِ‬

‫وتحديدا‬

‫الحساسة المرتبطة بالسياق البيئي واالجتماعي‪-‬االقتصادي والتراثي الثقافي‪/‬الحضاري‪،‬‬

‫ً‬

‫المستقبالت ّ‬

‫تحديد ُ‬



‫•‬



‫المعنية والحصول على وجهات نظرهم وآرائهم (الفئات‪/‬األشخاص الذين قد يتأثّرون بالمشروع والجهات‬

‫إبالغ األطراف‬

‫ّ‬



‫•‬



‫تؤدي إلى آثار بيئية أو اجتماعية‪-‬اقتصادية أو تراثية‪/‬حضارية‪ ،‬باإلضافة‬

‫تحديد جوانب وأعمال المشروع التي قد ّ‬



‫•‬



‫أي آثار إيجابية من الناحية‬

‫اقتراح تدابير ّ‬

‫حتملة وإيصالها إلى مستويات مقبولة‪ ،‬وتعزيز ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫للحد من اآلثار السلبية ُ‬

‫البيئية أو االجتماعية‪-‬االقتصادية أو الثقافية‪/‬الحضارية؛‬



‫•‬



‫تحديد اآلثار المتبّقية‪ ،‬وتقييم درجة أهمية هذه اآلثار؛‬



‫الخاصة بشركة ‪)TOTAL‬؛‬

‫البلد‪ ،‬واالتّفاقات الدولية‪ ،‬والشروط والمتطّلبات‬

‫ّ‬

‫في مجال التأثير المرتبط بالمشروع؛‬



‫المهتمة األخرى)؛‬

‫ّ‬



‫إلى تحديد درجة أهمية اآلثار؛‬



‫•‬



‫الحرص على إدراج اإلجراءات التخفيفية ضمن خطة اإلدارة البيئية التي ستُ َّنفذ من ِقَبل الجهة الراعية للمشروع‬

‫قاولين والم ِ‬

‫والم ِ‬

‫قاولين الفرعيين خالل برنامج الحفر االستكشافي‪.‬‬

‫ُ‬

‫ُ‬



‫منطقة الدراسة‬

‫ٍ‬

‫ِ‬

‫تنص عليها "المبادئ‬

‫بناء على الشروط التي ّ‬

‫تم تحديد مجال التأثير ّ‬

‫لكل من ُ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المستقبالت البيئية واالجتماعية )‪ً (receptors‬‬

‫األولي للنفط والغاز وأعمال الحفر االستكشافي في لبنان"‪ .‬ويختلف نطاق مجال‬

‫التوجيهية لتقييم األثر البيئي لعملية المسح ّ‬

‫ِ‬

‫حتمل أن تتأثّر بالمشروع‪.‬‬

‫التأثير ً‬

‫الم َ‬

‫المستقبالت التي من ُ‬

‫يتم درسها وخصائص ُ‬

‫تبعا لنوع اآلثار التي ّ‬



‫ٍ‬

‫منطقة أوسع في‬

‫تم جمع المعلومات من‬

‫تم جمع البيانات المرجعية مع التركيز على هذه المجاالت‪ ،‬على الرغم من ّأنه قد ّ‬

‫وّ‬

‫الخاص ضمن‬

‫ش ذلك في القسم‬

‫أحيان كثيرة من أجل المساعدة في دراسة السياق العام‪ .‬وعند استخدام مجاالت مختلفة‪ ،‬نوِق َ‬

‫ّ‬

‫تقرير دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪.‬‬



‫‪ES Ar vii‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫اإلطار القانوني واإلداري‬

‫يتم تنفيذ أعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬الرقعة رقم ‪ )4‬وفًقا للشروط البيئية واالجتماعية المنصوص عليها في‪:‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫•‬



‫القوانين واألنظمة الوطنية‬



‫•‬



‫تكون الدولة اللبنانية طرًفا فيها‬

‫عية التي ُ‬

‫االتّفاقيات واالتّفاقات الدولية المر ّ‬



‫•‬



‫الخاصة بشركة ‪TOTAL‬‬

‫االلتزامات‬

‫ّ‬



‫•‬



‫دوليا‬

‫تعارف عليها ً‬

‫الم َ‬

‫أفضل الممارسات ُ‬



‫النصوص القانونية والتوجيهية األساسية بالنسبة إلى هذا المشروع تشمل‪:‬‬

‫•‬



‫مرسوم أصول تقييم األثر البيئي ‪ ٨٦٣٣‬تاريخ ‪٢٠١٢‬‬



‫•‬



‫األولي للنفط والغاز وأعمال الحفر االستكشافي في لبنان" (و ازرة‬

‫"المبادئ التوجيهية لتقييم األثر البيئي لعملية المسح ّ‬

‫البيئة وهيئة إدارة قطاع البترول في لبنان‪)2019 ،‬‬



‫•‬



‫التقييم البيئي االستراتيجي ألنشطة االستكشاف واإلنتاج في المياه البحرية اللبنانية (و ازرة الطاقة والمياه‪)2019 ،‬‬



‫أيضا بهذا المشروع‪ :‬قانون الموارد البترولية في المياه البحرية (قانون رقم ‪ 132‬تاريخ‬

‫وتشمل التشريعات األخرى المرتبطة ً‬

‫‪ ،)2010‬واألنظمة والقواعد المتعّلقة باألنشطة البترولية (المرسوم رقم ‪ ١٠٢٨٩‬تاريخ ‪ ،)٢٠١٣‬ومرسوم اتّفاقية االستكشاف‬

‫واإلنتاج (الملحق رقم ‪ ٢‬التابع للمرسوم رقم ‪ ٤٣‬تاريخ ‪ ،)٢٠١٧‬وقانون حماية البيئة (القانون رقم ‪ ٤٤٤‬تاريخ ‪ ،)٢٠٠٢‬وآلية‬



‫مراجعة تقارير تحديد نطاق تقييم األثر البيئي وتقارير تقييم األثر البيئي (القرار ‪ 1/261‬تاريخ ‪ ،)2015‬وقانون دعم الشفافية‬



‫في قطاع البترول (قانون رقم ‪ 84‬تاريخ ‪ ،)2018‬وقانون‬

‫الحق في الوصول إلى المعلومات (قانون رقم ‪ 28‬تاريخ ‪.)2017‬‬

‫ّ‬



‫المشاركة العامة‬

‫طالع على وجهات نظر وآراء الفئات التي قد‬

‫تشتمل دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي على مشاركة عامة‪ ،‬هدفها الرئيسي هو اال ّ‬

‫ستخدم هذا المردود إلضفاء المزيد من التركيز على دراسة تقييم اآلثار‪ ،‬وإلجراء‬

‫تتأثّر بالمشروع وغيرها من األطراف‬

‫المعنية‪ُ .‬ي َ‬

‫ّ‬



‫تمت عملية مشاركة األطراف‬

‫ما يلزم من تعديالت من ناحية تصميم المشروع وتنفيذه عند االقتضاء‪ .‬في هذا المشروع‪ّ ،‬‬

‫الخاصة بشركة ‪ TOTAL‬في هذا المجال‪ ،‬وأفضل‬

‫تنص عليها التشريعات اللبنانية‪ ،‬والسياسات‬

‫ّ‬

‫المعنية وفًقا للشروط التي ّ‬

‫ّ‬



‫تحديدا‪ ،‬من أجل دعم‬

‫عنية لمشروع البلوك ‪4‬‬

‫وتم وضع خ ّ‬

‫ً‬

‫طة لمشاركة األطراف الم ّ‬

‫تعارف عليها ً‬

‫الم َ‬

‫الممارسات ُ‬

‫دوليا‪ّ .‬‬

‫الفعالة خالل عملية تقييم األثر البيئي‪.‬‬

‫المشاركة الهادفة و ّ‬

‫المعنية خالل مرحلة تحديد النطاق ومرحلة جمع البيانات‬

‫أُجرَيت اجتماعات المشاركة العامة واجتماعات مشاركة األطراف‬

‫ّ‬



‫محددة‬

‫أن مشاركة األطراف‬

‫تتوجه إلى مجموعات ّ‬

‫تتوجه إلى عامة الناس‪ ،‬في حين ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المعنية ّ‬

‫المرجعية‪ .‬المشاركة العامة ّ‬

‫محددين قد يتأثّرون بالمشروع أو قد يؤثّرون عليه أو قد يكونون‬

‫مهتمين به أو لديهم مصلحة فيه‪ ،‬بما في ذلك‬

‫وأشخاص ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫‪ES Ar viii‬‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫ظمات غير الحكومية والجهات األكاديمية والشركات والفئات التي‬

‫السلطات والهيئات الدولية والوطنية والمجتمع المدني والمن ّ‬

‫حتمل أن تتأثّر بالمشروع‪.‬‬

‫ُي َ‬

‫المعنية وهواجسهم وتعليقاتهم متشابهة في المرحلتَْين وفي مختلف المجموعات (المستوى الوطني‬

‫كانت أسئلة األطراف‬

‫ّ‬



‫والمستوى اإلقليمي والمستوى المحّلي)‪َّ .‬‬

‫عبرت عن مسائل تتعّلق بمواضيع‬

‫عنية على المستوى المحّلي ّ‬

‫لكن األطراف الم ّ‬

‫المعنية على المستوى الوطني واإلقليمي َّ‬

‫ركزت أكثر‬

‫أن األطراف‬

‫وسُبل كسب العيش‪ ،‬في حين ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫اجتماعية‪ ،‬مثل ُف َرص العمل ُ‬

‫على المواضيع البيئية في أسئلتها وهواجسها‪ .‬وتتناول هذه الدراسة المسائل والتعليقات التي وردت حتّى اآلن من األطراف‬



‫المعنية‪.‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫كان الهدف من المشاركة‬

‫بدأت مشاركة األطراف‬

‫المعنية بشأن تقرير تقييم األثر البيئي في أوائل شهر أيلول‪/‬سبتمبر ‪َ .2019‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫المحددة واإلجراءات التخفيفية‪.‬‬

‫وخاص ًة اآلثار‬

‫المعنية على نتيجة دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي وفهمها‪،‬‬

‫التأ ّكد من إطالع األطراف‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬



‫وستستمر مشاركة‬

‫المعنية خالل هذه المرحلة ضمن هذه النسخة من تقييم األثر البيئي‪.‬‬

‫الرد على تعليقات األطراف‬

‫وتم ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المعنية بعد تقديم دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي النهائية‪.‬‬

‫األطراف‬

‫ّ‬



‫مل ّخص عن وصف البيئة المحيطة بالمشروع‬



‫المستقِبالت )‪ ،(receptors‬يجب فهم البيئة المحيطة بالمشروع قبل المشروع‪.‬‬

‫حتملة على ُ‬

‫من أجل تحديد اآلثار ال ُم َ‬

‫ُجريت الدراسات‪/‬االستطالعات التالية لحملة الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪ 4‬واستُ ِ‬

‫خد َمت لتوجيه عملية تقييم األثر البيئي‪:‬‬

‫أ َِ‬

‫األولية‬

‫▪ دراسة الوضع البيئي االجتماعية المحيط بالمشروع ‪ -‬مراجعة بيبليوغرافية وجمع البيانات ّ‬

‫▪‬



‫دراسة الوضع البيئي البحري المحيط بالمشروع ‪ -‬مراجعة بيبليوغرافية‬



‫▪‬



‫عينات المياه والرواسب وتحليلها الكيميائي والفيزيائي والبيولوجي‪،‬‬

‫مسح للبيئة البحرية المحيطة بالمشروع ‪ -‬أخذ ّ‬



‫ومراقبة قاع البحر بالفيديو (الحيوانات البحرية والمراقبة األثرية)‪ ،‬ومراقبة الحيوانات البحرية على متن وحدة الحفر‬

‫(الثدييات البحرية والطيور البحرية والزواحف)‪ ،‬وغيرها من الكائنات الموجودة في البيئة البحرية‬



‫المستقِبالت البيئية التي قد تتأثّر بالمشروع‪:‬‬

‫تشمل ُ‬

‫•‬



‫•‬



‫الملوثات الطويلة المدى‬

‫جودة الهواء – تتأثّر منطقة شرق البحر‬

‫لتلوث الهواء‪ ،‬بما في ذلك ّ‬

‫المتوسط بمصادر مختلفة ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الجو والجزيئات الناتجة عن العواصف الغبارية‬

‫المحمولة في ّ‬

‫عتبر المياه في عرض البحر منخفضة العكورة وتحتوي على نسبة قليلة من المغ ّذيات وهي غير‬

‫جودة مياه البحر ‪ -‬تُ َ‬



‫أن مياه البحر الساحلية‬

‫ملوثة وتمّثل الظروف النموذجية للمواقع البحرية في منطقة شرق البحر‬

‫المتوسط‪ ،‬في حين ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫جراء األنشطة البشرية‬

‫تلوث شديد في بعض المناطق من ّ‬

‫تعاني من ّ‬

‫‪ES Ar ix‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫•‬



‫جودة الرواسب ‪ -‬الرواسب البحرية تشمل الطين البني اللون الذي تكثُر فيه الجزيئات الدقيقة‪ ،‬وهذه الرواسب تمّثل‬

‫ّ‬

‫ق‬

‫تلوث منخفض باستثناء بعض‬

‫مع‬

‫ط‪،‬‬

‫المتوس‬

‫البحر‬

‫شر‬

‫منطقة‬

‫الخصائص النموذجية لرواسب أعماق البحر في‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ِ‬

‫التلوث بالمعادن الثقيلة والهيدروكربونات‬

‫علما ّ‬

‫أن الرواسب الساحلية تتّصف بن َسب أعلى من ّ‬

‫المعادن الثقيلة‪ً ،‬‬

‫والمغ ّذيات‬



‫•‬



‫عتبر أحواض األعشاب البحرية والشعاب الفرميتيدية‪ 1‬من خصائص المياه الساحلية اللبنانية‪،‬‬

‫الموائل الساحلية ‪ -‬تُ َ‬

‫قترحة في الساحل‬

‫وهي تساهم في تحديد المعايير‬

‫الم َ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الخاصة بالمناطق البحرية المحمية ُ‬



‫•‬



‫البيئات القاعية في المياه العميقة – تكثُر فيها الحيوانات المرتبطة برواسب المياه العميقة في منطقة شرق البحر‬



‫•‬



‫األولية للعوالق النباتية في البحر منخفضة بسبب العمود المائي القليل التغذية والتقسيم الطبقي‪،‬‬

‫العوالق ‪ -‬اإلنتاجية ّ‬

‫تنوعها معتدل إلى مرتفع‬

‫أن العوالق الحيوانية قليلة الوفرة ّ‬

‫في حين ّ‬

‫لكن ّ‬



‫يدل على انخفاض مستويات المواد العضوية‬

‫عتبر البيئة فقيرة ً‬

‫المتوسط‪ ،‬وتُ َ‬

‫وتنوعها‪ ،‬ما ّ‬

‫نسبيا من حيث وفرة األجناس ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫والمغ ّذيات‬



‫•‬



‫األسماك ‪ -‬تحتوي المياه اللبنانية على أكثر من ‪ 100‬نوع من األسماك التي لها أهمية تجارية‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى عدد‬

‫المهددة باالنقراض‬

‫من أنواع األسماك وأسماك القرش واألسماك الغضروفية‬

‫ّ‬



‫•‬



‫•‬



‫اعا من الحيتان‬

‫الثدييات البحرية – ُيشار إلى وجود العديد من األنواع في منطقة شرق البحر‬

‫المتوسط‪ ،‬وتشمل أنو ً‬

‫ّ‬

‫عتبر الثدييات‬

‫بشدة في البحر األبيض‬

‫المتوسطية‬

‫والدالفين وفقمة الراهب‬

‫(المهددة باالنقراض ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المتوسط)‪ .‬باإلجمال‪ ،‬تُ َ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫شيوعا‬

‫أن الدالفين المختنقة هي النوع األكثر‬

‫علما ّ‬

‫ً‬

‫البحرية قليلة في مياه لبنان‪ً ،‬‬

‫السالحف ‪ -‬السالحف الخضراء والسالحف الجلدية الظهر والسالحف الضخمة الرأس موجودة في المياه اللبنانية‪،‬‬

‫تمتد مناطق العَلف ومسارات ُّ‬

‫الخاصة بهذه السالحف على طول الساحل‪ .‬وتوجد مواقع تعشيش السالحف‬

‫التنقل‬

‫حيث ّ‬

‫َ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الخضراء والسالحف الضخمة الرأس على السواحل الرملية في جنوب لبنان‬



‫•‬



‫•‬



‫تمت مشاهدتها خالل المسح المرجعي للبيئة البحرية في البلوك‬

‫كانت من أكثر أنواع الطيور التي َّ‬

‫الطيور ‪ -‬النوارس َ‬

‫ط والبلشونيات‬

‫أيضا طيور الجلم والكركر والب ّ‬

‫‪ ،4‬كما شو ِه َدت ً‬



‫الم َّ‬

‫وطنيا األقرب إلى منطقة التركيز التابعة للبلوك ‪ 4‬هو محمية جزر النخيل‬

‫صنف‬

‫ً‬

‫المناطق المحمية – الموقع ُ‬

‫عتبر األقرب إلى منطقة التركيز التابعة للبلوك ‪4‬‬

‫أما المواقع التي يجب الحفاظ عليها والتي تُ َ‬

‫الطبيعية في الشمال‪ّ .‬‬

‫المنصة الخارجية لمرفأ بيروت وثالثة مواقع ُم َّ‬

‫حددة من ِقَبل ‪OCEANA‬‬

‫قترحة عند‬

‫الم َ‬

‫ّ‬

‫فهي المنطقة البحرية المحمية ُ‬

‫باعتبارها مواقع في أعماق البحر تستوجب الحماية (أخدود جونيه‪ ،‬وأخدود مار جرجس‪ ،‬ومنحدر بيروت)‬



‫المستقِبالت االجتماعية‪-‬االقتصادية التي قد تتأثّر بالمشروع‪:‬‬

‫تشمل ُ‬

‫•‬



‫الظروف االجتماعية (السالمة واألمن) في المجتمعات المحّلية ‪ -‬المجتمعات الساحلية الم ِ‬

‫حاذية للبلوك ‪ 4‬والمجتمعات‬

‫ُ‬



‫الخاص بطائرات الهليكوبتر وبالقرب من‬

‫الواقعة في جوار مرفأ بيروت‪ ،‬والمجتمعات الواقعة على امتداد طريق النقل‬

‫ّ‬

‫الخاصة بالمشروع‬

‫مطار رفيق الحريري الدولي‪ ،‬والمجتمعات المواقعة على امتداد مسارات النقل للمركبات‬

‫ّ‬

‫‪1‬‬



‫حد كبير‪ ،‬كما أنّها ال تشبه أصداف القواقع االعتيادية‪.‬‬

‫عتبر أصداف القواقع الفرميتيدية غير منتظمة إلى ّ‬

‫تتألّف الشعاب الفرميتيدية من القواقع الدودية‪ .‬وتُ َ‬



‫‪ES Ar x‬‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫•‬



‫طابعا ِح َر ًفيا‪ ،‬ويعتمد على أسطول تقليدي صغير من البواخر‬

‫مصايد األسماك – يتّخذ قطاع صيد األسماك في لبنان ً‬



‫بمحرك‪ .‬القانون يحصر مناطق الصيد بستة أميال بحرية من الساحل‪ ،‬وبواخر صيد األسماك ال‬

‫زودة‬

‫الم َّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الخشبية ُ‬

‫أي‬

‫أيضا إلى ّ‬

‫تستخدم مرفأ بيروت‪ .‬تجدر اإلشارة ً‬

‫أن العاملين في مجال صيد األسماك ّ‬

‫متفرغون لذلك وال يملكون ّ‬

‫•‬



‫أي ترتيبات للضمان االجتماعي‬

‫أنشطة بديلة لكسب العيش أو ّ‬

‫ِ‬

‫ئيسيا في االقتصاد المحّلي‪ .‬تستضيف بيروت غالبية‬

‫السياحة – ضمن المنطقة الساحلية‪ ،‬تش ّكل السياحة ُمساه ًما ر ً‬



‫السياح‪ ،‬على الرغم من وجود منتجعات شاطئية وشواطئ وأحواض سباحة ومرافئ لإلبحار الترفيهي ومواقع للغوص‬

‫ّ‬

‫مارس على طول الساحل اللبناني وفي جميع الفصول‪،‬‬

‫عتبر الصيد‬

‫بالصنارة نشا ً‬

‫ّ‬

‫طا تر ً‬

‫وي َ‬

‫على طول الساحل‪ُ .‬‬

‫فيهيا ُي َ‬



‫خاص في فصل الصيف‬

‫وبشكل ّ‬

‫•‬



‫هامة‬

‫عتبر مرفأ بيروت أحد أكبر المرافئ في منطقة شرق البحر‬

‫المتوسط‪ ،‬كما ّأنه مح ّ‬

‫الشحن ‪ُ -‬ي َ‬

‫طة تجارية دولية ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫هام من مسارات الشحن بمحاذاة الحدود الجنوبية للبلوك ‪ 4‬وصوًال‬

‫بالنسبة إلى البلدان العربية المحيطة‪ .‬يوجد عدد ّ‬



‫•‬



‫الموارد األثرية والحضارية – من خالل المراجعة األثرية التي أُجرَيت بواسطة مراقبة قاع البحر بالفيديو أثناء المسح‬

‫عدة مواقع تراثية ذات أهمية تاريخية‬

‫تم تحديد ّ‬

‫يتم العثور على ّ‬

‫أي معالم أثرية في منطقة البلوك ‪ّ .4‬‬

‫للبيئة البحرية‪ ،‬لم ّ‬



‫إلى القسم الغربي من البلوك‬



‫عتبر‬

‫الم ُدن تحت الماء‬

‫ّ‬

‫ومصدات األمواج القديمة واألسوار الفينيقية‪ .‬وتُ َ‬

‫في المنطقة الساحلية‪ ،‬بما في ذلك اآلثار‪ ،‬مثل ُ‬



‫اآلثار في عمشيت أقرب موقع بحري بالنسبة إلى منطقة البلوك ‪4‬‬

‫•‬



‫نسبيا من البنى التحتية التي تشمل الطرقات والمرافئ وإمدادات الكهرباء‬

‫البنى التحتية ‪ -‬يملك لبنان شبكة واسعة ً‬

‫وإمدادات المياه واالتّصاالت‪ .‬و ّأدى تزُايد عدد الس ّكان وتوافد النازحين إلى فرض ضغط على البنى التحتية المتقادمة‬

‫والتي كانت تعاني من الضغط في األساس‬



‫•‬



‫"تحول وبائي"‪ ،‬ومن أبرز خصائص هذه‬

‫يمر لبنان‪ ،‬مثل العديد من بلدان الشرق األوسط‪ ،‬بمرحلة ُّ‬

‫الصحة العامة ‪ّ -‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫المسنين الذين يعانون من األمراض المزمنة وغير المعدية‪ .‬و َّأدت األزمة السورية وما‬

‫المرحلة ازدياد أعداد الس ّكان‬

‫ّ‬

‫ازدادت تكاليف الحكومة بشكل ملحوظ‬

‫نجم عنها من توافد للنازحين إلى زيادة الطلب على خدمات الرعاية‬

‫الصحية‪ ،‬ف َ‬

‫ّ‬



‫•‬



‫االقتصاد العام ‪ -‬يعتمد هيكل االقتصاد الكّلي في لبنان بشكل كبير على قطاع الخدمات‪ ،‬حيث يش ّكل القطاع‬



‫•‬



‫العينة‪ ،‬مع‬

‫التعليم والتدريب – تبي َ‬

‫َّن وجود مستويات عالية من التحصيل العلمي في جميع المجتمعات التي شمَلتها ّ‬

‫عتبر‬

‫أن مستويات التحصيل العلمي بين بعض المجموعات‪ ،‬مثل‬

‫سيما الكبار في ّ‬

‫اإلشارة إلى ّ‬

‫الصيادين (ال ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫السن)‪ ،‬تُ َ‬



‫لتلبية هذا الطلب المتزايد‬



‫النمو االقتصادي قد تراجع منذ العام ‪ 2011‬وبدء‬

‫العقاري أكبر قطا ٍع في مجال الخدمات‪ .‬وتجدر اإلشارة إلى ّ‬

‫أن ّ‬

‫األزمة السورية‬



‫العام للس ّكان‬

‫أدنى من ّ‬

‫معدل المستوى ّ‬



‫‪ES Ar xi‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫حتملة للمشروع‬

‫اآلثار ال ُم َ‬

‫األولي لتحديد اآلثار الوارد في "تحديث التقييم البيئي االستراتيجي ألنشطة‬

‫حتملة باستخدام الجدول ّ‬

‫تم تحديد اآلثار ال ُم َ‬

‫ّ‬

‫االستكشاف واإلنتاج في المياه البحرية اللبنانية (و ازرة الطاقة والمياه‪ ")2019 ،‬كدليل توجيهي‪.‬‬

‫حتملة الناتجة عن حملة الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪ .4‬ويحتوي الفصل ‪ 6‬من‬

‫ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫يلخص الجدول ‪ ES-1‬اآلثار الرئيسية ُ‬

‫حتملة ألعمال الحفر‪ .‬ومن خالل االلتزام‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي على مراجعة شاملة ومنهجية وتقييمية لكافة اآلثار ال ُم َ‬

‫لتجنب اآلثار أو التخفيف منها وااللتزام بالشروط القانونية اللبنانية‪ ،‬من المتوّقع أن‬

‫دوليا ّ‬

‫تعارف عليها ً‬

‫الم َ‬

‫بأفضل الممارسات ُ‬

‫العينات الفتاتية المائية وسوائل‬

‫تكون اآلثار المتبّقية الناتجة عن األنشطة الروتينية محدودة أو ضئيلة‪ .‬االستثناء هو من تفريغ ّ‬



‫آثار متبّقية ذات أهمية‬

‫تم تصنيفها باعتبارها تحمل ًا‬

‫الحفر في قاع البحر أثناء حفر طبقات البئر العليا في البلوك ‪ 4‬التي ّ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ألن هذه الطبقات تُحَفر‬

‫العينات الفتاتية والسوائل إلى جهاز الحفر خالل هذا الجزء من العمل ّ‬

‫متوسطة ‪ .‬ال يمكن إعادة ّ‬

‫ّ‬



‫أما اآلثار على العمود المائي فترتبط بتصريف منتجات الحفر الخاملة‪ ،‬غير القابلة للذوبان‪،‬‬

‫بدون أنبوب صاعد بحري‪ّ .‬‬

‫الباريت والبنتونيت‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى تأثيرات التع ّكر على الحيوانات البحرية‪.‬‬



‫حتمل ة نتيجة حملة أعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪4‬‬

‫الجدول ‪ :ES1‬اآلثار ال ُم َ‬

‫جودة الهواء‬



‫جودة المياه‬



‫جودة‪/‬تكوين الرواسب‬

‫التغيّر المناخي‬



‫القاعيات‬

‫ّ‬



‫العوالق‬



‫األسماك‬



‫األقدام‬

‫الطيور البحرية‬



‫الحيتانيات والسالحف وزعنفيات‬



‫الحساسة‬

‫الموائل البحرية ّ‬



‫البرية‬

‫اإليكولوجيا ّ‬

‫الموائل الساحلية‬



‫(األمن‪/‬السالمة)‬

‫البنى التحتية‬



‫الموارد األثرية والحضارية‬



‫الظروف االجتماعية‬



‫االقتصاد العام‬



‫التعليم والتدريب‬



‫الشحن‬



‫مصايد األسماك‬



‫السياحة‬



‫وسد‬

‫إقامة وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر (‪ )MODU‬وتركيبها ّ‬

‫البئر وتركه وتفكيك الوحدة‬



‫‪X X X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫العينات الفتاتية أثناء الحفر‬

‫تسرب ّ‬

‫ّ‬



‫الخيار ‪ – 1‬استخدام سوائل الحفر غير المائية في الطبقات‬



‫السفلية‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫العينات الفتاتية الناجمة عن الحفر وسوائل الحفر المائية‬

‫تسرب ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المحدد‬

‫الخيار‬

‫(‬

‫فقط‬

‫اعد‬

‫و‬

‫الص‬

‫من‬

‫الخالية‬

‫العليا‬

‫الطبقات‬

‫من‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪2‬‬

‫أيضا خيار لآلبار المستقبلية في البلوك ‪ ، 4‬ويقضي هذا الخيار باستخدام سوائل الحفر المائية العالية األداء في طبقات اآلبار السفلية‪ .‬في‬

‫يوجد ً‬

‫عينات سوائل‬

‫تسرب ّ‬

‫تسرب ّ‬

‫للعينات الفتاتية وسوائل الحفر المائية من طبقات اآلبار الخالية من الصواعد‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى ّ‬

‫هذه الحالة‪ ،‬سيكون هناك ّ‬



‫متوسطة‪.‬‬

‫أيضا باعتباره يحمل ًا‬

‫وتم تصنيف هذا الخيار ً‬

‫آثار متبّقية ذات أهمية ّ‬

‫الحفر المائية العالية األداء من طبقات اآلبار السفلية‪ّ .‬‬



‫‪ES Ar xii‬‬



‫الصحة العامة‬

‫ّ‬



‫األنشطة الروتينية‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬



‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫جودة الهواء‬



‫جودة المياه‬



‫جودة‪/‬تكوين الرواسب‬

‫التغيّر المناخي‬



‫القاعيات‬

‫ّ‬



‫العوالق‬



‫األسماك‬



‫األقدام‬

‫الطيور البحرية‬



‫الحيتانيات والسالحف وزعنفيات‬



‫الحساسة‬

‫الموائل البحرية ّ‬



‫البرية‬

‫اإليكولوجيا ّ‬

‫الموائل الساحلية‬



‫(األمن‪/‬السالمة)‬

‫البنى التحتية‬



‫الموارد األثرية والحضارية‬



‫الظروف االجتماعية‬



‫االقتصاد العام‬



‫التعليم والتدريب‬



‫الشحن‬



‫مصايد األسماك‬



‫السياحة‬



‫تسرب العيّنات الفتاتية أثناء الحفر‬

‫ّ‬



‫الخيار ‪ – 2‬استخدام سائل حفر مائي عالي األداء‬



‫(‪ )HPWBDF‬في الطبقات السفلية‬

‫العينات الفتاتية الناجمة عن الحفر وسوائل الحفر المائية‬

‫تسرب ّ‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫العينات الفتاتية‬

‫تسرب ّ‬

‫من الطبقات العليا الخالية من الصواعد و ّ‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫الناجمة عن سوائل الحفر المائية العالية األداء من طبقات‬



‫(خيار لآلبار االستكشافية‪/‬التقييمية المستقبلية‬

‫اآلبار السفلية‬

‫ٌ‬

‫حتملة في البلوك ‪)4‬‬

‫الم َ‬

‫ُ‬



‫نقل العيّنات الفتاتية والسوائل الناجمة عن سوائل الحفر غير‬

‫المائية (‪ )NADF‬إلى الشاطئ (ينطبق فقط على الخيار ‪1‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫أعاله)‬



‫تسرب المواد اإلسمنتية خالل أعمال الحفر‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫تسرب معجون األنابيب خالل أعمال الحفر‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫التسربات الناجمة عن اختبار مانع االنفجار (‪ )BOP‬خالل‬

‫ّ‬

‫أعمال الحفر‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫الصحي من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‬

‫تسرب الصرف‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫وبواخر الدعم‪ /‬التموين‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫تسرب النفايات الغذائية من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‬

‫ّ‬



‫تسرب في حالة البئر‬

‫بأي ّ‬

‫سمح ّ‬

‫وبواخر الدعم‪ /‬اإلمداد (ال ُي َ‬

‫بالتسرب‬

‫سمح‬

‫ّ‬

‫‪ B4-1‬عند ّ‬

‫أقل من ‪ 12‬ن‪.‬م‪ .‬من األرض‪ُ .‬ي َ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫حتملة إذا كانت‬

‫الم َ‬

‫لآلبار االستكشافية‪/‬التقييمية المستقبلية ُ‬

‫تتعدى ‪ 12‬ن‪.‬م‪ .‬من األرض‪).‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫التسربات الناجمة عن وحدة التحلية في وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫المتجمعة على سطح‬

‫تسرب مياه التصريف (تصريف المياه‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المجمعة من‬

‫المياه‬

‫و‬

‫الجوف‬

‫ومياه‬

‫اإلطفاء‪،‬‬

‫ومياه‬

‫الوحدة‪،‬‬

‫ّ‬



‫البحر‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫مختلف المصارف) من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر وبواخر‬

‫الدعم‪ /‬التموين‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫رفع وتصريف مياه التبريد من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪ES Ar xiii‬‬



‫الصحة العامة‬

‫ّ‬



‫حتمل لآلبار االستكشافية‪/‬التقييمية‬

‫الم َ‬

‫للبئر ‪ B4-1‬والخيار ُ‬

‫حتملة في البلوك ‪)4‬‬

‫الم َ‬

‫المستقبلية ُ‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫جودة الهواء‬



‫جودة المياه‬



‫جودة‪/‬تكوين الرواسب‬

‫التغيّر المناخي‬



‫القاعيات‬

‫ّ‬



‫العوالق‬



‫األسماك‬



‫األقدام‬

‫الطيور البحرية‬



‫الحيتانيات والسالحف وزعنفيات‬



‫الحساسة‬

‫الموائل البحرية ّ‬



‫البرية‬

‫اإليكولوجيا ّ‬

‫الموائل الساحلية‬



‫(األمن‪/‬السالمة)‬

‫البنى التحتية‬



‫الموارد األثرية والحضارية‬



‫جوية بفعل إنتاج الطاقة في وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‬

‫انبعاثات ّ‬

‫وبواخر الدعم‪ /‬التموين‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫حتمل حفره (ال ينطبق في حالة البئر ‪)B4-1‬‬

‫اختبار بئر التقييم المستقبلي ال ُم َ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫الضجيج تحت الماء نتيجة أنشطة المسح الزلزالي العمودي (‪)VSP‬‬

‫الضجيج تحت الماء نتيجة عمليات وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر وبواخر الدعم‪/‬‬



‫التموين‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫أنشطة الدعم (حركة بواخر الدعم)‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫تسرب األضواء من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬

‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫نقل المواد الكيميائية وتخزينها‬



‫ال آثار شرط إدارة المواد الكيميائية بالشكل المناسب‬



‫المشعة المختومة‬

‫تسجيل قياسات اآلبار باستخدام المصادر‬

‫ّ‬

‫أيضا على تخزين‬

‫‪( radioactive sealed sources‬ينطبق ً‬



‫ظل العمليات الطبيعية‬

‫ال آثار في ّ‬



‫تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية‬

‫الجوية‬

‫تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية – االنبعاثات ّ‬



‫الظروف االجتماعية‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫المشعة المختومة ونقلها على اليابسة)‬

‫المصادر‬

‫ّ‬



‫االقتصاد العام‬



‫ال آثار شرط إدارة النفايات بالشكل المناسب‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫حتملة‪ ،‬بحسب‬

‫الم َ‬

‫ينطبق على اآلبار االستكشافية‪/‬التقييمية المستقبلية ُ‬

‫سيتم اختيارها)‬

‫وحدة الحفر التي ّ‬



‫التعليم والتدريب‬



‫تشغيل المحرقة في وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر (ال ينطبق ذلك في‬

‫حالة البئر ‪ B4-1‬بسبب عدم وجود محرقة على وحدة الحفر‪ ،‬لكنّه قد‬



‫الشحن‬



‫اإلمداد‬



‫مصايد األسماك‬



‫إنتاج النفايات الصلبة في وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر وبواخر الدعم‪/‬‬



‫السياحة‬



‫الدعم‪/‬التموين‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫الصحة العامة‬

‫ّ‬



‫تسرب سوائل اإلثقال من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر وبواخر‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X X‬‬

‫‪X X‬‬



‫تسرب مياه الصرف‬

‫تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية – ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬

‫‪X‬‬



‫تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية – إنتاج الضجيج‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية – إدارة النفايات‬



‫ال آثار شرط إدارة النفايات بالشكل المناسب‬



‫تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية – إدارة المواد الكيميائية‬



‫ال آثار شرط إدارة المواد الكيميائية بالشكل المناسب‬



‫النقل بطائرات الهليكوبتر إلى مطار رفيق الحريري الدولي‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬

‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫حتملة‬

‫سيناريوهات الحوادث َ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫العَرضية ُ‬

‫سقوط جسم من وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر (الرفع)‬

‫حصول خلل في احتواء المواد الكيميائية على متن وحدة‬



‫الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‬

‫‪ES Ar xiv‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬

‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫جودة الهواء‬



‫جودة المياه‬



‫جودة‪/‬تكوين الرواسب‬

‫التغيّر المناخي‬



‫القاعيات‬

‫ّ‬



‫العوالق‬



‫األسماك‬



‫األقدام‬

‫الطيور البحرية‬



‫الحيتانيات والسالحف وزعنفيات‬



‫الحساسة‬

‫الموائل البحرية ّ‬



‫البرية‬

‫اإليكولوجيا ّ‬

‫الموائل الساحلية‬



‫(األمن‪/‬السالمة)‬

‫البنى التحتية‬



‫الموارد األثرية والحضارية‬



‫الظروف االجتماعية‬



‫االقتصاد العام‬



‫التعليم والتدريب‬



‫الشحن‬



‫مصايد األسماك‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫تسرب الغاز في‬

‫انفجار غازي على عمق منخفض – ّ‬

‫العمود المائي‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫تسرب االنبعاثات الكثيفة والغاز‬

‫انفجار – ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫اصطدام سفينة تابعة لطرف ثالث بوحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في‬

‫تسرب مخزونات وقود السفينة التابعة للطرف‬

‫البحر – ّ‬

‫الثالث‪ ،‬واحتمال وقوع أضرار في وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫السياحة‬



‫وتسرب سوائل الحفر في‬

‫حدوث ثقب في األنبوب الصاعد ّ‬

‫البحر‬



‫الصحة العامة‬

‫ّ‬



‫المشع في البئر‬

‫فقدان المصدر‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X X X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫البحر واألنبوب الصاعد‬



‫طم طائرة هليكوبتر على سطح وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في‬

‫تح ّ‬

‫تسرب وقود الطيران في البحر‬

‫البحر – ّ‬



‫بحر‬

‫حصول خلل في إجراءات االحتواء أثناء نقل المواد ًا‬

‫تسرب سوائل الحفر‬

‫إلى وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر – ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫أو الديزل البحري في البحر‬



‫المنصة) بسبب الظروف‬

‫منصة (انقالب‬

‫ّ‬

‫فقدان توازن ال ّ‬

‫تسرب مخزونات الوقود‬

‫مع‬

‫المناخية البحرية‪،‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫وتسرب‬

‫يؤدي إلى ُّ‬

‫وقوع زلزال‪ ،‬ما ّ‬

‫تضرر سالمة البئر ّ‬

‫الهيدروكربونات في البحر‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X X‬‬



‫‪X X X‬‬



‫‪X X X X X‬‬



‫حصول خلل في إجراءات االحتواء أثناء نقل المواد إلى‬



‫تسرب سوائل الحفر‪/‬‬

‫بواخر الدعم‪ /‬اإلمداد على الرصيف – ّ‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫‪X‬‬



‫الديزل في البحر‬



‫الم َّ‬

‫قدمة في دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي على النحو التالي‪.‬‬

‫يمكن تجميع اآلثار ُ‬



‫التجهيز والتركيب والتفكيك‬

‫ترتبط اآلثار الناجمة عن تجهيز وتركيب وتفكيك وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر بأنشطة تشغيل جهاز الحفر واالنبعاثات‬

‫المحركات والتحديد الموقعي الديناميكي)‪ ،‬وتصريفات المياه العادمة (مياه‬

‫المحركات)‪ ،‬والضجيج (من‬

‫المتّصلة به (عوادم‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫‪ES Ar xv‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫الصحي‪ ،‬والنفايات الغذائية المتآكلة‪ ،‬وتصريفات وحدة التحلية‪ ،‬والتصريف‪ ،‬ومياه التبريد‪ ،‬ومياه الصابورة)‪ .‬وهناك‬

‫الصرف‬

‫ّ‬

‫جراء وجود وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر ومنطقة األمان التابعة لها‪.3‬‬

‫ً‬

‫حتملة على الشحن ومصايد األسماك من ّ‬

‫أيضا آثار ُم َ‬

‫تم اختيار سفينة حفر لبرنامج حفر البئر ‪ .B4-1‬في حال استخدام جهاز حفر نصف مغمور لآلبار االستكشافية‪/‬التقييمية‬

‫ّ‬

‫أي معالم‬

‫حتملة ناتجة عن عملية الرسو على رواسب قاع البحر والبيئات القاعية‪ ،‬و ّ‬

‫التي قد تُقام الحًقا‪ ،‬فهناك آثار إضافية ُم َ‬

‫أثرية غير معروفة في قاع البحر‪.‬‬



‫عمليات الحفر‬

‫وكميات صغيرة من اإلسمنت‬

‫ّ‬

‫تؤدي عمليات الحفر إلى تصريفات في البيئة البحرية‪ ،‬مثل ّ‬

‫العينات الفتاتية وسوائل الحفر‪ّ ،‬‬

‫وطالء األنابيب وسوائل اختبار مانع االنفجار‪.‬‬

‫ازداد عمق عملية الحفر‪.‬‬

‫يجيا كّلما َ‬

‫ويصِبح الُقطر )‪ (diameter‬أضيق تدر ً‬

‫سيتم حفر آبار البلوك ‪ 4‬على خمس طبقات‪ُ ،‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫العينات الفتاتية الناتجة خالل‬

‫يتم حفر الطبقتَْين األولى والثانية من الثقب "من دون أنبوب صاعد" (ال توجد إمكانية الستعادة ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫العينات الفتاتية وسوائل الحفر في قاع البحر مباشرًة حول موقع البئر‪ .‬تُحَفر هذه الطبقات‬

‫حفر هذه الطبقات)‬

‫وتترسب ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫باستخدام مياه البحر وسوائل الحفر المائية‪.‬‬



‫العينات الفتاتية وسوائل الحفر إلى وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة‪.‬‬

‫يتم وضع أنبوب بحري‪ ،‬وتُعاد ّ‬

‫وبالنسبة إلى الطبقات الثالث الباقية‪ّ ،‬‬

‫هناك خياران في ما يتعّلق باستخدام سوائل الحفر في هذه الطبقات السفلية‪:‬‬

‫•‬



‫الخيار ‪ :1‬استخدام سائل حفر غير مائي (‪ )NADF‬لضمان مالءمته مع التكوينات الجيولوجية الموجودة‪ .‬في هذه‬

‫يتم شحنها إلى الشاطئ للمعالجة والتخّلص منها‪.‬‬

‫يتم تصريف ّ‬

‫العينات الفتاتية وسوائل الحفر‪ ،‬بل ّ‬

‫الحالة‪ ،‬لن ّ‬



‫•‬



‫عينات الفتاتية في‬

‫يتم تصريف ال ّ‬

‫الخيار ‪ :2‬استخدام سائل حفر مائي عالي األداء (‪ .)HPWBDF‬في هذه الحالة‪ّ ،‬‬

‫عينات الفتاتية على‬

‫البحر من جهاز الحفر‪ ،‬ويخضع ذلك لموافقة السلطات‬

‫يتم فصل سوائل الحفر عن ال ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫المعنية‪ .‬و ّ‬

‫منصة جهاز الحفر وُيعاد استخدامها في طبقات اآلبار الالحقة‪.‬‬

‫ّ‬



‫جي ًدا في‬

‫األول ‪ B4-1‬بما ّ‬

‫أن التكوينات الجيولوجية ألسفل البئر غير معروفة ّ‬

‫ألول للبئر االستكشافي ّ‬

‫تم اختيار الخيار ا ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الوقت الحالي‪ ،‬وخيار سائل الحفر غير المائي ‪ NADF‬يوّفر ثباتًا أفضل للبئر‪ .‬وبالنسبة إلى اآلبار الالحقة في البلوك ‪،4‬‬

‫اعتمادا على نتائج البئر األ ّول‪.‬‬

‫يتم تطبيق الخيار ‪ 1‬أو الخيار ‪2‬‬

‫ً‬

‫ّ‬

‫العينات الفتاتية وسوائل الحفر المائية في البحر فقد يؤثّر على جودة مياه البحر والرواسب‪ ،‬والكائنات‬

‫أما التخّلص من ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الحساسة‪ ،‬ومصايد األسماك والبنى‬

‫القاعية‪ ،‬والكائنات التي تعيش في العمود المائي (األسماك والعوالق)‪ ،‬والموائل البحرية ّ‬

‫جراء‬

‫العينات الفتاتية ًّا‬

‫التحتية (الكابالت البحرية)‪ .‬وس ّ‬

‫تؤدي عملية التخّلص من ّ‬

‫الجوية من ّ‬

‫بر إلى آثار مرتبطة باالنبعاثات ّ‬



‫‪3‬‬



‫سيتم إنشاء منطقة أمان (‪ 500‬م) حول وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر )‪.(MODU‬‬

‫ّ‬



‫‪ES Ar xvi‬‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫األول في برنامج‬

‫المستقِبالت ّ‬

‫البرية‪ .‬تجدر اإلشارة إلى ّأنه في حالة البئر ّ‬

‫حتملة على ُ‬

‫النقل بالبواخر‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى اآلثار ال ُم َ‬



‫العينات الفتاتية الناتجة عن سوائل الحفر غير المائية إلى قبرص لمعالجتها والتخّلص منها في‬

‫سيتم تصدير ّ‬

‫حفر البلوك ‪ّ ،4‬‬

‫منشآة المعالجة التابعة لـ"مركز الحلول البيئية المبتكرة" )‪ .(IESC‬تخضع هذه المنشأة لتر ٍ‬

‫خيص منفصل من ِقَبل السلطات في‬

‫عتبر هذا المسار خارج نطاق هذه الدراسة لتقييم األثر البيئي‪.‬‬

‫وي َ‬

‫قبرص‪ُ ،‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫يؤدي ذلك إلى إنتاج ضجيج نبضي تحت الماء في المنطقة‬

‫في حال أُجر َي مسح زلزالي عمودي لآلبار في البلوك ‪ ،4‬سوف ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫أيضا أنشطة‬

‫وخصوصا الحيتان والدالفين والسالحف‪.‬‬

‫جدا‪ ،‬ما قد يؤثّر على الحيوانات البحرية‪،‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫لفترة زمنية قصيرة ً‬

‫وستؤدي ً‬

‫ً‬

‫ومستمرة من الضجيج تحت الماء‪.‬‬

‫الحفر على وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة إلى مستويات أدنى‬

‫ّ‬



‫األول في البلوك رقم ‪ .4‬وفي حال إجراء عملية اختبار ٍ‬

‫لبئر في المستقبل‪ ،‬فسيترافق‬

‫يتم إجراء اختبار لبئر االستكشاف ّ‬

‫لن ّ‬

‫حتملة على جودة الهواء‪.‬‬

‫ذلك مع انبعاثات ّ‬

‫جراء إحراق سوائل االختبار‪ ،‬مع تأثيرات ُم َ‬



‫جراء مراسي‬

‫وقد تؤثّر عمليات وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر على الموارد األثرية والحضارية (خالل بدء حفر البئر ومن ّ‬

‫أن وجود وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة ومنطقة األمان التابعة قد يؤثّر على الشحن ومصايد األسماك‬

‫جهاز الحفر شبه المغمور)‪ ،‬كما ّ‬

‫الم ِط ّل على البحر من الشاطئ)‪.‬‬

‫حتمل أن يؤثّر ً‬

‫ُ‬

‫أيضا على السياحة (من تغييرات المنظر ُ‬

‫وي َ‬

‫أعمال الدعم‬

‫طة خلط سوائل‬

‫جراء تشغيل مح ّ‬

‫حتمل أن ّ‬

‫البر إلى آثار متعّلقة بالهواء والضجيج من ّ‬

‫تؤدي القاعدة اللوجستية على ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫من ُ‬

‫حتملة‬

‫أي موّلد(موّلدات) مرتبط(ـة) بها ومن ّ‬

‫الحفر‪/‬منشأة التجميع و ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫جراء عمليات التحميل‪/‬التفريغ‪ ،‬باإلضافة إلى اآلثار ُ‬

‫يؤدي إلى ُف َرص عمل‬

‫فإن تشغيل القاعدة اللوجستية قد ّ‬

‫على البنية التحتية لمرفأ بيروت‪ .‬وفي ما يتعّلق باآلثار اإليجابية‪ّ ،‬‬

‫علما أّنها تقتصر على مرحلة االستكشاف هذه)‪.‬‬

‫وتدريب محّلية ( ً‬



‫تؤدي حركة بواخر التموين بين وحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر والقاعدة اللوجستية إلى آثار‬

‫حتمل أن ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫من جهة أخرى‪ ،‬من ُ‬

‫على الحيوانات البحرية (آثار ناجمة عن الضجيج تحت الماء)‪ ،‬وجودة المياه (من عمليات تصريف المياه العادمة التشغيلية‬

‫من البواخر)‪ ،‬والبنى التحتية الساحلية (مرفأ بيروت)‪ ،‬والشحن‪ ،‬ومصايد األسماك‪ ،‬والسياحة (األنشطة الترفيهية)‪.‬‬

‫حتملة مرتبطة بالضجيج على الموائل الساحلية‬

‫ّ‬

‫أما عمليات نقل طواقم العمل بواسطة طائرات الهليكوبتر فقد يكون لها آثار ُم َ‬

‫الحساسة‪ ،‬والمجتمعات المحّلية‪ ،‬والسياحة‪.‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫العَرضية واآلثار العابرة للحدود‬

‫الحوادث َ‬



‫عادة ما تط أر نتيجة‬

‫طط لها بشكل منفصل عن العمليات الروتينية المخ ّ‬

‫يتم تحليل الحوادث المفاجئة أو غير المخ ّ‬

‫طط لها‪ ،‬إذ ً‬

‫ّ‬

‫وقوع خلل ّفني أو خطأ بشري أو ظاهرة طبيعية‪ ،‬كالزالزل‪.‬‬



‫‪4‬‬

‫بسماعات أرضية داخل حفرة البئر ومصادر (مجموعة مدافع هوائية) على السطح قرب البئر‪ .‬وتُ ِنتج هذه الطريقة عادةً معلومات‬

‫المسح الزلزالي العمودي يشمل إجراء عمليات قياس ّ‬

‫جيولوجية أكثر دّقة من تقنية المسح الزلزالي بالمصفوفات السطحية المقطورة‪.‬‬



‫‪ES Ar xvii‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫ُيظ ِهر الجدول ‪ ES-1‬احتماالت تمثيلية عن حوادث قد تقع خالل حملة أعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪ ،4‬كما ترد هذه‬

‫تسرب‬

‫االحتماالت بشكل أكثر‬

‫ً‬

‫تم إجراء عملية نمذجة َ‬

‫لنوع ْين من حوادث ّ‬

‫تفصيال في الفصل ‪ 6‬من دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ّ .‬‬

‫ٍ‬

‫تسرب فوري لكمية كبيرة من وقود الديزل‬

‫الهيدروكربونات على‬

‫تسرب االنبعاثات الكثيفة و ّ‬

‫نطاق واسع (انفجار البئر مع ّ‬

‫البحري في البلوك ‪ )4‬كجزء من دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ .‬وتُشير النتائج إلى إمكانية وصول بعض بقايا النفط إلى الساحل‬

‫الشمالي للبنان وسوريا‪.‬‬



‫أساسيا من عملية اإلجراءات التخفيفية‪،‬‬

‫حد من احتمال وقوع حادث انسكاب‪/‬تسرُّب جزًءا‬

‫عتبر الضوابط والتدابير الرامية إلى ال ّ‬

‫ً‬

‫تُ َ‬



‫طة للطوارئ‬

‫وهي َّ‬

‫الخاصة بحوادث االنسكابات النفطية‪ ،‬مع‬

‫موضحة في الفصل ‪ .6‬وقامت شركة ‪ TEP Liban‬بوضع خ ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫للحد قدر اإلمكان من اآلثار المنتقلة إلى الساحل وعبر الحدود‪.‬‬

‫التركيز على تحسين االستجابة في البحر ّ‬

‫اآلثار التراكمية‬

‫أي أنشطة محّلية ناتجة عن‬

‫األولي (أي المشروع الحالي) مع ّ‬

‫اآلثار التراكمية تأخذ في االعتبار األثر اإلضافي للنشاط ّ‬

‫طرف ثالث‪.‬‬

‫الخاص بشركة ‪ TEP Liban‬في البلوك ‪ّ 4‬أول نشاط حفر استكشافي بحري في لبنان‪ .‬والبلوك اآلخر‬

‫سيكون برنامج الحفر‬

‫ّ‬

‫أيضا‪ .‬تبلُغ المسافة التقريبية‬

‫حاليا هو البلوك ‪،9‬‬

‫وتتعهده شركة ‪ً TEP Liban‬‬

‫تم اعتماده ً‬

‫ّ‬

‫الوحيد في المياه البحرية اللبنانية الذي ّ‬

‫َّ‬

‫أي أنشطة متزامنة في‬

‫التي تفصل بين البلوك ‪ 4‬والبلوك ‪ 9‬حوالى ‪ 45‬كلم‪ .‬بالتالي‪ ،‬ال ُيتوقع حدوث آثار تراكمية من ّ‬

‫المستقبل في هاتين الرقعتَْين‪.‬‬



‫وال توجد مشاريع مستقبلية أخرى معروفة في منطقة البلوك ‪.4‬‬

‫إدارة وتنفيذ اإلجراءات التخفيفية‬



‫يجب وضع إجراءات لضمان تنفيذ شركة ‪ TEP Liban‬والمقاولين االلتزامات الواردة في دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي خالل حملة‬

‫أعمال الحفر االستكشافي‪.‬‬

‫يتم رصد هذه‬

‫سجل التزامات‬

‫تم إعداد‬

‫ّ‬

‫تم تحديدها في دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي‪ّ .‬‬

‫يضم جميع اإلجراءات التخفيفية التي ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫وقد ّ‬

‫االلتزامات من خالل خطط لإلدارة البيئية واالجتماعية‪ ،‬أ ِ‬

‫تشكل خطط اإلدارة البيئية واالجتماعية‬

‫ُع َّدت لحملة أعمال الحفر‪ّ .‬‬

‫أساسا‬

‫الصحة والسالمة والبيئة‬

‫جزًءا من نظام إدارة‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الخاص بشركة ‪ .TEP Liban‬وتش ّكل خطط اإلدارة البيئية واالجتماعية ً‬

‫المعنيين بوحدة الحفر المتنّقلة في البحر‪ ،‬وسوائل الحفر واإلسمنت؛‬

‫إلعداد وتنفيذ خطط الحقة تفصيلية من قبل المقاولين‬

‫ّ‬



‫سيطَلب منهم االلتزام بالمتطّلبات البيئية‬

‫والمقاول المعني بالقاعدة اللوجستية؛ والمقاول المعني ببواخر الدعم‪/‬اإلمداد‪ ،‬الذين ُ‬



‫الخاصة بشركة ‪.TEP Liban‬‬

‫واالجتماعية ذات الصلة‪ ،‬الواردة في خطط اإلدارة البيئية واالجتماعية‬

‫ّ‬

‫الصحة والسالمة والبيئة‪.‬‬

‫خاصة بهم إلدارة‬

‫ّ‬

‫كذلك‪ ،‬على المقاولين وضع أنظمة ّ‬

‫الخالصة‬



‫‪ES Ar xviii‬‬



‫شركة ‪Total E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



‫تقييما لآلثار البيئية واالجتماعية المرتبطة بأعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البحر التي تعتزم شركة‬

‫ّ‬

‫قد َم هذا التقرير ً‬

‫القيام بها في البلوك ‪.4‬‬



‫‪TEP Liban‬‬



‫استنادا إلى‬

‫قترح للبئر االستكشافي ‪B4-1‬‬

‫ً‬

‫الم َ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫تم اختيار الموقع ُ‬

‫تم النظر في البدائل الممكنة ألعمال المشروع ُ‬

‫قترحة؛ و ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫سيكون‬

‫مخزون‬

‫يصا للعمل في بيئة‬

‫خص‬

‫ا‬

‫م‬

‫صم‬

‫م‬

‫الحفر‬

‫جهاز‬

‫أن‬

‫كما‬

‫؛‬

‫تقب‬

‫ر‬

‫م‬

‫ال‬

‫ات‬

‫بون‬

‫ر‬

‫الهيدروك‬

‫نحو‬

‫المباشر‬

‫الحفر‬

‫مسار‬

‫ّ‬

‫ُ َّ ً ّ ً‬

‫التعامل مع التصريفات الناتجة عن‬

‫وسيتم‬

‫وسيتضمن ميزات تشغيلية عالية الكفاءة؛‬

‫المياه العميقة في البلوك ‪ 4‬في لبنان‪،‬‬

‫ّ‬

‫ُ‬

‫ّ‬

‫تنص عليه اتّفاقية "ماربول" )‪.78/73 (MARPOL‬‬

‫أعمال الحفر وفًقا لما ّ‬



‫الحد قدر اإلمكان من اإلخالل بالبنية التحتية‬

‫الخاصة بالمشروع‬

‫البرية‬

‫استنادا إلى مبدأ ّ‬

‫ً‬

‫تم اختيار موقع القاعدة اللوجستية ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬

‫الحالية‪ ،‬وكان مرفأ بيروت هو الخيار األقرب واألنسب حيث تتوّفر فيه اإلمكانات المطلوبة دون الحاجة إلى التوسيع‪.‬‬



‫ِ‬

‫وتم‬

‫تم تحديد جميع ُ‬

‫المستقبالت )‪ (receptors‬البيئية واالجتماعية‪-‬االقتصادية التي ترتبط بالمشروع‪ّ ،‬‬

‫خالل تقييم األثر البيئي‪ّ ،‬‬

‫تجنب‬

‫تم النظر في اإلجراءات التخفيفية إذا لم يكن من الممكن ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫تقييم مدى حساسيتها تجاه أعمال المشروع ُ‬

‫قترحة‪ ،‬كما ّ‬

‫المحددة في هذا التقييم قابلة للمعالجة مع وجود بعض اآلثار المقبولة‬

‫اآلثار‪ .‬باختصار‪ ،‬من المتوّقع أن تكون جميع اآلثار‬

‫ّ‬

‫التي قد تبقى بعد تطبيق اإلجراءات التخفيفية‪.‬‬



‫يتم تقديمه‬

‫تجدر اإلشارة إلى ّ‬

‫الم َ‬

‫أن مشروع الحفر االستكشافي ُ‬

‫قترح من قبل ‪ TEP Liban‬هو ّأول مشروع من هذا النوع ّ‬

‫حتملة على االقتصاد الوطني‬

‫للموافقة عليه في لبنان‪ .‬بالتالي‪ ،‬إذا نجحت عملية االستكشاف‪ ،‬فقد تكون لها آثار مفيدة ُم َ‬

‫للبنان‪.‬‬



‫‪ES Ar xix‬‬



‫شركة ‪TOTAL E&P Liban Sal‬‬

‫دراسة تقييم األثر البيئي ألعمال الحفر االستكشافي في البلوك ‪( 4‬لبنان)‬

‫‪RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 04 rev2‬‬



[This page has intentionally been left blank.]



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



CONTENTS

1



2



3



INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1-1

1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1-1

1.2 Background .......................................................................................................................... 1-1

1.3 Overview of Block 4 exploration drilling campaign ............................................................... 1-3

1.4 Project justification................................................................................................................ 1-4

1.5 EIA objectives ....................................................................................................................... 1-5

1.6 EIA team ............................................................................................................................... 1-5

1.7 EIA report structure .............................................................................................................. 1-6

1.8 EIA process and methodology ............................................................................................. 1-7

1.8.1 EIA process .............................................................................................................. 1-7

1.8.2 Screening ................................................................................................................. 1-7

1.8.3 Scoping ..................................................................................................................... 1-7

1.8.4 Base case design and project alternatives ............................................................. 1-11

1.8.5 Existing conditions .................................................................................................. 1-11

1.8.6 Public consultation.................................................................................................. 1-12

1.8.7 Impact assessment................................................................................................. 1-13

1.8.8 Management and implementation .......................................................................... 1-25

POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ........................................................ 2-1

2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 2-1

2.2 National institutional framework ........................................................................................... 2-1

2.3 National policy .................................................................................................................... 2-10

2.4 National legislation ............................................................................................................. 2-16

2.5 National EIA process and approvals .................................................................................. 2-28

2.6 Exploration and production agreement for petroleum activities in Block 4 ........................ 2-30

2.7 International conventions and agreements ........................................................................ 2-31

2.8 Corporate commitments ..................................................................................................... 2-43

2.8.1 TOTAL’s Safety, Health, Environment, Quality (SHEQ) Charter ........................... 2-43

2.8.2 TOTAL’s General Specification Documents ........................................................... 2-43

2.8.3 OSPAR Convention ................................................................................................ 2-43

2.9 Best available industry practice .......................................................................................... 2-45

2.10 Standards and limits for the project .................................................................................... 2-45

2.10.1 National environmental standards .......................................................................... 2-45

2.10.2 Environmental standards – international/regional conventions .............................. 2-49

2.10.3 Environmental standards – international best practice .......................................... 2-52

2.10.4 Summary of project adopted standards/limits ........................................................ 2-54

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ........................................................................................................... 3-1

3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 3-1

3.2 Objectives of the stakeholder engagement .......................................................................... 3-1

3.3 Stakeholder identification and analysis ................................................................................ 3-2

3.3.1 Stakeholder identification ......................................................................................... 3-2

3.3.2 Identification of vulnerable groups ............................................................................ 3-3

3.3.3 Stakeholder analysis ................................................................................................ 3-3

3.4 Scoping public consultation meeting .................................................................................... 3-4



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



i



4



ii



3.4.1 Activities undertaken ................................................................................................ 3-4

3.4.2 Public consultation preparation ................................................................................ 3-5

3.4.3 Presentation materials used for public consultation ................................................. 3-5

3.4.4 Reference material for stakeholder engagement materials ..................................... 3-5

3.4.5 Undertaking the public consultation meeting ........................................................... 3-5

3.4.6 Recording the public consultation meeting .............................................................. 3-6

3.4.7 Analysis of stakeholder issues raised ...................................................................... 3-6

3.5 Scoping phase stakeholder engagement ........................................................................... 3-10

3.5.1 Activities undertaken .............................................................................................. 3-10

3.5.2 Arrangement of scoping stakeholder engagement meetings ................................. 3-10

3.5.3 Presentation materials used during scoping engagement meetings ..................... 3-10

3.5.4 Reference materials used for scoping engagement meetings ............................... 3-10

3.5.5 Undertaking the scoping phase engagement meetings ......................................... 3-10

3.5.6 Recording the scoping phase engagement meetings ............................................ 3-11

3.5.7 Analysis of stakeholder issues raised .................................................................... 3-11

3.6 Baseline phase stakeholder engagement .......................................................................... 3-16

3.6.1 Activities undertaken .............................................................................................. 3-16

3.6.2 Arrangement of baseline stakeholder engagement meetings ................................ 3-16

3.6.3 Presentation materials used during baseline engagement meetings .................... 3-17

3.6.4 Reference materials used during baseline engagement meetings ........................ 3-17

3.6.5 Undertaking baseline phase engagement meetings .............................................. 3-17

3.6.6 Recording the baseline phase engagement meetings ........................................... 3-19

3.6.7 Analysis of stakeholder issues raised .................................................................... 3-19

3.7 Disclosure public consultation meetings ............................................................................ 3-23

3.7.1 Activities undertaken .............................................................................................. 3-23

3.7.2 Arrangement of disclosure public consultation meetings ....................................... 3-23

3.7.3 Presentation materials ............................................................................................ 3-23

3.7.4 Reference materials ............................................................................................... 3-23

3.7.5 Undertaking disclosure public consultation meetings ............................................ 3-24

3.7.6 Recording the disclosure public consultation feedback ......................................... 3-24

3.7.7 Analysis of stakeholder issues raised .................................................................... 3-25

3.8 Grievance management procedure .................................................................................... 3-28

3.9 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 3-28

PROJECT DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................... 4-1

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4-1

4.2 Previous related activities ..................................................................................................... 4-1

4.3 Mobile offshore drilling unit ................................................................................................... 4-3

4.3.1 MODU mobilisation, installation and demobilisation ................................................ 4-4

4.4 Drilling ................................................................................................................................... 4-5

4.4.1 Overview of drilling process ..................................................................................... 4-5

4.4.2 Well design ............................................................................................................... 4-6

4.4.3 Shallow hazards ....................................................................................................... 4-7

4.4.4 Drilling fluids ............................................................................................................. 4-8

4.4.5 Drilling chemicals.................................................................................................... 4-11

4.4.6 Cementing .............................................................................................................. 4-16

4.4.7 Well logging ............................................................................................................ 4-17

4.4.8 Well test .................................................................................................................. 4-18

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4.4.9 Vertical seismic profile ............................................................................................ 4-18

4.4.10 Abandonment ......................................................................................................... 4-19

4.4.11 Lifting and loading .................................................................................................. 4-20

4.4.12 Upset conditions ..................................................................................................... 4-20

4.5 Shore-based operations and transfers ............................................................................... 4-20

4.5.1 Logistics base ......................................................................................................... 4-20

4.5.2 Drilling fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities .......................................................... 4-21

4.5.3 Use and storage of chemicals ................................................................................ 4-24

4.5.4 Waste storage and transfer .................................................................................... 4-25

4.5.5 Refuelling of vessels............................................................................................... 4-26

4.5.6 Power and water supply ......................................................................................... 4-26

4.5.7 Security ................................................................................................................... 4-26

4.5.8 Decommissioning of logistics base ........................................................................ 4-27

4.5.9 Road transportation of waste and materials ........................................................... 4-27

4.5.10 Shore-based transfers ............................................................................................ 4-27

4.6 Emissions, discharges and wastes .................................................................................... 4-29

4.6.1 Air emissions .......................................................................................................... 4-29

4.6.2 Drilling discharges .................................................................................................. 4-31

4.6.3 Other discharges .................................................................................................... 4-34

4.6.4 Discharges from logistics base ............................................................................... 4-38

4.6.5 Solid wastes ........................................................................................................... 4-38

4.6.6 Summary of discharges, emissions and wastes from entire Block 4 drilling

programme ............................................................................................................. 4-44

4.7 Work force .......................................................................................................................... 4-46

4.8 Schedule ............................................................................................................................. 4-46

DESCRIPTION OF THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT ....................................................... 5-1

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 5-1

5.1.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 5-1

5.1.2 Receptors ................................................................................................................. 5-1

5.1.3 Area of influence ....................................................................................................... 5-5

5.1.4 Sensitivity ................................................................................................................. 5-6

5.1.5 Assumptions and data considerations...................................................................... 5-6

5.2 Geographical context ........................................................................................................... 5-7

5.3 Physical environment ......................................................................................................... 5-11

5.3.1 Metocean conditions............................................................................................... 5-11

5.3.2 Geology and geohazards ....................................................................................... 5-52

5.3.3 Seascape ................................................................................................................ 5-73

5.3.4 Summary of key physical sensitivities .................................................................... 5-74

5.4 Biological environment ....................................................................................................... 5-76

5.4.1 Benthic communities .............................................................................................. 5-77

5.4.2 Coastal benthic habitats ......................................................................................... 5-90

5.4.3 Planktonic communities .......................................................................................... 5-91

5.4.4 Fish and fishery resources ..................................................................................... 5-96

5.4.5 Marine mammals .................................................................................................. 5-100

5.4.6 Marine turtles ........................................................................................................ 5-103

5.4.7 Offshore birds ....................................................................................................... 5-104

5.4.8 Onshore fauna ...................................................................................................... 5-109



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7



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5.4.9 Protected areas .................................................................................................... 5-110

5.4.10 Shoreline oil spill sensitivity .................................................................................. 5-120

5.4.11 Invasive species ................................................................................................... 5-120

5.4.12 Summary of key biological sensitivities ................................................................ 5-122

5.5 Social environment ........................................................................................................... 5-124

5.5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 5-124

5.5.2 Assumptions and data considerations.................................................................. 5-138

5.5.3 Socio-economic baseline summary ...................................................................... 5-139

5.6 Sensitivity assessment ..................................................................................................... 5-173

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROJECT ................................................................................ 6-1

6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 6-1

6.2 Impact identification matrix ................................................................................................... 6-1

6.3 Environmental impact assessment – routine activities......................................................... 6-7

6.3.1 Marine activities ........................................................................................................ 6-7

6.3.2 Onshore activities ................................................................................................... 6-63

6.3.3 Summary environmental impact assessment table ................................................ 6-69

6.4 Social impact assessment – routine activities .................................................................... 6-90

6.4.1 Marine activities ...................................................................................................... 6-90

6.4.2 Onshore activities ................................................................................................. 6-102

6.4.3 Impacts on ecosystem services ........................................................................... 6-113

6.4.4 Summary social and cultural heritage impact assessment table ......................... 6-114

6.5 Accidental events, cumulative and transboundary impacts ............................................. 6-127

6.5.1 Accidental events/major hazards ......................................................................... 6-127

6.5.2 Impacts from large-scale hydrocarbon loss of containment (AE6, AE7 and AE10) ... 6141

6.5.3 Cumulative impacts .............................................................................................. 6-167

6.5.4 Transboundary impacts ........................................................................................ 6-168

ANALYSIS OF PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ............................................................................... 7-1

7.1 Exploration well site location ................................................................................................ 7-1

7.2 Drilling unit type and specifications ...................................................................................... 7-2

7.3 Crew transfers to the rig ....................................................................................................... 7-4

7.4 Drilling fluid selection ............................................................................................................ 7-4

7.5 Treatment/disposal of drilling fluids and cuttings ................................................................. 7-6

7.5.1 Ship to shore for onshore treatment and disposal ................................................... 7-7

7.5.2 Offshore discharge ................................................................................................... 7-7

7.5.3 Preferred option ........................................................................................................ 7-8

7.6 Scheduling of drilling programme for the first well ............................................................. 7-10

7.7 No project option ................................................................................................................ 7-11

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLANS ...................................................... 8-1

8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 8-1

8.2 TEP Liban’s HSE management system ............................................................................... 8-1

8.3 Organisational structure and responsibilities ....................................................................... 8-4

8.4 Commitments register and ESMP matrix ............................................................................. 8-4

8.5 Environmental and social management plans ..................................................................... 8-5

8.5.1 Waste management plan (WMP) ............................................................................. 8-5

8.5.2 Chemicals management plan (CMP) ....................................................................... 8-6

8.5.3 Pollution prevention and environmental monitoring plan (PPEMP) ......................... 8-7

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8.5.4 Social management plan (SMP) ............................................................................... 8-7

8.5.5 Oil spill contingency plan (OSCP) ............................................................................ 8-8

8.6 Associated plans .................................................................................................................. 8-9

8.6.1 Emergency response plan (ERP) ............................................................................. 8-9

8.6.2 Blowout contingency plan (BOCP) ........................................................................... 8-9

8.6.3 Drilling operations stakeholder management plan (DOSMP) ................................ 8-10

8.6.4 Grievance management procedure ........................................................................ 8-10

8.7 Contractor plans and procedures ....................................................................................... 8-11

CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 9-1

9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 9-1

9.2 Summary of potential routine impacts .................................................................................. 9-1

9.3 Summary of accidental events ............................................................................................. 9-2

9.4 Summary of cumulative and transboundary impacts ........................................................... 9-3

9.5 Management and implementation of mitigation measures .................................................. 9-3

9.6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 9-4



TABLES

Table 1.1: EIA report content .............................................................................................................. 1-6

Table 1.2: Definitions to assist with scoring the intensity of the impact ............................................ 1-15

Table 1.3: Definitions to assist with scoring of receptor sensitivity ................................................... 1-19

Table 1.4: Impact significance scale ................................................................................................. 1-22

Table 1.5: Likelihood categories for unplanned/accidental events ................................................... 1-23

Table 1.6: Accidental impact significance/risk scale ......................................................................... 1-24

Table 2.1: Roles and responsibilities of the prime stakeholders......................................................... 2-2

Table 2.2: Key plans, programmes and strategies ........................................................................... 2-11

Table 2.3: Key national legislation of relevance to the Block 4 exploration drilling programme ....... 2-17

Table 2.4: Relevant international conventions and protocols ........................................................... 2-32

Table 2.5: Maximum allowable concentrations of ambient air contaminants (MoE Decision No.

52/1/1996) ......................................................................................................................................... 2-46

Table 2.6: Maximum emission limits of air contaminants (MoE Decision No. 8/1/2001) .................. 2-46

Table 2.7: Maximum limits (ELVs) for wastewater discharge into receiving waterbodies and public

sewers (MoE Decision No. 8/1/2001) ............................................................................................... 2-47

Table 2.8: Maximum allowable noise levels ...................................................................................... 2-49

Table 2.9: Permissible noise exposure standards ............................................................................ 2-49

Table 2.10: Key provisions in MARPOL 73/78 of relevance to the Block 4 exploration drilling

programme ........................................................................................................................................ 2-49

Table 2.11: HMCS hazard quotients and colour bands .................................................................... 2-52

Table 2.12: Marine mammal criteria for onset of injury (per 24-hour period) ................................... 2-52

Table 2.13: Marine mammal criteria for onset of disturbance........................................................... 2-53

Table 2.14: Sea turtle criteria for onset of injury (impulsive noise) ................................................... 2-54

Table 2.15: Sea turtle criteria for onset of disturbance ..................................................................... 2-54

Table 2.16: Environmental discharge standards for Block 4 exploration drilling campaign ............. 2-55

Table 2.17: Atmospheric emission standards and noise emission standards for Block 4 exploration

drilling campaign ............................................................................................................................... 2-61

Table 2.18: Chemical selection standards for Block 4 exploration drilling campaign ....................... 2-64

Table 3.1: Stakeholder categories ...................................................................................................... 3-2

Table 3.2: Stakeholder issue categories ............................................................................................. 3-7

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Table 3.3: Stakeholder issue categories ........................................................................................... 3-12

Table 3.4: Baseline phase engagement meetings ............................................................................ 3-17

Table 4.1: Tungsten Explorer drillship specifications ........................................................................... 4-3

Table 4.2: Proposed Block 4 drilling fluids ........................................................................................... 4-9

Table 4.3: Approximate chemical composition of WBDF to be used for the 26-in. hole section of Block

4 wells ................................................................................................................................................ 4-12

Table 4.4: Approximate chemical composition of drilling fluid to be used for the lower-hole sections of

Block 4 wells (17½-in., 12¼-in. and 8½-in. lower-hole sections): Option 1, NADF ........................... 4-13

Table 4.5: Approximate chemical composition of drilling fluid to be used for the lower-hole sections of

Block 4 wells (17½-in., 12¼-in. and 8½-in. lower-hole sections): Option 2, HPWBDF ..................... 4-14

Table 4.6: Information on drilling fluid contingency chemicals for Block 4 wells ............................... 4-15

Table 4.7: Approximate chemical composition of cement for Block 4 wells ...................................... 4-16

Table 4.8: Information on cementing contingency chemicals for Block 4 wells ................................. 4-17

Table 4.9: Well logging radioactive sources ...................................................................................... 4-18

Table 4.10: Example support/supply vessel specifications ................................................................ 4-28

Table 4.11: Estimated air pollutant emissions from B4-1 drilling programme (and the full possible 3

well programme) ................................................................................................................................ 4-30

Table 4.12: Estimated greenhouse gas emissions from B4-1 drilling programme (and the full possible

three-well programme) ....................................................................................................................... 4-31

Table 4.13: Estimated quantities of water-based cuttings and drilling fluids discharged per well in

Block 4................................................................................................................................................ 4-33

Table 4.14 : Estimated quantities of sanitary waste generated during B4-1 drilling (and the full

possible three-well programme) ......................................................................................................... 4-35

Table 4.15: Indicative list of wastes, disposal contractors and treatment / disposal routes, and

estimated quantities from Block 4 drilling programme ....................................................................... 4-41

Table 4.16 : Estimated quantities of cuttings and drilling fluids returned to shore during drilling of B4-1

well (Option 1 only, NADF) (and for a 3 well programme) ................................................................. 4-42

Table 4.17: Summary of estimated emissions, discharges and wastes for entire Block 4 exploration

drilling programme ............................................................................................................................. 4-45

Table 4.18: Drilling schedule B4-1 exploration well ........................................................................... 4-46

Table 5.1: Identified environmental receptors and indicators ............................................................. 5-2

Table 5.2: Identified social receptors and indicators ........................................................................... 5-4

Table 5.3: Data sources used by MeteoGroup for Block 4 metocean modelling .............................. 5-18

Table 5.4: Percentage occurrence of significant wave height (m) measured in Block 4 .................. 5-19

Table 5.5: Percentage occurrence of wind speed measured in Block 4 ........................................... 5-25

Table 5.6: Percentage occurrence of current speed measured at the surface in Block 4 ................ 5-27

Table 5.7: Water layer characteristics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea ........................................ 5-28

Table 5.8: Water layer characteristic in Block 4 ................................................................................ 5-29

Table 5.9: Summary of seawater contamination at selected sites on the coast of Lebanon ............ 5-30

Table 5.10: Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values) of the

parameters measured at the 18 stations .......................................................................................... 5-34

Table 5.11: Anthropogenic noise sources ......................................................................................... 5-50

Table 5.12: Average grain size distribution in sediment (Block 4) .................................................... 5-65

Table 5.13: Average concentrations of organic contents and nutrients in sediments ...................... 5-68

Table 5.14: Average metal concentrations in sediments and regulatory thresholds ........................ 5-69

Table 5.15: Average PAH concentrations in sediments and regulatory thresholds.......................... 5-70

Table 5.16: Proposed MPAs and applicable coastal benthic habitat criteria .................................... 5-91

Table 5.17: Seasonal distribution of the most common phytoplankton species in Lebanese waters5-92

Table 5.18: Taxonomic groups of plankton in Block 4 by diversity ................................................... 5-94

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Table 5.19: Taxonomic groups of plankton in Block 4 by abundance .............................................. 5-94

Table 5.20: Diversity of taxonomic groups of plankton collected in Block 4 ..................................... 5-95

Table 5.21: Abundance of taxonomic groups of plankton found in Block 4 ...................................... 5-95

Table 5.22: Spawning of Mediterranean marine fish stocks – summary of those applicable to Block 4

.......................................................................................................................................................... 5-97

Table 5.23: Sharks and rays recorded along the Lebanese coast during 2013 surveys .................. 5-98

Table 5.24: Marine mammal species recorded in the eastern Mediterranean ............................... 5-101

Table 5.25: Birds species observed in Block 4 ............................................................................... 5-108

Table 5.26: Details of designated protected areas, proposed protected areas and internationally

recognised conservation areas on Lebanese coast ....................................................................... 5-112

Table 5.27: Invasive fish species recorded in Lebanese waters since the 1960-70s ..................... 5-121

Table 5.28: Invasive fish species recorded in Lebanese waters since 2005 .................................. 5-122

Table 5.29: Sample communities and governorates (north to south) ............................................. 5-127

Table 5.30:Human development indicators (HDI) for Lebanon ...................................................... 5-142

Table 5.31: Population of the sample communities ........................................................................ 5-143

Table 5.32: Number of university students in Lebanon .................................................................. 5-145

Table 5.33: MSW management facilities in Lebanon ..................................................................... 5-160

Table 5.34: Wastewater sector projects in the sample communities .............................................. 5-164

Table 5.35: Key health indicators for Lebanon ............................................................................... 5-166

Table 5.36: Crime statistics for Lebanon ........................................................................................ 5-169

Table 5.37: Road accidents in governorates, 2010 ........................................................................ 5-170

Table 5.38: Main vulnerable groups and reasons behind vulnerability ........................................... 5-170

Table 5.39: Natural and cultural heritage sites, ranked by priority.................................................. 5-172

Table 5.40: Sensitivity of receptors ................................................................................................. 5-175

Table 6.1: Block 4 exploration drilling impact identification matrix...................................................... 6-2

Table 6.2: Noise-generating activity source data .............................................................................. 6-48

Table 6.3: Radius of marine mammal potential injury and behavioural change zones for VSP activities

at well site B4-1 ................................................................................................................................. 6-51

Table 6.4: Marine mammal modelling results MODU drilling and vessel noise ................................ 6-52

Table 6.5: Radius of sea turtle potential injury zones for VSP activities ........................................... 6-56

Table 6.6: Radius of sea turtle behavioural reaction/disturbance for VSP activities ........................ 6-56

Table 6.7: Radius of sea turtle behavioural effects MODU drilling and vessel noise ....................... 6-56

Table 6.8: Mortality and recoverable injury guidelines for fish from seismic airguns........................ 6-59

Table 6.9: Environmental impacts of the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign - routine activities .. 6-70

Table 6.10: Social and cultural heritage impacts of the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign – routine

activities........................................................................................................................................... 6-115

Table 6.11: Environmental and social impacts of the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign – nonroutine/accidental event scenarios .................................................................................................. 6-128

Table 6.12: Spill drift modelling metocean input data ..................................................................... 6-142

Table 6.13: Scenario 1 (well blowout) – release characteristics ..................................................... 6-144

Table 6.14: Scenario 2 (marine diesel release) – release characteristics ...................................... 6-148

Table 6.15: Spill response tier levels from TEP Liban’s oil spill contingency plan ......................... 6-166

Table 6.16: Summary of transboundary impacts from spill modelling ............................................ 6-168

Table 6.17: Internationally recognised conservation areas along the Syrian coast........................ 6-171

Table 7.1: Summary of environmental impacts of different MODU options ........................................ 7-3

Table 7.2: Key differences between WBDF and synthetic NADF ....................................................... 7-5

Table 7.3: Comparative assessment of cuttings disposal options ...................................................... 7-8



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FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Location of Block 4 offshore Lebanon, including the priority area and first exploration well

site for drilling operations .................................................................................................................... 1-2

Figure 1.2: Outline of the duration and location of each activity ......................................................... 1-3

Figure 1.3: Exploration blocks in Lebanese maritime waters ............................................................. 1-4

Figure 1.4: Block 4 and area of potential direct effects ..................................................................... 1-10

Figure 1.5: Impact significance matrix .............................................................................................. 1-22

Figure 2.1: Hierarchy of legislation in Lebanon................................................................................. 2-16

Figure 2.2: Diagram of the EIA system ............................................................................................. 2-29

Figure 2.3: Total’s SHEQ Charter ..................................................................................................... 2-44

Figure 3.1: Stakeholder analysis methodology ................................................................................... 3-4

Figure 3.2: Frequency of issues raised by topic during public consultation ....................................... 3-8

Figure 3.3: Frequency of issues raised by gender during public consultation .................................... 3-9

Figure 3.4: Frequency of issues raised during the scoping phase stakeholder meetings ................ 3-14

Figure 3.5: Frequency of concerns raised by gender during scoping phase .................................... 3-15

Figure 3.6: Frequency of issues raised during the baseline phase engagement meetings ............. 3-21

Figure 3.7: Frequency of questions raised by gender during baseline phase engagement meetings in

Block 4............................................................................................................................................... 3-22

Figure 3.8: Frequency of questions raised during the disclosure public consultation meetings ....... 3-26

Figure 3.9: Frequency of questions raised by gender during disclosure public consultation meetings 327

Figure 3.10: Grievance mechanism steps ........................................................................................ 3-28

Figure 4.1: Location of Block 4, the priority area, and first exploration well (B4-1) ............................. 4-2

Figure 4.2: Example drillship (left – Tungsten Explorer) and semi-submersible drilling unit (right) ..... 4-4

Figure 4.3: Schematic of drilling process ............................................................................................. 4-6

Figure 4.4: Preliminary drilling and casing plan, well B4-1 .................................................................. 4-7

Figure 4.5: Non-aqueous drilling fluid circulation process and solids control onboard the MODU .... 4-10

Figure 4.6: VSP schematic................................................................................................................. 4-19

Figure 4.7: Proposed location of the logistics base in Port of Beirut (red rectangle) ......................... 4-22

Figure 4.8: Schematic of the drilling fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities ........................................ 4-23

Figure 4.9: Photographic example of a drilling fluids mixing plant ..................................................... 4-24

Figure 4.10: Schematic of dangerous good storage at the logistics base warehouse ...................... 4-25

Figure 4.11: Waste management processes onboard the MODU and the transfer of wastes to shore

for recycling, treatment and/or disposal ............................................................................................. 4-40

Figure 4.12 : Example cuttings box .................................................................................................... 4-43

Figure 5.1: Lebanon’s location in the regional context ....................................................................... 5-8

Figure 5.2: Exploration blocks and geographic features of the sea basin off the coast of Lebanon .. 5-9

Figure 5.3: Levant Basin ................................................................................................................... 5-10

Figure 5.4:Block 4, the priority area and the B4-1 well site location ................................................. 5-11

Figure 5.5: Distribution of air quality monitoring stations .................................................................. 5-13

Figure 5.6: NO2 annual values over the Greater Beirut area ............................................................ 5-15

Figure 5.7: Particulate matter annual values over the Greater Beirut area ...................................... 5-15

Figure 5.8: Average monthly significant wave heights offshore Beirut ............................................. 5-17

Figure 5.9: Wave rose for 2003 (significant wave height) offshore Beirut ........................................ 5-18

Figure 5.10: Wave rose for measured for the year in Block 4 .......................................................... 5-19

Figure 5.11: Wind speed and direction models for autumn: morning (left) and afternoon (right) ..... 5-21

Figure 5.12: Wind speed and direction models for winter: morning (left) and afternoon (right) ....... 5-22

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Figure 5.13: Wind speed and direction models for spring: morning (left) and afternoon (right) ....... 5-23

Figure 5.14: Wind speed and direction models for summer: morning (left) and afternoon (right) .... 5-24

Figure 5.15: Year-round wind rose for a single location in Block 4................................................... 5-25

Figure 5.16: Year-round surface current rose for a single location in Block 4 .................................. 5-27

Figure 5.17: Surface temperature and velocity in the East Mediterranean on 4 February 2016 ...... 5-28

Figure 5.18: Bottom temperature gradient across the sampled areas and temperature gradient across

the sampled depths ........................................................................................................................... 5-29

Figure 5.19: Bacteriological status .................................................................................................... 5-32

Figure 5.20: Location of water sampling locations from Abboud-Abi Saab et al. study.................... 5-34

Figure 5.21: Station locations for seawater (blue diamonds), sediment and benthos (green diamonds)

and video transects (red lines) sampled during the Block 4 offshore EBS ....................................... 5-36

Figure 5.22: Temperature (°C) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4 ................. 5-37

Figure 5.23: Salinity (PSU) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4 ....................... 5-38

Figure 5.24: pH depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4 ......................................... 5-39

Figure 5.25: Turbidity (NTU) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4 ..................... 5-40

Figure 5.26: TSS (mg/L) and TOC (mg/L) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4 5-41

Figure 5.27: Depth profiles for total nitrogen, nitrates and orthophosphates at seawater stations

sampled in Block 4 ............................................................................................................................ 5-42

Figure 5.28: Depth profile for chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin concentrations at Block 4 ................ 5-44

Figure 5.29: Diagrammatic cross section of key geographic features off the coast of Lebanon ...... 5-46

Figure 5.30: Deep sea canyons off the Lebanese coast .................................................................. 5-47

Figure 5.31: Block 4 bathymetry ....................................................................................................... 5-48

Figure 5.32: Composite of underwater noise spectra ....................................................................... 5-49

Figure 5.33: Density of shipping in the Block 4 area ........................................................................ 5-51

Figure 5.34: Vessel speeds in the eastern Mediterranean ............................................................... 5-52

Figure 5.35: Regional tectonic framework: (a) Levant fault system; (b) active faults of the Lebanese

restraining bend ................................................................................................................................ 5-53

Figure 5.36: Simplified stratigraphic chart of Lebanon ..................................................................... 5-54

Figure 5.37: Geological/petroleum domains of Lebanon .................................................................. 5-55

Figure 5.38: Main active structural elements of Lebanon ................................................................. 5-56

Figure 5.39: Instrumented earthquake events in and around Lebanon between 2006 and 2016 .... 5-57

Figure 5.40: Seismic hazard map (contouring of peak ground acceleration with a 10% probability of

exceedance in 50 years) ................................................................................................................... 5-58

Figure 5.41: Seismic cross-section showing gas chimneys on top of a Miocene anticline in the

Lattakia Ridge domain ...................................................................................................................... 5-59

Figure 5.42: Mapped submarine landslides within the Mediterranean Sea ...................................... 5-60

Figure 5.43: Grain size composition of the sediment of four coastal marine areas (Tyre, Ramlet-elBayda, Raouchy and Selaata) .......................................................................................................... 5-62

Figure 5.44: Total phosphate concentrations (µg.g-1) in the sediment of four coastal marine areas

(Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata) ............................................................................... 5-62

Figure 5.45: Percentage of organic matter in the sediment of four coastal marine areas (Tyre, Ramletel-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata) ...................................................................................................... 5-63

Figure 5.46: Levels of 3 trace metals (Cd, Pb and Cu) in the sediment of four Lebanese marine

coastal areas (Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata) ......................................................... 5-63

Figure 5.47: Particles size distribution in sediments between stations (Block 4) (d.w. = dry weight)5-65

Figure 5.48: Water content distribution in sediments (Block 4) ........................................................ 5-66

Figure 5.49: TOM and TOC distribution in Block 4 sediments .......................................................... 5-67

Figure 5.50: Redox potential measured in the sediments in Block 4 ................................................ 5-68

Figure 5.51: Variations of sediment bacterial concentrations between stations (Block 4) ............... 5-72

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Figure 5.52: Existing and proposed land use/landscape of the Lebanese coastline (based on the

NPMPLT)........................................................................................................................................... 5-75

Figure 5.53: Protected and proposed coastal sites .......................................................................... 5-76

Figure 5.54: Number of species recorded during the OCEANA expedition ...................................... 5-78

Figure 5.55: Percentage species richness, density, biomass and frequency of the main benthic

infaunal taxonomic groups collected in Block 4 samples .................................................................. 5-81

Figure 5.56: Common or abundant species sampled in Block 4 (annelids) ..................................... 5-82

Figure 5.57: Common or abundant species sampled in Block 4 (other taxa) ................................... 5-83

Figure 5.58: Results of the cluster analysis showing the two groups of stations identified at a similarity

percentage of 9%. Group 1: green; Group 2: orange ....................................................................... 5-84

Figure 5.59: Geographical location of the two groups of stations identified in the cluster and MDS

analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 5-85

Figure 5.60: Location of sensitive areas determined from the EBS ................................................. 5-86

Figure 5.61: ROV images of the typical seafloor throughout Block 4 ............................................... 5-88

Figure 5.62: ROV images from Transect B4 VT07 showing the seafloor epibenthic communities in the

vicinity of potential cold gas seep area ............................................................................................. 5-89

Figure 5.63: Schematic illustration of typical Lebanese vermetid reef ............................................. 5-91

Figure 5.64: Fish species recorded during the Block 4 EBS .......................................................... 5-100

Figure 5.65: Number of bottlenose dolphin groups observed off Beirut coast (2010–2011) .......... 5-102

Figure 5.66: Post-nesting green turtle satellite tracks from (a) Cyprus (n = 22), (b) Turkey (n = 8), (c)

Syria (n = 1) and Occupied Palestine (n = 3), and (d) migratory corridor density map .................. 5-105

Figure 5.67: Major flyways between Africa and Eurasia ................................................................. 5-106

Figure 5.68: Composition of birds observed in Block 4 .................................................................. 5-107

Figure 5.69: Birds observed during EBS ......................................................................................... 5-109

Figure 5.70: Protected areas and proposed protected areas (excluding estuarine sites) in relation to

Block 4............................................................................................................................................. 5-111

Figure 5.71: Surveyed sites within OCEANA expedition (2016) and their level of conservation interest

........................................................................................................................................................ 5-119

Figure 5.72: Location of Block 4 ..................................................................................................... 5-125

Figure 5.73: Sample Communities .................................................................................................. 5-128

Figure 5.74: Land use and infrastructure in Bebnine (Al Abdeh) .................................................... 5-129

Figure 5.75: Land use and infrastructure in Al-Mina (Tripoli).......................................................... 5-130

Figure 5.76: Land use and infrastructure in Anfeh and Chekka ..................................................... 5-131

Figure 5.77: Land use and infrastructure in Batroun and Kfarabida ............................................... 5-132

Figure 5.78: Land use and infrastructure in Aamchit, Byblos (Jbeil) and Fidar .............................. 5-133

Figure 5.79: Land use and infrastructure in Okaiba and Safra ....................................................... 5-134

Figure 5.80: Land use and infrastructure in Jounieh and Dbayeh .................................................. 5-135

Figure 5.81: Land use and infrastructure in Beirut .......................................................................... 5-136

Figure 5.82: Administrative map of Lebanon .................................................................................. 5-140

Figure 5.83: Gross enrolment rate by level of education, 2007 – 2012 .......................................... 5-144

Figure 5.84: Employment rate by gender and age group (%) ......................................................... 5-148

Figure 5.85: Fishing ports on the coast of Lebanon ....................................................................... 5-151

Figure 5.86: Distances travelled to fishing grounds ........................................................................ 5-153

Figure 5.87: Coastal salt mines in Anfeh ........................................................................................ 5-155

Figure 5.88: Beach resorts in the sample communities for Block 4 ................................................ 5-158

Figure 5.89: Infrastructure map for the coastal governorates ......................................................... 5-162

Figure 5.90: Priority and ranking of culturally sensitive sites in Lebanon ....................................... 5-174

Figure 6.1: Cuttings thickness deposit after drilling operations (Option 1) ....................................... 6-13

Figure 6.2: Oxygen variation in superficial seabed sediments after drilling operations (Option 1) ... 6-13

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Figure 6.3: Grain size variations after drilling operations (Option 1)................................................. 6-14

Figure 6.4: Maximum risk of drilling operation on the sediments against distance from the discharge

location (Option 1) ............................................................................................................................. 6-15

Figure 6.5: Maximum potential risk of drilling operation on the sediments at end of drilling and after 10

years (Option 1) ................................................................................................................................ 6-15

Figure 6.6: Main contributors to risk of drilling operations over time (Option 1) ............................... 6-16

Figure 6.7: Cuttings thickness deposit after drilling operations (Option 2) ....................................... 6-17

Figure 6.8: Oxygen variation in superficial seabed sediments after drilling operations (Option 2) ... 6-18

Figure 6.9: Grain size variations after drilling operations (Option 2)................................................. 6-19

Figure 6.10: Concentrations of chemicals in superficial sediments after drilling operations (Option 2) 620

Figure 6.11: Maximum potential risk of drilling operation on the sediments against distance from the

discharge location (Option 2) ............................................................................................................ 6-21

Figure 6.12: Maximum potential risk of drilling operation on the sediments at end of drilling and after

10 years (Option 2) ........................................................................................................................... 6-21

Figure 6.13: Main contributors to risk of drilling operations over time (Option 2) ............................. 6-22

Figure 6.14: Maximum risk of drilling operation on the water column (Option 1) ............................. 6-25

Figure 6.15: Maximum risk of drilling discharges on the water column over time (Option 1) ........... 6-26

Figure 6.16: Discharge concentration at end of drilling operations (Option 1) ................................. 6-27

Figure 6.17: Maximum risk of drilling operation on the water column (Option 2) ............................. 6-28

Figure 6.18: Maximum risk of drilling discharges on the water column over time (Option 2) ........... 6-29

Figure 6.19: Discharge concentration at end of drilling the 17½-in., 12¼-in. and 8½-in. lower-hole

sections (Option 2 – potentially selected for future exploration / appraisal wells) ............................ 6-30

Figure 6.20: Stochastic simulation for a 90-day spill of condensate (blowout scenario) observed over

120 days, cut of thickness 0.3 µm ................................................................................................... 6-145

Figure 6.21: Cumulative surface probability of condensates, cut of thickness 0.3 µm ................... 6-146

Figure 6.22: Slick position at day 3 – oil first impact at shore, cut off thickness 0.3 µm ................. 6-147

Figure 6.23: Stochastic simulations for an instantaneous spill of marine diesel observed over 30 days,

cut of thickness 5 µm ...................................................................................................................... 6-150

Figure 6.24: Cumulative probability of marine diesel, cut of thickness 5 µm .................................. 6-151

Figure 6.25: Slick position at day 2 – oil first impact at shore, cut-off thickness 5 µm ................... 6-152

Figure 6.26: Cumulated oil concentration onshore at day 15 (end of simulation) .......................... 6-153

Figure 6.27: Offshore spill response schematic for condensate release ........................................ 6-165

Figure 6.28: Environmental sensitivities in neighbouring countries to Lebanon ............................. 6-170

Figure 6.29: Densities of shipping lanes in Eastern Mediterranean (2017) .................................... 6-172

Figure 8.1: TEP Liban HSE policy ...................................................................................................... 8-2

Figure 8.2: Organisation of the Common Principles in the plan–do–check–act improvement cycle .. 8-3

Figure 8.3: Project ESMP linkages ................................................................................................... 8-12



APPENDICES

Appendix 1.1 EIA team

Appendix 1.2 MOE and LPA comments from Scoping Report

Appendix 3.1 Standards and Regulations

Appendix 3.2 Stakeholder Analysis

Appendix 3.3 Newspaper Advertisements

Appendix 3.4 Sample Announcements in Municipalities

Appendix 3.5 Background Information Document (BID)

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Appendix 3.6 Public Consultation Presentation

Appendix 3.7 Total Presentation

Appendix 3.8 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Document

Appendix 3.9 Stakeholder Engagement Recording Template

Appendix 3.10 Visual Record Of Meetings

Appendix 3.11 Attendance Lists

Appendix 3.12 Detailed Question And Response Trail

Appendix 3.13 Letters Of Invitation: Stakeholder Engagement

Appendix 3.14 Meeting Invitees

Appendix 3.15 Stakeholder Engagement Presentation

Appendix 3.16 Poster For Stakeholder Engagement

Appendix 3.17 Disclosure Phase Public Consultation Meeting Invites

Appendix 3.18 Disclosure Phase Total Presentation

Appendix 3.19 Disclosure Phase Public Consultation Presentation

Appendix 3.20 Disclosure Phase FAQ Document

Appendix 4.1 Project Coordinates

Appendix 4.2 Port Authority Approval for Logistics Base

Appendix 4.3 MODU Tungsten Explorer Certificates

Appendix 4.4 Anti-scaling Chemical Product Information

Appendix 4.5 Fomtec Fire Fighting Foam Product Information

Appendix 4.6 Customs Authority Decision for Export of Hazardous Waste Direct from MODU

Appendix 4.7 IESC Permits and Certificates

Appendix 5.1 National Level Data Collection

Appendix 5.2 Field Plan

Appendix 5.3 Discussion Guides

Appendix 5.4 QA’s KIIs And FGDs Block 4

Appendix 5.5 Attendance Lists Block 4

Appendix 5.6 Photo Catalogue

Appendix 6.1 Screened Out Impacts

Appendix 6.2 Bonn Agreement Colour Code Classification

Appendix 8.1 Commitments Register

Appendix 8.2 ESMP Matrix



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GLOSSARY

Acronym or term



Definition



A

AeDW



Aegean deep water



AdDW



Adriatic deep water



ACCOBAMS



Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea,

Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic area



AEWA



Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Water Birds



AIDS



Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome



AIS



Alien invasive species



AOI



Area of Influence



AOX



Halogenated organic compounds



AQMN



Air Quality Monitoring Network



B

BAOAC



Bonn Agreement Oil Appearance Code



BAT



Best Available Technique



bbls/day



Barrels per day



BC



Before Christ



Beaufort scale



Scale of wind speed



BHA



Bottom Hole Assembly



BID



Background Information Document



BOCP



Blowout Contingency Plan



BOD



Biological oxygen demand



BOP



Blowout preventer



BTEX



Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene



C

CANA



CNRS’ research vessel



CAS



Central Administration of Statistics



CDR



Council for Development and Reconstruction



CEDAW



UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against

Women



CFC



Chlorofluorocarbon



CH4



Methane



CHARM



Chemical Hazard and Risk Management



CIEEM



Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management



CLO



Community Liaison Officer



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Acronym or term



Definition



CMP



Chemical management plan



CNRS



National Council of Scientific Research



Conseil d’Etat



State Council



CO



Carbon monoxide



CO2



Carbon dioxide



COD



Chemical oxygen demand



COP21



Paris Climate Conference



CSO



Civil Society Organisation



CYCOFOS



Cyprus coastal ocean forecasting system



D

dB



Decibel



DGA



Directorate General for Antiquities



DGEF



Division for Global Environment Facility



DGU



Directorate General for Urban Planning



DO



Dissolved oxygen



DOSMP



Drilling operations social management plan



DP equipment



Dynamic positioning equipment



DREAM



Dose Related Risk and Effect Assessment Model



DSTF



Dead Sea Transform Fault



DV



Domestic violence



dw



Dry weight



E

E



East



EAFS



East Anatolian Fault System



EBS



Environmental Baseline Survey



EBSA



Ecologically and biologically significant area



ECC



Environmental Compliance Certificate



EdL



Electricité du Liban



EIA



Environmental and Social Impact Assessment



EEZ



Exclusive Economic Zone



EITI



Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative



EMDW



Eastern Mediterranean deep water



ELCA



East Levantine Canyons Area



EPA



Exploration and Production Agreement



ERP



Emergency Response Plan



ESMP



Environmental and social management plan



EU



European Union



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Acronym or term



Definition



EQS



Environmental Quality Standards



F

Facies



Character of rock in regard to formation, composition etc.



FAO



Food and Agricultural Organisation



FAQ



Frequently Asked Questions



FGD



Focus group discussions



G

GBL



Geochemical Background Levels



GBV



Gender-based violence



GDP



Gross Domestic Product



g/h



Grams per hour



GHGs



Greenhouse gases



GoL



Government of Lebanon



GPS



Global positioning system



H

HAT



Highest Astronomical Tide



HCFC



Hydrochlorofluorocarbon



HDI



Human Development Index



HIV



Human Immunodeficiency Virus



HMCS



Harmonised Mandatory Control Scheme



HOCNF



Harmonised Offshore Chemical Notification Format



HPWBDF



High-performance water-based drilling fluid



HRC



Human Rights Council



HSE



Health, Safety and Environment.



HQ



Hazard Quotient



Hz



Hertz



I

IBA



Important Bird and Biodiversity Area



ICERD



UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial

Discrimination



IDAL



Investment Development Authority of Lebanon



IEE



Initial Environmental Examination



IEMA



Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment



IFC



International Finance Corporation



IHME



Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation



ILO



International Labour Organisation



IMDG code



International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code



IMEWE



India-Middle East-Western Europe



IMF



International Monetary Fund



IMO



International Maritime Organization



IMR



Infant Mortality Rate



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Acronym or term



Definition



Infaunal



Fauna living within the benthic substrate/seafloor



IRC



International Rescue Committee



ISWM



Integrated solid waste management



ITEQ



International Toxic Equivalents



K

KBA



Key Biodiversity Area



kHz



Kilohertz



KII



Key informant interviews



km



Kilometre



km2



Square kilometre



knot



One nautical mile per hour



kV



Kilovolt



L

L



Litre



LAEC



Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission



LAF



Lebanese Armed Forces



LAT



Lowest Astronomical Tide



LC50



Median lethal dose



LCPS



Lebanese Centre for Policy Studies



LPA



Lebanese Petroleum Administration



M

m



Metre







Square metre



m3



Cubic metre



MARPOL



International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships



mg



Milligram



mg/L



Milligrams per litre



MHSZ



methane hydrate stability zone



ml



Millilitre



MLT



Mount Lebanon thrust



mm/yr



Millimetre per year



MMO



Marine mammal observer



MoA



Ministry of Agriculture



MoC



Ministry of Culture



MODU



Mobile offshore drilling unit



MoE



Ministry of Environment



MoEW



Ministry of Energy and Water



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Acronym or term



Definition



MoL



Ministry of Labour



MoPH



Ministry of Public Health



MoPWT



Ministry of Public Works and Transport



MPA



Marine Protection Area



MPN



Most probable number (bacteria)



MPN/g



Most probable number per gram (bacteria)



mS/cm



Microsiemens per cm – electrical conductivity unit



M.Sm3/d



Mega standard cubic metres per day



MSW



Municipal solid waste



MT



Metric ton



N

N



North



NAAQS



National Ambient Air Quality Standards



NADF



Non-aqueous drilling fluid



NBSAP



National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan



nb./m3



Number per cubic metre



NCDs



Non-communicable diseases



NCMS



National Centre for Marine Sciences



NE



No effect



NEBA



Net Environmental Benefit Analysis



NGO



Non-governmental Organisation



NIP



National Implementation Plan



NIS



Non-Indigenous Species



NM



Nautical mile



NO



Nitric oxide



NO2



Nitrogen dioxide



NOx



Nitrogen oxides



NOAA



U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration



NOEC



No observed effect concentration



NOSCP



National Oil Spill Contingency Plan



NPMPLT



National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory



NSSF



National Social Security Fund



NTS



Non-technical summary



NTU



Nephelometric Turbidity Unit



N2O



Nitrous oxide



O

O3



Ozone



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Acronym or term



Definition



OCNS



Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme



OMSAR



Office of the Minister of State for Administrative Reform



OPRC



International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation



OPRL



Offshore Petroleum Resources Law



OSCP



Oil Spill Contingency Plan



OSPAR



Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East

Atlantic



P

P



Phosphorous



PAH



Poly-aromatic hydrocarbon



PAM



Passive acoustic monitoring



PAR



Petroleum Activities Regulations



PCB



Poly-chlorinated biphenyls



PEC



Predicted environmental concentration



PGA



Peak ground acceleration



PLONOR



Pose Little or No Risk to the Environment



PM



Particulate matter



PM10



Particulate matter, 10 micrometres or less in diameter



PNEC



Predicted no-effect concentration



POB



Persons on-board



POPs



Persistent Organic Pollutants



Pow



Partition Coefficient n-Octanol/Water



ppb



Parts per billion



ppm



Parts per million



PPP



Purchasing Power parity



PSU



Practical Salinity Unit



PSV



Platform supply Vessel



PWDs



People with disabilities



R

REDOX



Oxidation and reduction chemical reactions



RMS



Root mean squared



ROV



Remotely operated underwater vehicle



RTA



Road traffic accidents



S

s



Second



S



South



SBS



Social Baseline Study



SCI



Site of Community Importance



SDGs



Sustainable Development Goals



SEA



Strategic Environmental Assessment



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Acronym or term



Definition



SEL



Sound exposure level



SEP



Stakeholder engagement plan



SMEs



Small- and medium-sized enterprises



SMP



Social management plan



SO2



Sulphur dioxide



SOx



Sulphur oxides



SOPEP



Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan



sp.



Species



SPA



Special Protection Area



SPL



Sound pressure level



SSD



Species sensitivity distributions



T

t/day



Tons per day



TDS



Total dissolved solids



TDW



Tyrrhenian deep water



TEDO



Tripoli Environment and Development Observatory



TEUs



Twenty-foot equivalent units



Thermocline



Sharp temperature gradient in a water body



TKN



Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen



TOC



Total Organic Carbon



TOM



Total Organic Matter



TPH



Total petroleum hydrocarbon



TRV



Toxicity Reference Value



TSS



Total Suspended Solids



U

UDHR



Universal Declaration of Human Rights



UN



United Nations



UNCAC



United Nations Convention Against Corruption



UNCLOS



United Nations Convention for the Law on the Sea



UNDP



United Nations Development Programme



UNEP



United Nations Environment Programme



UNESCO



United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation



UNFCCC



United National Framework Convention for Climate Change



UNHCR



United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees



UNSF



United Nations Strategic Framework



UPR



Universal Periodic Review



USD



US Dollar



UTC



Coordinated Universal Time



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Acronym or term



Definition



V

VOCs



Volatile organic compounds



VSP



Vertical seismic profile



W

W



West



WBDF



Water based drilling fluid



WHO



World Health Organisation



WHS



World Heritage Site



WMDW



western Mediterranean deep water



WMP



Waste management plan



Symbols

µg



Microgram



µm



Micron (micrometre)



µPa



Micropascals



%



Percentage



°C



Degrees Celsius



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1



INTRODUCTION



1.1



Introduction

Total Exploration & Production Liban Sal (TEP Liban) intends to carry out exploration

drilling activity in Block 4 of the Levant sedimentary basin in offshore Lebanese waters,

hereafter called the project. The proposed activity for Block 4 comprises drilling of one

exploration well, a possible second exploration well and potentially one appraisal well,

depending on the results of the previous exploration wells. Therefore, a maximum of three

wells may be drilled in Block 4 as part of the project.

This document presents the results of the environmental impact assessment (EIA)1 of the

project, covering the three possible wells. It has been prepared in accordance with

applicable national legislation2, applicable international conventions/agreements and

TOTAL’s corporate standards. The draft ‘Sector-specific EIA Guidelines for Oil and Gas

Reconnaissance and Exploration Drilling Activities in Lebanon’ (MoE and LPA, 2019) and

recommendations from the draft ‘Update of the Strategic Environmental Assessment

(SEA) for Exploration and Production Activities Offshore Lebanon’ (MoEW, 2019) have

also been considered.

An EIA report document (Rev 0 of this document) was first produced in line with the MoE’s

scoping report comments, as far as available information allowed. At this stage, the EIA

was published via a website for consultation purposes (from 4 September to 4 October

2019) and the results of the EIA process were presented at two public meetings in

September 2019. The EIA was then updated, where necessary, in response to comments

received during that process. Revision 1 of the EIA was submitted to the MoE on the 31

October 2019. After submission, a number of comments on the EIA were received from

the MoE. Responses and clarifications were provided to these comments, and when

necessary, modifications were made to the EIA. Consequently, the EIA report was

approved by the MoE on 18 February 2020 provided that the comments listed in the

Technical Committee Report 18/2/2020 are complied with. In addition, it was requested

that a compiled and comprehensive version of the EIA report be submitted, reflecting the

comments received from the MoE. This document (Revision 2) has been compiled in

response to this request, so that it constitutes the final compiled version of the EIA as

approved by the MoE.



1.2



Background

On 29 January 2018, the Government of the Republic of Lebanon signed an exploration

and production agreement (EPA) with TEP Liban, Eni Lebanon BV and NOVATEK

Lebanon SAL for offshore Block 4. The Minister of Energy and Water (MoEW) approved

the exploration plan for the block in May 2018, triggering the start of an initial three-year

exploration period.



1

2



Reference to the term ‘EIA’ includes environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA).

In particular, the Environmental Impact Assessment Decree No. 8633/2012.



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1-1



Block 4 is in the Levant sedimentary basin, offshore northern Lebanon, with its eastern

boundary approximately 6 km from the nearest coastline. The block covers 1911 km2

within water depth ranging from 320 m to 1780 m (see Figure 1.1).

TEP Liban analysed seismic data generated by PGS during 2006–2012 (MoEW 2019)

and identified a priority area within which they will drill the first exploration well (B4-1).

The possible second exploration well and appraisal well would also be within this same

priority area. The location of Block 4, the priority area and the proposed first exploration

well location are presented in Figure 1.1.



Figure 1.1: Location of Block 4 offshore Lebanon, including the priority area and first

exploration well site for drilling operations

Source of cable data: C-Map (2018); SHOM Charts (7306, 7255); UKHO Admiralty Charts; Websites:

atlantic-cables.com; cytaglobal.com Live cables are CADMOS, BERYTAR and IMEWE.

1-2



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1.3



Overview of Block 4 exploration drilling campaign

TEP Liban is planning to drill its first exploration well in Block 4 in February 2020. The

target is a gas reservoir about 4400 m below mean sea level.

The first exploration well location will be about 20 km from the shore (see Figure 1.1) and

will be a pseudo-vertical well in 1520 m of water. The well will be drilled using a mobile

offshore drilling unit (MODU) and the drilling programme will have a duration of about 60

days as shown in (Figure 1.2), more details of the programme are provided in Chapter 4:

Project Description.

The drilling duration, shown as 2-3 months is intended to cover the duration for any of

the wells, however it is anticipated that the first well will involve only around 60 days of

drilling.



Figure 1.2: Outline of the duration and location of each activity



Drilling operations will be supported from a logistics base within the existing port of Beirut.

Facilities at the base will include













a pipe yard (outdoor storage up to 7000 m2)

warehousing (indoor storage up to 300 m2 100 m2 for chemical storage /

dangerous goods, and 6 m2 for cold room)

a 100-m linear jetty with 1000 m2 for laydown area and mobile cranes for vessels

operations

a drilling-fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities (1250 m2)

areas for offices, canteen, vehicles, marshalling areas, cargo containers, waste

transfer and transit areas (no waste treatment).



The duration of the logistics base will be dependent on the success of the B4-1 well and

any subsequent wells.

Three vessels will support the drilling operations from the logistics base. One support

vessel will be based permanently at the drill site, providing security surveillance. The

other two vessels will transfer supplies, materials, equipment and waste between the

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1-3



MODU and the logistics base. It is estimated that up to ten return trips will be required

per week. Helicopter transfers of personnel will be from Beirut International Airport, with

an estimated ten return trips per week.



1.4



Project justification

Decree number 42/2017 (under the auspices of the Offshore Petroleum Resources Law

(OPRL) 132 from 24 August 2010) delineates the division of the Lebanese maritime

waters into ten blocks (Figure 1.3).



Figure 1.3: Exploration blocks in Lebanese maritime waters

Note: Red dots indicate existing wells onshore in Lebanon and in surrounding waters.

1-4



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The first offshore licensing round in Lebanon opened five blocks for bidding applications

and completed the process in December 2017 with the signature of the first two

exploration and production agreements (EPA) for Blocks 4 and 9. The EPAs were granted

to a consortium consisting of TEP Liban, Eni Lebanon BV and NOVATEK Lebanon SAL.

A second licensing round is currently open with applications due before 31 January 2020.

Well B4-1 will be the first deep-water well drilled in Lebanese waters.

The exploration and evaluation of hydrocarbon reserves in Block 4 will provide input to

the future development of hydrocarbon resources in Lebanon and, in the case of a

commercial discovery, will have a positive effect on national economy and energy

security.



1.5



EIA objectives

The objectives of the EIA process are to





















1.6



identify the legal and regulatory requirements and other standards relevant to the

project (national legislation and regulations, international agreements and

TOTAL’s corporate requirements)

identify sensitive environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors

in the project’s area of influence

inform stakeholders and obtain their views and opinions (potentially affected

communities/people and other interested parties)

determine project aspects and activities that could result in environmental, socioeconomic or cultural heritage impacts, along with scoring of impact significance

develop mitigation measures to reduce potential negative impacts to acceptable

levels and enhance any beneficial environmental, socio-economic and cultural

heritage impacts arising from the project

determine residual project impacts, along with scoring of residual impact

significance

ensure that mitigation measures are incorporated into management plans that

will be implemented by the project sponsor and its contractors and

subcontractors during the exploration drilling programme.



EIA team

The EIA work for the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign has been carried out by a team

consisting of personnel from in-country accredited consultancy Dar Al-Handasah (Dar)

and international consultancy RSK Environment Ltd (RSK).

Dar has been responsible for compiling and undertaking the social baseline studies and

assisting in the compilation of other sections of this EIA, as well as undertaking scoping

and EIA public consultation sessions. Dar contracted another local consulting firm,

InfoPro, to assist with social baseline data collection and stakeholder engagement.

RSK has been responsible for delivering an EIA document that is consistent with national

legislation, accepted standards of international best practice and TOTAL’s corporate

requirements.

Creocean, Keran Liban and ELARD, contractors to TEP Liban, have carried out the

environmental baseline studies.



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Oil spill and cuttings modelling studies were performed by Total and provided to RSK

team for inclusion, while Xodus provided underwater noise modelling results.

More information on the contributors to this EIA is presented in Appendix 1.1.



1.7



EIA report structure

The EIA structure is based on that presented in the draft ‘Sector-specific EIA Guidelines

for Oil and Gas Reconnaissance and Exploration Drilling Activities in Lebanon’ (MoE &

LPA, 2019) and is summarised in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1: EIA report content



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Chapter



Description



Executive Summary



Summary of the EIA report using non-technical language



Chapter 1: Introduction



General introduction, background and justification for the

project. Description of the EIA objectives, the EIA team, and

EIA report structure. An outline of the EIA process including

screening, scoping, base case design, existing conditions,

impact significance assessment, stakeholder consultation, and

management and implementation



Chapter 2: Policy, Legal

and Administrative

Framework



Summary of the administrative structure and applicable

national and international environmental, socio-economic and

cultural heritage legislative requirements. TOTAL’s corporate

requirements and good practice also outlined



Chapter 3: Public

Participation



Description of the consultation process carried out to inform

stakeholders of the proposed exploratory drilling activity and

obtain their feedback



Chapter 4: Description of

Proposed Project



Description of the technical aspects of the project, including the

MODU, the exploratory drilling programme, shore-based

operations and transfers, emissions, discharge and waste

inventory, work force and detailed schedule



Chapter 5: Description of

the Surrounding

Environment



Description of the physical and biological environmental

parameters and the socio-economic conditions and cultural

heritage features in the study area that are of relevance to

project implementation and potential impacts. Identification of

sensitive environmental and social receptors and

disadvantaged or vulnerable individuals/groups



Chapter 6: Potential

Impacts of the Project



Assessment of the potential environmental (physical and

biological) and socio-economic and cultural heritage impacts

associated with the project’s routine/planned activities and

potential unplanned/accidental events

Impacts on ecosystem services, cumulative effects and

potential transboundary impacts also considered



Chapter 7: Analysis of

Project Alternatives



Description and analysis of project alternatives considered and

the ‘no project option’. Rationale provided for the preferred

option(s) against other alternatives, considering positive as well

as adverse impacts



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Chapter



Description



Chapter 8: Environmental

and Social Management

Plan



Overview of the environmental and social management plans

and commitments register developed for the project



Chapter 9: Conclusion



Overall conclusion of the assessment of impact



References



List of the literature sources referred to in the EIA



Appendices



Relevant proponent documents, independent studies that

contribute to understanding impacts, evidence of public notices

and public participation, technical specification of materials and

procedures, CVs of the consultants, and other relevant

documents



EIA process and methodology

This section describes the EIA process adopted for the Block 4 exploration drilling

programme and the methodology implemented to determine impact significance.



1.8.1



EIA process

The EIA process constitutes a systematic approach to the evaluation of a project and its

associated activities. The process includes







screening and scoping

defining the base case design and project alternatives











describing the existing environmental and social conditions

stakeholder consultation

conducting an impact significance assessment, proposing mitigation and

assessing residual impacts







management and implementation.



These are described briefly in the following sections.



1.8.2



Screening

Screening, the first step in the EIA process, determines whether an environmental impact

assessment (EIA) is required for a project. In Lebanon, an application for EIA

classification must be made pursuant to Articles 4 and 5 of the Environmental Impact

Assessment Decree No. 8633/2012. TEP Liban submitted a screening application for

Block 4 to the LPA on 16 July 2018. The MoE responded through the LPA on 29 August

2018 to confirm that an EIA would be required for the proposed exploration drilling

activities.



1.8.3



Scoping

Scoping is a high-level assessment of anticipated interactions between project activities

and environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors. Its purpose is to

focus the EIA on key issues and eliminate activities from the full impact assessment

process based on their limited potential to result in discernible impacts.



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Scoping is a requirement in Lebanon under the Environmental Impact Assessment

Decree No. 8633/2012. The Scoping Report was structured in accordance with Annex 7

of the Decree and TOTAL’s General Specifications.

Revision 0 of the scoping report was developed to capture the environmental screening

and scoping process carried out for the Block 4 exploration drilling activity. Information

gathered during the project’s scoping phase provided clarity on the EIA scope of work

(see Section 1.8.3.2). Revision 1 of the scoping report included updates from the

stakeholder engagement, public meetings and a scope of work for the ESIA and was

submitted to the LPA and Ministry of Environment (MoE) for approval on 27 June 2019

before progressing to the next stage of the project. Revision 1 of the scoping report also

included an appendix which listed the comments made during the stakeholder

engagement and public meetings, together with responses and locations in the revised

scoping report where more information was located.

The MoE provided approval of the scoping report, following their review, but listed

conditions to be included in the EIA and specific actions required from TEP Liban. The

approval is provided as Appendix 1.2. Also included in this appendix are the comments

provided by the LPA on the scoping report. This EIA addresses the comments made on

the scoping report by the MoE and LPA.

1.8.3.1 Area of influence

The Sector-specific EIA guidelines for oil and gas reconnaissance and exploration drilling

activities in Lebanon’ (MoE and LPA, 2019) refer to the IFC Performance Standard (PS)

1, paragraph 8 (IFC 2012), definition of the area of influence (AOI), which states that the

AOI should encompass the following components as appropriate:













“The area likely to be affected by

i.

the project and the client’s activities and facilities that are directly owned,

operated or managed (including by contractors) and that are a

component of the project;

ii.

impacts from unplanned but predictable developments caused by the

project that may occur later or at a different location, or

iii.

indirect project impacts on biodiversity or on ecosystem services upon

which affected communities’ livelihoods are dependent.

Associated facilities, which are facilities that are not funded as part of the project,

would not have been constructed or expanded if the project did not exist and

without which the project would not be viable

Cumulative impacts that result from the incremental impact, on areas or

resources used or directly affected by the project, from other existing, planned or

reasonably defined developments at the time the risks and impacts identification

process is conducted.”



The following points are also considered when developing the AOI:









1-8



any permanent or temporary footprint related to the project including supply

bases, potential access roads or transit routes and waste management facilities

the area outside the footprint potentially affected by direct impacts such as noise

the area potentially affected by indirect impacts such as coastal villages and

towns affected by e.g. in-migration of contractor workers or job seekers

the area potentially affected by unplanned events, such as diesel spills from

vessels during mobilisation and project implementation

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the area used for assessing cumulative impacts (CIA).



The AOI is different for each phase of a project, i.e., mobilisation, project implementation

and demobilisation. The AOI is also different for each receptor.

The draft guidance also indicates that the definition of the spatial extent of the AOI for

each receptor should be based on several considerations, including













the project aspect generating the impact, e.g., vessel traffic, anchoring, local

labour employment

distance from the source of impact in which the receptor is affected

the spatial extent of the affected receptor (e.g. range of the affected species)

the sensitivity of the receptor affected

international good practice.



The AOI should be defined on a precautionary, realistic worst-case basis, where there is

uncertainty with any assumptions clearly stated. In addition, the temporal and spatial

boundaries of the AOI should be refined based on the application of mitigation measures,

i.e., it should be based on residual impacts.

The study area for each receptor takes account of the AOI but may be larger to

understand the context in which the receptor exists, including any trends and pressures

on the condition of the receptor.

Figure 1.4 presents the area that could give rise to direct effects and includes:















the transportation corridor used by supply vessels (and potentially helicopters)

between the block and port facilities, logistic base and airport

the area surrounding the exploration drilling site (and potential additional sites)

that could be affected by emissions, discharges, cuttings discharge and

dispersion or other drilling-related activity

the logistic base (managed by a third party) used for supporting services such as

boat docking, a mud plant, waste management, moving and storing cargo, and

crew change

Beirut International Airport, which may be used as a base from which crew

changes are made via helicopter.



The main focus with respect to the potential impacts from routine or planned activities is

the deep-water offshore development area and relates to the areas potentially affected

by seabed disturbance, discharges to sea, underwater noise and interference with fishing

or shipping activities. The zones of impact are relatively localised in the offshore area and

the area of influence is informed by predictive dispersion modelling of routine discharges

and underwater noise propagation modelling. Consideration has also been given to the

supply route to the field and the use of the onshore logistics base, primarily in terms of

potential socio-economic effects.



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Figure 1.4: Block 4 and area of potential direct effects



Beyond the area identified above, the AOI includes areas where project activities could

have indirect, accidental or cumulative impacts. With respect to unplanned events,

particularly a major hydrocarbon release, the AOI has been considered also to include

the coast of Lebanon.

The environmental and social sensitivities in this area, and potential impacts, are

presented separately.

It should be noted that TEP Liban intends to dispose of cuttings generated from some

well sections (see Project Description Section 4.6.5.2) at an existing waste treatment

facility in the Republic of Cyprus (Innovating Environmental Solutions Center - IESC).

This waste treatment facility in Cyprus is not owned directly by TEP Liban, or any of its

contractors, and will not be developed or expanded by the project. As the project has the

option to use other facilities, the waste site is not considered an associated facility.



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The AOI for each group of receptors is described in Chapter 5: Description of the

Surrounding Environment with an explanation of the respective study area if this is larger

than the AOI.

1.8.3.2 EIA scope

The impact of the project, both routine activities and unplanned/accidental events, on the

physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural heritage environment will address the

following phases:





drilling of well, including MODU mobilisation, installation, well testing and

demobilisation







operation of the logistics base.



Treatment and disposal of drill cuttings in Cyprus is considered outside of the scope of

this assessment. The treatment facility, Innovating Environmental Solutions Center

(IESC), is permitted separately by the authorities in Cyprus.

If an appraisal well is drilled and a discovery is made that can be commercially exploited

and the project goes to the next phase of production, a further EIA will be conducted to

assess the impacts of the production phase.



1.8.4



Base case design and project alternatives

The EIA team worked with the TEP Liban drilling team to gather and interpret relevant

project technical information for this EIA. Opportunities for improvement of project design

in terms of reducing possible environmental and social impacts were considered by the

teams and incorporated into the base case design where appropriate and practicable.

The following project alternatives were considered within the framework of this

exploration drilling campaign:













final well location

MODU type and specifications

MODU crew transfer to the rig by boat or helicopter

drilling technology, including the drilling fluid type for technical sections (to be

confirmed during the detailed engineering phase)

options for treatment/disposal of drill fluids and cuttings









scheduling of the drilling programme for the first well

the ‘no project’ option.



Chapter 7: Analysis of Project Alternatives presents the project design that served as the

basis for the impact assessment and a discussion of alternatives.



1.8.5



Existing conditions

To identify potential impacts of the project on receptors, an understanding of the existing

(baseline) pre-project conditions is required.

The following studies/surveys have been carried out for the Block 4 exploration drilling

campaign and used to inform this EIA:





Social Baseline Study– bibliographic review and primary data collection



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Offshore Environmental Baseline Study – Literature Review Report Blocks 4 & 9

(Keran Liban/Creocean, 2019a) – bibliographic review

Offshore Environmental Baseline Survey (Keran Liban/Creocean, 2019b) –

water and sediment sampling and analysis, marine mammal observation, and

archaeological observation.



The Offshore Environmental Baseline Survey of Blocks 4 and 9 was carried out between

19 March and 12 April 2019. Water and sediment samples, with seabed video

surveillance, were collected from stations throughout the priority area and from three

outside the priority area. All water and sediment samples were analysed for a range of

chemical, physical and biological analyses (plankton and benthos). During the survey, a

watch for marine mammals (marine mammal observation, MMO, and passive acoustic

monitoring, PAM), seabirds, reptiles and other local sea users was conducted. An

archaeologist was also present onboard for the survey’s duration to examine seabed

video footage and sediment samples for archaeological potential (Keran Liban/Creocean,

2019b).

Other key documents to provide baseline data include













‘Mission: Update on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for

Exploration and Production Activities Offshore Lebanon (ToR11) Revised Draft

SEA Report Volume 2- Baseline Conditions’ (Draft SEA Update by MoEW)

(Revised Draft SEA Report, March 2019)

Marine Resources and Coastal Zone Management Program, Institute of the

Environment – University of Balamand (2012), Component A: Improved

Understanding, Management and Monitoring in the Coastal Zone, Environmental

Resources Monitoring in Lebanon (ERML)

MoE/IUCN (2012), ‘Lebanon's Marine Protected Area Strategy: Supporting the

management of important marine habitats and species in Lebanon’. Beirut,

Lebanon, Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain: The Lebanese Ministry of

Environment/IUCN.



Chapter 5: Description of the Surrounding Environment summarises the existing

conditions in the study area.



1.8.6



Public consultation

The EIA process includes stakeholder consultation, the main goal of which is to identify

the views and opinions of potentially affected people and other interested parties.

Stakeholder feedback is used to focus the impact assessment and, where appropriate,

influence project design and execution.

Stakeholder consultation has been carried out in accordance with the stakeholder

engagement plan developed for the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign EIA. Five

stakeholder engagement meetings took place on Tuesday 14 May and Wednesday 15

May 2019.

A draft scoping report was published online and open for public review from 3 May to

2 June 2019. Comments from the public and public authorities were solicited, collated

and submitted to the LPA. A public consultation meeting was held on 24 May 2019 to

answer questions and concerns raised by the public.

More information on public consultation and disclosure is provided in Chapter 3: Public

Participation.



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1.8.7



Impact assessment

An impact, as defined by ISO 14001:2015, is “any change to the environment, whether

adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organisation’s environmental

aspects (activities, products or services)”. The types of impacts considered in this

assessment include





negative: an impact that is considered to represent an adverse change from the

baseline or that introduces a new undesirable factor







positive or beneficial: an impact that is considered to represent an improvement

to the baseline or that introduces a new desirable factor

direct (or primary): impacts that result from a direct interaction between a

planned project activity and the receiving environment

secondary: impacts that can occur subsequent to the primary interactions

between the project and its environment, e.g., loss of part of a habitat affects the

viability of a species population over a wider area













indirect: impacts that result from other activities that develop as a consequence

of the project, e.g., new business set up to cater for increased traffic on roads.



The methodology for determining impact significance is based primarily on that

recommended by TOTAL’s General Specification documents ‘Environmental Impact

Assessment of Exploration & Production Activities’ (GS EP ENV 120) and ‘Social Impact

Assessment’ (GS EP SDV 102), which are based on a systematic approach developed

by the World Bank and the ISO 14001 standard. This involves





identifying project aspects









identifying related environmental and social receptors

evaluating project effects on those receptors.



Based on the sensitivity of the environmental/social receptors and the intensity of the

effect, the significance of the impacts can be assessed.

Mitigation measures are then applied to determine whether the significance of the

impacts can be reduced. The significance of the ‘residual’ impacts, subsequent to

application of mitigation measures, is determined using the same criteria. The process of

impact assessment is intended to be iterative, with the final assessment of residual

impacts taking place after all mitigation measures are taken into consideration.

Definitions for scoring intensity, sensitivity and significance are provided below.

1.8.7.1 Impact intensity (or magnitude)

For each source of impact, the intensity of the effect is defined according to the following

criteria:















the nature of the change (what is affected and how)

its size and scale

its geographical extent and distribution

its duration, frequency and reversibility

possible cumulative effects from other activities

outputs from modelling exercises.



The intensity is then scored from 1 (very low) to 4 (high) based on definitions of negative

effects. A rating of 0 is also provided for beneficial (positive) effects (see Table 1.2).

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Impact intensity is defined using a combination of factors, as relevant, identified and

defined in Table 1.2: geographic extent (column 2), duration of impact (column 3) and

professional knowledge, using indicators in column 4 and 5, to account for receptor and

impact variation where appropriate3.

An example of a low intensity impact to species biodiversity would be disturbance of a

local population or individuals of a species resulting in a decline in abundance or

distribution over one or more generations, but that does not change the overall longevity

or viability of the population of the species or populations of other dependent species.

Alternatively, a high intensity impact would disturb a sufficient portion of the

biogeographic population of a species and may cause a decline in abundance,

distribution or size of genetic pool such that natural recruitment could not return the

population of the species, and other species dependent on it, to former levels.

1.8.7.2 Receptor sensitivity

The sensitivity of environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors (or

valuable ecosystem components, VECs) will be defined taking into account such factors

as the presence of protected areas or species of conservation concern, ecosystem

function, number of inhabitants, the importance of socio-economic resources and the

importance of archaeological or cultural heritage features. The assessment of the

sensitivity of human receptors will take into account their likely response to the change

and their ability to adapt to and manage the effects of the impact. Sensitivity is then

scored from 1 (very low) to 4 (high) (see Table 1.3).

Examples of environmental receptors/VECs that would be determined to have very low

sensitivity would include commonly occurring habitats and species that are not subject to

significant decline or habitats that are already significantly disturbed and/or modified with

little biodiversity value. High-sensitivity examples would include species listed as critically

endangered or endangered on the IUCN Red List and habitats that are difficult to restore

to natural conditions, such as coral reefs.



3



The criteria used for impact intensity has been developed by RSK drawing upon experiences and lessons learned

from numerous offshore EIAs and on guidance issued by the Institute of Environmental Management and

Assessment (IEMA) and the Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (CIEEM).

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Table 1.2: Definitions to assist with scoring the intensity of the impact

Nature of the change, size, scale and any potential cumulative effects



Score



Geographical

extent



Duration of impact



0 Positive

(Benefical)



-



1 Very low



Immediate: within

the project

footprint



Environmental (physical and biological)



Social (socio-economic, health,

cultural heritage)



-



Beneficial impacts on habitats and species



Beneficial impacts on local

communities, health, resources, or

cultural heritage sites



Very short term: impact

likely to be mitigated

through natural

processes (or project

mitigation measures)

immediately (within one

month of impact

occurring)



Disturbance to the environment limited to the

immediate area, with rapid recovery without

intervention

Planned activity or accident causes disturbance to

individuals of a species that is similar in effect to

the random changes in population due to normal

environmental variation

No discernible effect due to disruption of behaviour

or species interactions of nationally/internationally

important species of conservation concern

No protected areas affected

Emissions and effluent discharges do not breach

licence limits, or national/international standards

and have negligible impact due to rapid dilution and

dispersion

Noise from project site is audible at receptor

locations but would not contribute to an

exceedance of project criteria

Spill or accidental event (onshore or marine) that

causes immediate area damage only and can be

restored to an equivalent capability in a period of

days up to one month



Changes to demographics,

employment, social service provision or

lifestyle are neutral

Very limited / intermittent interference,

may be noticed by users of resources

Incidence of chronic and acute illness

and reduction of wellbeing stays within

normal variation in baseline levels.

Accident causing treatable and nondisabling injury but with no time off work

No degradation of cultural heritage sites



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Score



2 Low



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Geographical

extent



Local: within the

project footprint

and up to 3 km

from site



Nature of the change, size, scale and any potential cumulative effects

Duration of impact



Short term: impact likely

to be mitigated through

natural processes (or

mitigation measures)

within a year of

cessation of activities



Environmental (physical and biological)



Social (socio-economic, health,

cultural heritage)



Disturbance of habitat on a local scale, restoration

within a year requiring minimal or no intervention

Localised short-term disturbance of individuals of a

species that does not affect other trophic levels or

the integrity of the population

Potential disruption of behaviour or species

interactions of nationally/internationally important

species of conservation concern

Activities may temporarily disturb protected areas

but not lead to any long-term effects on the

ecological integrity of the protected area

Emissions and effluent discharges do not breach

licence limits, or national/international standards

Noise levels from the proposed project site at

receptors may contribute to an exceedance of

project criteria dependent on cumulative noise

levels, but does not exceed project criteria alone

Spill or accidental event (onshore or marine)

leading to immediate area or localised damage to

water resources or soil that may take up to six

months to restore to pre-existing capability/function

Environmental incident typically resolved with onsite response equipment



Activity that causes minor interference

with other users of resources.

Direct or indirect impacts will be

discernible but use and value of

resource not impacted. Rapid return to

baseline conditions on completion of

project activities

Planned activity resulting in a short

term increase in incidence of acute or

chronic illnesses in the local

community. Accident causing treatable

and non-disabling injury but with some

time off work (lost time injury)

Activity that causes minor disturbance

and / or superficial damage to cultural

heritage site that is easily rectified



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Score



3 Medium



Geographical

extent



Regional: effects

of impact

experienced

up to 50 km from

site



Nature of the change, size, scale and any potential cumulative effects

Duration of impact



Medium term: impact

likely to be mitigated

through natural

processes (or mitigation

measures) within a few

(up to 5) years of

cessation of activities



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Environmental (physical and biological)

Impacts on a unique habitat, or regional scale,

resulting in medium term damage and a restoration

time of several years that may require intervention

Disturbance of a population of species resulting in a

change of abundance over one or more

generations, but that does not change the integrity

of the population of the species, or populations of

dependent species

Potential for small-scale pathological damage of

nationally/internationally important species of

conservation concern

Occasional non-compliances with emission and

effluent discharge licence limits or national/

international standards.

Predicted noise levels from site plant at receptor

locations exceed project criteria by up to 5 dB

Spill or accidental event (onshore or marine)

leading to damage to water resources, soil or

habitat over a larger geographical area (not

localised), or that cannot be restored to pre-existing

capability/function within one year

Environmental incident typically requiring

mobilisation of in-country response resources



Social (socio-economic, health,

cultural heritage)



Planned activity that causes changes to

demographics, employment, social

service provision or lifestyle that may

affect groups of local stakeholders

Activity or accident that causes

moderate interference with other users

of resources

Planned activity resulting in short-term

increase in incidence of acute or

chronic illnesses in local community or

long-term increase in vulnerable

groups, e.g. children, elderly. Accident

causing permanent disability

Activity or accident that damages a site

of cultural heritage importance that

requires immediate repair by existing

project resources



1-17



Score



4 High



1-18



Geographical

extent



Widespread:

impact

experienced

>50 km from site



Nature of the change, size, scale and any potential cumulative effects

Duration of impact



Long term: impact and

its effects will continue

for up to five years or

more following

cessation of activities,

potentially irreversible



Environmental (physical and biological)



Social (socio-economic, health,

cultural heritage)



Impacts on a unique habitat, or national scale,

resulting in long-term damage and a restoration

time of more than five years and requiring

substantial intervention

Activity or event disturbing a sufficient portion of the

biogeographic population of a species to cause a

change in abundance, distribution or size of genetic

pool such that natural recruitment would not return

the population of the species, and several species

dependent on it, to former levels within several

generations

Potential for large-scale pathological damage of

nationally/internationally important species of

conservation concern

Numerous non-compliances with emission and

effluent discharge licence limits, or national/

international standards

Environmental incident with potential for extensive

ecological damage typically requiring mobilisation

of in-country or international response resources



Activity or event causing substantial

interference to other users of

resources, change to demographics,

employment, social services provision

or lifestyle that is out of line with

international guidelines or national

policy affecting a large number of

people and lasting considerably beyond

project lifetime

Planned activity resulting in increased

long-term mortality, long-term chronic

illness, permanent disability or

significant reduction in wellbeing in a

large number of people

Incident with massive impact to other

users or the value of the resource,

fatalities, or international damage to the

developer’s corporate reputation

Activity or accident that seriously

damages a site of cultural heritage

importance, notifiable to the relevant

authority and requiring specialist skills

to repair



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Table 1.3: Definitions to assist with scoring of receptor sensitivity

Score



1 Very low



2 Low



Physical



Biological



Social (socio-economic, health, cultural heritage)



Surface waters (including marine)

with no community use or only used

for low grade industrial use



Commonly occurring habitats and species,

not subject to significant decline

Habitats that are already disturbed or are

periodically subject to natural disturbance

Fauna and flora not susceptible to emissions

or discharges, fauna not susceptible to noise

emissions



Study area and potential zone impacted includes no

inhabitants and/or resources that are not used or

protected

No human receptors for air emissions and noise apart

from work force

Highly skilled and experienced labour pool

No cultural heritage assets, or those with very little

surviving archaeological interest



Surface waters (including marine)

with some pre-existing pollution that

limit their use or value for wildlife or

communities



Low sensitivity or local ecosystem value

Sites of local biodiversity value but not intact,

fragile or unique

Habitats that recover quickly following

disturbance (e.g., habitats comprising species

that rapidly recolonise disturbed areas)

Widespread common species with low

biodiversity value

Fauna and flora with low susceptibly to air

emissions and discharges, fauna with low

susceptibly to noise emissions



Study area and potential zone impacted include a low

number of inhabitants and/or resources that are used

but not protected

Individuals or households in local communities have

access to alternative nearby resources, the use of

which may cause limited adverse indirect impacts

Human receptors for air quality and noise limited to

individuals from local community that may pass

through the area, but exposure for extended periods

unlikely

Skilled labour pool, but lack relevant experience

Designated and undesignated cultural heritage

assets of local importance



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Score



3 Medium



1-20



Physical



Biological



Social (socio-economic, health, cultural heritage)



Surface waters (including marine) of

moderately high quality, e.g., in its

natural state, or supports an area or

species valued or designated for its

importance at national level. Waters

that support commercial or

subsistence fishery



Medium sensitivity or regional/national

ecosystem value

Sites of regional importance, or designated

for protection at national level

Habitats of high species or habitat diversity or

‘naturalness’, or recognised as intact or

unique, or areas recognised by nongovernmental organisations as having high

environmental value

Regionally or nationally important population

of a species, either because of population

size or distributional context

Species listed as near threatened on the

IUCN Red List or species in significant

decline at national or regional level

Habitats that are unlikely to return to natural

conditions without some intervention, but

which are capable of assisted recovery

Flora and fauna with moderate susceptibility

to air emissions and discharges, fauna with

moderate susceptibly to noise emissions



Study area and potential zone impacted include a

moderate number of inhabitants and/or resources of

regional importance. Some individuals/households

depend on the affected resource with no nearby

alternatives

Human receptors for air quality and noise include

residential buildings where longer periods of

exposure may occur

Some households and business owners/operators

perceive that the change will affect their ability to

maintain their livelihood (artisanal fishing) or quality of

life for a significant time period (<1 year)

Limited skills and experience in labour pool

Cultural heritage sites or artefacts of regional or

national importance



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Score



4 High



Physical



Biological



Social (socio-economic, health, cultural heritage)



Surface waters (including marine)

that are very high quality, e.g. in

natural state or supports an area or

species valued or designated for

importance at international level.

Waters that support very productive

fisheries



High sensitivity or international ecosystem

value

Sites of international importance/designated

for protection at international level

High densities of species that are vulnerable,

endangered or critically endangered or at an

international level (i.e. listed on IUCN Red

List, CITES)

Critical habitats as defined by IFC P-S6

‘Biodiversity Conservation & Sustainable

Natural Resource Management’4

Habitats that are very difficult to restore to

natural conditions

Flora and fauna with high susceptibility/very

low tolerance of air emissions or discharges,

fauna with very low tolerance to noise

emissions



Study area and potential zone impacted include a

significant number of inhabitants and/or resources of

national or global importance. Communities depend

of the affected resource(s) with no nearby

alternatives

Human receptors for air quality and noise include

residential buildings, schools, hospitals where nearconstant presence of people is possible and longterm exposure likely

Many households and business owners/ operators

perceive that the change will affect their ability to

maintain their livelihood or quality of life to an

unacceptable extent and may have to leave the

area/community

Lack of skilled and experienced labour pool

Cultural heritage sites or artefacts of international

importance such as UNESCO World Heritage Sites



4



Critical habitats are areas with high biodiversity value, including (i) habitat of significant importance to critically endangered and/or endangered species; (ii) habitat of significant

importance to endemic and/or restricted-range species; (iii) habitat supporting globally significant concentrations of migratory species and/or congregatory species; (iv) highly

threatened and/or unique ecosystems; and/or (v) areas associated with key evolutionary processes.

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1.8.7.3 Impact significance

The significance of the impact will then be calculated as follows:

Significance = Intensity × Sensitivity

The significance of impacts will be determined using the matrix presented in Figure 1.5.

It is qualified according to a scale that ranges from negligible to major, with an additional

category for positive impacts (see Table 1.4).

Sensitivity rating

Very low



Low



Medium



High



0

Positive



1



2



3



4



Very low



1



1

Negligible



2

Negligible



3

Minor



4

Minor



Low



2



2

Negligible



4

Minor



6

Moderate



8

Moderate



Medium



3



3

Minor



6

Moderate



9

Moderate



12

Major



High



4



4

Minor



8

Moderate



12

Major



16

Major



Intensity rating



Significance



Figure 1.5: Impact significance matrix



Residual impacts are then evaluated, taking into account application of mitigation

measures. Any significant (moderate or major) residual impacts may trigger additional

mitigation or compensation. In addition, measures for enhancing any positive impacts

should be highlighted.

The assessment of impacts resulting from the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign is

provided in Chapter 6: Potential Impacts of the Project.

Table 1.4: Impact significance scale

Score



Category



Definition



0



Positive



The positive impact should be welcomed by key stakeholders and

measures should be taken to maximise the benefit.



1–2



Negligible



Negligible impacts that are unlikely to warrant additional mitigation

measures or monitoring.



3–4



Minor



The potential negative impact is likely to be acceptable to key

stakeholders without additional mitigation measures. Monitoring

should check that the baseline conditions are not affected beyond

predicted levels.



5–9



Moderate



Additional mitigation measures should be developed to control the

potential negative impact so that changes to baseline conditions are

kept ‘as low as reasonably practicable’.



1-22



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Score



>9



Category



Definition



Major



The possible negative impact is too significant to be acceptable.

Controls must be implemented to reduce either the likelihood or the

impact severity or provide compensation/offset if this cannot be

achieved.



1.8.7.4 Accidental impacts

Accidental events are considered separately from planned routine activities, as they only

arise as a result of a technical failure, human error or natural phenomena such as a

seismic event.

Scoring of accidental impact significance/risk is undertaken using the same methodology

as described for routine events. However, the likelihood of the event is then a key

consideration in the final grading.

The significance/risk of the impact has been calculated as follows:

Significance/Risk = Sensitivity × Intensity × Likelihood (see Table 1.5).

Table 1.5: Likelihood categories for unplanned/accidental events

Category

Likely

10-1–10-2

Unlikely

10-2–10-3

Very unlikely

10-3–10-4

Extremely unlikely

10-4–10-5

Remote

<10-5



Score



Definition



5



Could occur several times during over plant* lifetime



4



Could occur once for every 10 to 20 similar plants over 20 to

30 years of plant lifetime



3



One time per year for at least 1000 units. One time for every

100 to 200 similar plants in the world over 20 to 30 years of

plant lifetime. Has already occurred in the company but

corrective action has been taken



2



Has already occurred in the industry but corrective action

has been taken



1



Event physically possible but has never or seldom occurred

over a period of 20 to 30 years for a large number of sites.



Source: Likelihood categories extracted from the TEP Liban Risk Register that has been submitted as

a standalone document to the authorities.

*Plant is the term used in the TEP Liban Risk Register and has been used in this case instead of

‘project’



The significance/risk is then qualified according to a scale that ranges from low to high

(see Table 1.6). Low risks are defined as those where at least two of the scores from

sensitivity, intensity or likelihood are defined as low or very low (sensitivity and intensity

of 2 or less, likelihood of 3 or less), moderate risks arise where at least two of the scores

are medium, and high risks exist where at least two of the component scores are high

and the third is at least medium.



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Table 1.6: Accidental impact significance/risk scale

Score



Category



Definition



1–12



Low



Broadly acceptable risk level



13–36



Moderate



Tolerable risk level if demonstrated to be ‘as low as

reasonably practical’



>36



High



Not acceptable, risk level to be obligatorily reduced to

moderate or low



The results from the oil spill modelling process, described in Section 1.8.7.6, were a key

input into the accidental impact assessment.

1.8.7.5 Transboundary and cumulative impacts

Transboundary impacts are those that extend or occur across a national boundary:

impacts that affect countries other than the country in which the project will be constructed

or operated.

The proposed location of the first exploration well is just over 67 km from Cyprus

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) border, 77 km from Syria EEZ border and 107 km from

Occupied Palestine EEZ border (the closest point of this border is on the coastline). The

proximity of these borders has been taken into consideration when assessing

transboundary impacts for both routine activities and accidental events.

Cumulative impacts are those that act together with other impacts, from the same or other

projects, to affect the same environmental or social resource or receptor. There can be

either









additive impacts, which result from the combined or incremental effects of the

project when considered in combination with those associated with other known

future projects. While a single activity, in itself, may result in an insignificant

impact, it may, when combined with other impacts in the same geographical area

and occurring at a similar time, result in a cumulative impact that could have a

detrimental effect on important resources.

in-combination impacts, where different types of impact from the project being

considered are likely to affect the same environmental or social features. For

example, a sensitive receptor being affected by both noise and turbidity during

construction could potentially experience a combined effect greater than the

individual impacts in isolation.



The potential for cumulative impacts with other activities at the Beirut Port, and with other

oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities in the eastern Mediterranean, has been

taken into consideration in this assessment.

1.8.7.6 Modelling studies

The following studies have been carried out for the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign

to provide a more accurate assessment of project impacts:







1-24



modelling of drilling discharges (cuttings and associated drilling fluids) from the

well (see Chapter 6)

underwater noise modelling for the drilling campaign and assessment of the

effects on marine mammals (see Chapter 6)

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1.8.8



oil spill modelling study for worst-case possible accidental release scenarios in

Block 4 (see Chapter 6).



Management and implementation

Processes are required to ensure that both the operator and relevant contractors

implement commitments derived from the EIA during the exploration drilling campaign.

A commitments register has been compiled that lists all the specific mitigation measures

identified in this EIA (see Chapter 8). These commitments will be tracked through to the

environmental and social management plans (ESMPs) developed for the drilling

campaign. More information is provided in Chapter 8: Environmental and Social

Management Plan.



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2



POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE

FRAMEWORK



2.1



Introduction

The Block 4 exploration drilling programme will be carried out in accordance with the

environmental and social requirements of





national policy, legislation and regulations









applicable international treaties and agreements to which Lebanon is a party

TOTAL’s corporate requirements







international good practice.



This chapter sets out the legal and policy context for the project and describes the

Lebanese administrative structure within which the project will be implemented.



2.2



National institutional framework

The Ministry of Environment (MoE) is the main body responsible for environmental

protection and management in Lebanon. The role of the MoE in the oil and gas sector is

explicitly defined in the Offshore Petroleum Resources Law (OPRL) No. 132/2010 and

the Petroleum Activities Regulations (PAR) Decree No. 10289/2013, as amended by

Decree No. 177/2017. The ministry is tasked with supervising the conduct of petroleum

activities and ensuring its overall compliance with environmental standards and

regulations.

Another main stakeholder in the environmental management of petroleum activities is the

Lebanese Petroleum Administration (LPA). The LPA was established in 2012, to be the

regulatory body in charge of managing the petroleum sector in Lebanon. The LPA is an

independent public entity and operates under the tutelage of the Minister of Energy and

Water (OPRL, article 10). It plays a critical role during licensing, exploration,

development, production and decommissioning stages and actively undertakes planning,

regulatory and supervisory roles across the Lebanese petroleum sector.

The MoE works in coordination with the LPA supervising and controlling environmental

matters related to petroleum activities and will coordinate with other concerned

authorities, take initiatives or measures deemed necessary to minimise negative impact

that petroleum activities may have on local communities and the environment (OPRL No.

132/2010, article 60). Other stakeholders involved in the environmental management of

the petroleum sector are listed in Table 2.1, along with their roles.



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2-1



Table 2.1: Roles and responsibilities of the prime stakeholders

Institution



Ministry of

Environment (MoE)



Role and responsibilities

The MoE is responsible for the protection of the environment within

Lebanese territory including territorial waters and the exclusive economic

zone (EEZ). As per Law No. 132/2010 (OPRL) and Decree 10289/2013

(PAR), MoE is involved in setting the principles and procedures for the

management of offshore petroleum operations, environmental impact

assessment (EIA) studies for any plan for development, production,

transportation, storage, utilisation, cessation of petroleum activities and

decommissioning, and setting out inspection, monitoring and verification

requirements. PAR includes regulations on provisions for strategic

environmental assessments (SEA) and EIAs for the sector, reconnaissance

licensing and activities, exploration and production rights, petroleum

production and transportation, cessation of petroleum activities and

decommissioning of facilities, production entitlements and fees, drilling and

wells, managing facilities, health, safety and environment, as well as

general and final provisions (LCPS, 2015). The MoE is also responsible for

drafting guidelines relating to activities with an environmental aspect.

The main areas regulated by the MoE are





2-2



environmental matters including emissions, discharges, hazardous

materials, waste and state of the ambient environment







development of environmental strategies, plans and programmes







development of legislation, specifications and standards necessary

for protecting the environment and sustainability of its natural

resources and addressing emergency and chronic hazards

affecting it







environmental permitting







monitoring the condition of the environment







supervision and inspection of facilities, activities and operations

relating to environmental impact







environmental accident investigations



Relevance to the project



MoE is responsible for





reviewing and approving EIAs, IEES, SEAs

and EAs







environmental permitting (environmental

licensing for hazardous waste)







the national database for hazardous waste







environmental monitoring, auditing an

inspection







supervision of incident clean-up (should one

occur)







water quality monitoring should an incident

occur (MoE & LPA, 2019).



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Institution



Role and responsibilities





enforcement in cases of emergency leading to environmental

impacts







enforcement in cases of non-conformity or violation of

environmental regulations



Relevance to the project







reviewing and approving EIAs, initial environmental examinations

(IEEs), SEAs and EAs.

The MoE is also the focal point for environmental conventions, including the

Basel convention for the export of waste and the Stockholm convention for

the import of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) chemicals. The MoE is

responsible for ensuring there is no violation of the Lebanese commitments

to any international conventions signed.

The LPA is an independent public entity responsible for managing the

Lebanese petroleum sector during licensing, exploration, development,

production, and decommissioning stages, by creating the greatest possible

value for the economy and the society from the oil and gas activities while

protecting the environment (LCPS, 2015).

In addition, LPA is responsible for





Lebanese

Petroleum

Administration (LPA)



preparing technical studies to support and inform the decisionmaking processes







undertaking planning, regulatory and supervisory roles across the

petroleum industry value chain. It plays critical roles during the

licensing phase, the exploration phase, the development and

production phase and the decommissioning phase.

The QHSE Department of the LPA is responsible for all matters related to

the quality of operators’ systems and the extent of their adherence to the

conditions of health, safety and environment, and particularly responsible

for studying applications for licences, studying plans on quality of

performance, monitoring preparedness for addressing accidents and

emergencies, monitoring the compliance of operators with various

regulations, assessing the impact of operations on occupational and

environmental health, and monitoring facilities to ensure compliance with

environmental, health and safety standards (LCPS, 2015).



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LPA is responsible for undertaking planning,

regulatory and supervisory roles across the

petroleum industry value chain.

LPA also plays a critical role during the licensing,

exploration, development and decommissioning

phases.



2-3



Institution



Role and responsibilities

Additional mandates are assigned to LPA when it comes to management

and follow up of environmental aspects of the petroleum activities, as

mandated by PAR (LCPS, 2015).



Relevance to the project



Council of Ministers

(CoM)



CoM is the executive body of the Republic of Lebanon and is generally

tasked with overseeing daily affairs. In addition, CoM sets forth the state’s

petroleum policy.



The CoM is involved in the management of

petroleum resources and settling any differences

between concerned stakeholders.



Ministry of Energy

and Water (MoEW)



Role of the ministry in offshore oil and gas activities is stipulated in the

OPRL and PAR. In cases of emergency, the MoEW ensures the

implementation of the petroleum policy. The MoEW endeavours to enhance

the state petroleum capabilities and is responsible for monitoring and

supervising petroleum activities, and taking the necessary measures to

protect water, health, property, and the environment from pollution.

Before the drilling of any individual well deeper than 50 m, a drilling permit

must be granted by the Minister of Energy and Water based on the opinion

of the LPA.

The Ministry is responsible for works related to biodiversity and protected

species which will be a component of the environmental and social impact

assessments carried out during the development of oil and gas activities

(Kanbar, 2015).



Minister is responsible for monitoring and supervising

petroleum activities in addition to granting

exploratory drilling permits before drilling.



The MoPH (2018) is responsible for supervising and monitoring healthcare

facilities and providing universal health coverage. The MoPH is also in

charge of



Ministry of Public

Health (MoPH)



2-4







promotion of hygiene







rehabilitation of sanitation facilities at public health centres







promotion of sound healthcare waste management practices



• provision of disease surveillance information.

MoPH also has a role in permitting import and management of radioactive

sources.

As per Decree 8377/1961, MoPH is mandated with the drafting of laws and

regulations related to the management of the health sector. The MoPH

supervises and monitors healthcare facilities (MOE/UNDP/ECODIT, 2011).



MoPH is the authority responsible for ensuring the

proper health and safety of workers during

exploratory drilling activities.

MoPH provides customs clearance for certain

chemicals.



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Institution



Role and responsibilities



Relevance to the project



The MoPWT is the marine competent authority responsible for all matters

related to national maritime transportation activities in line with local and

international maritime requirements. It is the competent authority for several

international conventions (MARPOL, ILO, etc.).

The MoPWT is responsible for





maintaining and improving the marine navigational aids in ports

and along the coast







Ministry of Public

Works and

Transport (MoPWT)



protecting the marine environment from pollution in coordination

with MoE.

The Directorate-General of Land and Maritime Transport has the

responsibility to monitor all Lebanese and non-Lebanese ships. Monitoring

procedures aim to ensure that ships comply with all of the requirements

under international conventions pertaining to safety, environmental

protection and pollution prevention, particularly the International Convention

for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS), as amended, the International

Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), the

STCW Convention, as amended in 1995, and the ILO Conventions, as

amended.

As per Decision No. 96/2018, MoPWT is involved in the rules of control and

supervision of the bodies approved by the Directorate-General of Land and

Maritime Transport (MoPWT, 2019).

The Directorate-General of Civil Aviation has responsibility for regulating

and operating Beirut International Airport and has technical experts in the

fields of aviation safety, air transport, facility and equipment maintenance,

meteorology and telecommunications. The Air Navigation Department is

responsible for the provision of air traffic services for the entire territory of

Lebanon, including its territorial waters as well as airspace over the high

seas within the Beirut Flight Information Region.

As per Regulatory Decree No. 1610, dated 26th July 1971, the DirectorateGeneral of Civil Aviation is associated to the MoPWT.



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MoPWT is responsible for maintaining marine

navigation, including back and forth trips from port of

Beirut to the drilling location.

The Ministry also issues notices to mariners

providing information on any constraints to marine

navigation.

The Ministry is responsible for ensuring MARPOL

control measures are implemented and complied

with.

Role of Directorate-General of Civil Aviation

applicable to project helicopters accessing Beirut

International Airport. The Directorate-General of Civil

Aviation is responsible for issuing permits for the use

of helicopters and the monitoring compliance for

helicopter operations.



2-5



Institution



Role and responsibilities



Relevance to the project



Ministry of

Agriculture (MoA)



The MoA is responsible for formulating the agricultural sector strategic

framework and developing related policies and programmes. The MoA is

also responsible for developing legislative and regulatory frameworks

governing the agricultural sector and for securing infrastructure to facilitate

investment, production and marketing operations. The directorate of rural

development and national resources under the MOA is responsible for

aquaculture development (FAO, 2019). In addition, the MoA has a primary

role in the management of natural resources (agricultural land, irrigation

water, forests and forestry, fisheries, rangelands) and in the preparation

and implementation of rural development programmes (MoA, 2014).



The MoA's legal mandate covers the coastal zone

and the management of fisheries, fishing and hunting

activities.



Ministry of Labour

(MoL)



The MoL is responsible for labour and employment issues. Labour

inspection is the responsibility of the Department of Labour, Inspection,

Prevention and Safety (DLIPS). The National Social Security Fund carries

out inspection services to verify social security contributions (MOL, 2019).

Based on the role of OPRL and PAR, the role of MoL with relation to the

offshore sector is limited (MOL, 2019).



The MoL is involved in matters related to work and

workers (MOL, 2019),



The Ministry of Finance aims to foster sustainable economic growth in

alignment with national priorities. Some of the ministry’s objectives include



Ministry of Finance

(MoF)







ensuring that the legal responsibilities of the Ministry are executed

impartially







developing and maintaining a stable economic environment







optimally structuring and managing the nation’s assets and abilities







fostering stable financial institutions and markets







facilitating the development of the national economy and

international trade



The directorate of customs under the MoF will be

involved in facilitating customs procedures;

specifically with regard to importing equipment and

materials for project activities and the export of waste

and import of controlled chemicals.







developing and maintaining leading-edge organisational and

management practices.

The Customs directorate is responsible for the collection of customs duties

and other duties and taxes that may be imposed on goods imported to

Lebanon (MoF, 2017).



2-6



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Institution



Role and responsibilities



Relevance to the project



Ministry of Foreign

Affairs (MoFA)



Several directorates are under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, including the

Directorate for Economic, Cultural and Social Affairs. This directorate

coordinates with the competent administrations in the matters related to

Lebanon’s economic and financial relations with foreign countries. It works

on finding new markets for Lebanon’s products, promoting Lebanese

tourism, handling employment and housing affairs and attending social and

economic conferences. The Directorate contributes to the preparation of

economic, cultural, social, touristic and environmental agreements and

follows-up their implementation.



The MoFA will coordinate with other countries in the

event of transboundary adverse impacts in light of

the applicable international conventions.



Port of Beirut



The Port of Beirut Authorities are responsible for the Port inside the quay

line. Outside of the Port limits, the MoPWT is the competent maritime

authority.



The Port of Beirut will serve as a logistics base and

will be the port used by supply vessels for the MODU



Lebanese Army



The Lebanese Armed Forces is the military of the Lebanese Republic. It

consists of three branches: the army, the air force, and the navy.



The Lebanese Navy monitors vessel movements in

coastal waters. Involved in issue of information and

instructions to mariners pertaining to shipping

hazards and safety zones (in conjunction with

MoPWT).

Army Intelligence Directorate involved in port

security.

The Lebanese Air Force provides security clearance

for helicopter use.



Ministry of Social

Affairs (MoSA)



The Ministry of Social Affairs is responsible for providing assistance; for

example, the ministry’s strategy is based on the principle of sustainable

human development where it responds to the basic needs of the groups

most in need and creates partnerships with public and private sectors at

various levels (MOSA, 2019).



National Council for

Scientific Research

(CNRS) (under

CoM)



The CNRS is a national institution, established in 1962, responsible for

encouraging scientific research and supporting human resources

development along the general scientific policies adopted by the

government (CNRS, 2006; 2019).



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The Ministry of Social Affairs is responsible for

providing assistance to people in need and

vulnerable groups (MOSA, 2019). This is mainly

related to the relevant social impacts of the

exploratory drilling activities.

Data collection for the EIA from the relevant centres

including the following:





Geo-hazards, Remote Sensing and GIS







Centre for Geophysical Research







National Centre for Marine Studies.

2-7



Institution



Role and responsibilities

The CNRS has been entrusted with two missions: the first is advisory, the

second executive.

The consultative mission of the CNRS involves the formulation of

guidelines for national scientific policies aimed at enhancing the

development of the country (CNRS, 2006) (CNRS, 2019).

As part of its executive mission, the CNRS secures the promotion,

organisation and realisation of these policies in action programmes

implemented in its own research centres or in collaboration with other

academic, research and development institutions (CNRS, 2006; 2019).

The CNRS is responsible for ·





drafting the general outline of a national science and research

policy ·







advising the government on any issue concerning science and

national science policy ·







carrying out surveys and inventories of ongoing research ·







formulating work programmes in cooperation with the relevant

ministries and the private sector ·



Relevance to the project

CNRS may also monitor the water quality and marine

life on behalf of the government.

The LAEC is responsible for issuing permits for

radioactive materials, such as for use in wireline

logging.







initiating and encouraging scientific research in the theoretical and

applied aspects of basic, social and behavioural sciences.

The Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (LAEC), one of the centres

under CNRS, is the national agency mandated to establish the

radioprotection infrastructure of all radioactivity sources emitting ionising

radiation in Lebanon and to carry out surveys on possible radioactive

pollution. LAEC’s mandate covers monitoring the radioactivity of imported

and exported commodities and related equipment and maintaining a

national record of all radioactive materials and equipment in Lebanon,

under Decree 15512/2005 (LAEC, 2010). Its aim is to protect all personnel

working in this field and the general public from radioactive risk and

pollution. It is also mandated to establish a plan for the treatment of all

radioactive waste from industries and hospitals. The LAEC is mandated to

issue utilisation permits to all institutions using ionising radiation. LAEC has

a department for environmental radiation control and a department for

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Institution



Role and responsibilities

authorisation, inspection and regulations. It is responsible for regulating the

use and protection of ionising radiation (Decree No. 105 of 1983).



Relevance to the project



The DGA is part of the Ministry of Culture and responsible for executing,

monitoring and enforcing the Antiquities law, and for archaeological

remains, antiques, traditional and historical monuments (Archeolmed Sites,

2019).

The DGA’s responsibilities include ·



Ministry of Culture

(MoC) (Directorate

General for

Antiquities (DGA))



Concerned

municipalities



Other institutions

agencies, academia,

NGOs and citizens



organisation and execution of archaeological excavations, upkeep

of the historic monuments and discovery of new archaeological

sites ·







delivery of excavation permits and control of scientific

archaeological missions performing excavations ·







establishment and management of museums, organisation of

archaeological and historic exhibitions ·







control of commerce and export of antique objects·







enforcement of current laws and regulations ·







management of the World Heritage Sites in Lebanon.



The Ministry of Culture’s relevance to the project is

ensuring that the drilling activities are not affecting

any archaeological or historical sites and areas.



Organised into federations where projects are too large for a single

municipality. Responsibilities include local roads and buildings, community

facilities, wastewater and drainage.

Concerning solid-waste management, municipalities are part of the local

administration who are in charge of the daily management of all public

works within their jurisdiction. Municipalities are given the right to establish

waste disposal facilities in their territories (Elard and Tedobin, 2014)



The concerned municipalities related to the project

are mainly those which face Block 4.



As appropriate to the relevant body



Data collection from academia. NGOs and citizens,

engagement in the phases of the project to share

their concerns, objections, and recommendations

concerning the proposed project



Source: CNRS (2006); LAEC (2010); MOE/UNDP/ECODIT (2011); Elard & Tedobin (2014); MoA (2014); UNDP (2014); Kanbar (2015); LCPS (2015); MoF (2017); MoPH (2018);

Ramboll (2018); Archeolmed Sites (2019); CNRS (2019); FAO (2019); ILO (2019); MoL (2019); MOSA (2019); UNEP-ROWA (2019); MoE & LPA (2019); MoEW (2019); MoPWT

(2019)

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2.3



National policy

According to Article 1, the main objective of Law No. 444/2002 on environmental

protection, is to define the general legal framework to apply a national environmental

protection policy (MoE, 2017). Law 444/2002 goes on to identify the following 11

environmental principles that are applicable to any activity within the Lebanese territory:































Precaution Principle (cleaner techniques): focuses on the use of best affordable

clean techniques to protect the environment from irreversible ramifications

Prevention Principle: using best affordable technologies to prevent damages that

may occur in the environment

Polluter-Pays Principle: requiring polluters to endure the costs of pollution

prevention and control

Biodiversity conservation Principle: aimed at protecting the biodiversity of

Lebanon from any economic activity

Prevention of Natural Resources Degradation Principle: requiring all activities to

avoid causing irreversible damages to the natural resources like water, air, soil,

forests, sea, rivers and others

Public Participation Principle: ensuring that all citizens have the right to free

access of national environmental information, and have the duty of notifying any

environmental risk occurring

Cooperation Principle: requiring the cooperation between public and local

authorities and citizens to ensure the protection and conservation of the

environment on all levels

Principle of Recognition of Local Mores and Customs in rural areas aimed at

enforcing local customs in the absence of law provision

Pollution Control Principle: aimed at preventing and controlling pollution in all

environmental aspects to prevent pollution spreading or influencing other areas

Economic Incentives Principle: encourages the use of economic incentives to

control and abate pollution

EIA Process Principle: aimed at evaluating environmental impacts of any activity

to control and mitigate any potential impacts on the environment.



Table 2.2 presents other key plans, programmes and strategies relevant to the proposed

project.



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Table 2.2: Key plans, programmes and strategies

Policy



Year



Brief scope



Relevance to project



Document proposes new MPAs in addition to the two

existing sites and sets the MPAs management

strategy which aims to fulfil the following objectives:



Lebanon’s marine protected area

strategy



2012



establish a more systematic approach to

marine protected areas planning and

establishment







enhance collaboration for management and

monitoring of marine protected areas







increase awareness, understanding and

participation of the local community in the

marine protected areas network







link Lebanon’s network of marine protected

areas to Mediterranean networks.



Project needs to adhere to the

requirements of the strategy and set

measures to protect MPAs and proposed

sites



2015



It provides an update on biodiversity status, trends

and threats and implications for human well-being

and provides the national biodiversity strategy and

action plan.



National targets and national action plans

relevant to the project will be adhered to,

especially targets related to preserving

threatened species, control of invasive alien

species and sustainable management of

ecosystems.



Lebanon’s National Biodiversity

Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP)

2016–2030



2016



The NBSAP aims to mainstream biodiversity into

sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies, plans and

programmes while its vision is to preserve and

conserve the Lebanese ecosystems, habitats and

species. The NBSAP is aligned with the new

Convention on Biological Diversity goals and

integrated the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets.



National targets and national actions

relevant to the project will be adhered to,

especially targets related to preserving

threatened species, control of invasive alien

species and sustainable management of

ecosystems.



Strategic Environmental

Assessment (SEA) for Exploration

and Production Activities Offshore

Lebanon



2014

(2019 update

at draft stage)



In 2011, the Lebanese Government commissioned a

SEA which was finalised in 2012 and published in

2014. The SEA report evaluated the likely

environmental and social effects of introducing and

developing oil and gas activities in Lebanon.



Mitigation measures approved in the SEA

for Exploration and Production Activities

Offshore Lebanon are mandatory to

petroleum sector activities.



Fifth national report of Lebanon to

the Convention on Biological

Diversity



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Policy



Year



Brief scope



Relevance to project



This document was updated and disclosed for public

consultation in 2019.

The NOSCP objectives are aligned with the IMO

objectives for a NOSCP. As such, it



National Oil Spill Contingency Plan

(NOSCP) in Lebanese Waters



2017







establishes a viable operational organisation

with representation from all concerned

agencies







identifies the national high-risk areas







identifies priority coastal areas for protection

and clean-up







provides a minimum level and appropriate

types of pollution response in accordance

with the OPRC Convention







prevents the spread of further pollution from

identified oil spills







controls the spill source and clean-up of

existing pollution







employs net environmental benefit analysis

to ensure that the chosen recovery strategy

does not further damage the environment.



Procedures and requirements of the

national plan to be incorporated into project

spill response plan



Lebanon’s mitigation included unconditional targets of



Lebanon’s Intended Nationally

Determined Contribution under the

UNFCCC / MoE



2015







GHG emission reduction of 15% compared

to 2011 scenario by 2030







15% of power and heat demand in 2030

generated by renewables







3% reduction in power demand through

energy-efficiency measures by 2030

and conditional targets of





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GHGs from the petroleum sector will be

controlled to achieve the targeted GHG

emission reduction from the energy sector.



GHG emission reduction of 30% compared

to 2011 scenario by 2030

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Policy



Lebanon Rural Tourism Strategy



Lebanon’s commitment to the UN

sustainable development goals,

2030 (SDGs)



Year







20% of power and heat demand in 2030

generated by renewables







10% reduction in power demand through

energy-efficiency measures by 2030.



Relevance to project



2015



The goal of the five-year strategy is to enhance

economic opportunities in Lebanese rural areas

through improving the competitiveness of specific

value chains including rural tourism and another set

of agricultural sectors and food products.



Project supply base will not be located

close to areas important for tourism and will

not affect the visual amenity in such areas



2017



The Lebanese government has taken major steps

towards the implementation of the SDGs and has

sought to send a positive message about Lebanon's

commitment and determination to implement the

2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The

government established a National Committee in

June 2017 consisting of all ministries and public

institutions, as well as representatives from civil

society and the private sector.

UN Sustainable Development Goals:

Goal 1: No poverty

Goal 2: Zero hunger

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

Goal 4: Quality education

Goal 5: Gender equality

Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation

Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy

Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth

Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure

Goal 10: Reduced inequalities

Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities



The project will consider the SDGs and

contribute to the extent possible to the

related goals.



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Brief scope



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Policy



Year



Brief scope



Relevance to project



Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production

Goal 13: Climate action

Goal 14: Life below water

Goal 15: Life on land

Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals.



National Implementation plans

(NIP) for the Management of

Persistent Organic Pollutants



Integrated Solid Waste

Management Framework



Policy Summary on Integrated

Solid Waste Management



2006



Lebanon signed the Stockholm Convention on 22

May 2001 and ratified it in law 432 on 29 July 2002;

the convention came into force on 17 May 2004.

Following this, Lebanon was selected to take part in

the “UNEP/DGEF 12 Countries Pilot Project for the

Development of National Implementation Plans for

the Management of POPs”.

This project aims to strengthen national capacity to

manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and to

assist Lebanon in meeting its obligations under the

Stockholm POPs Convention. It also aims to assist

Lebanon in developing a National Implementation

Plan (NIP) for POPs management in order to reduce

and eventually eliminate POPs emissions.



Requirements of the NIP relevant to the

project will be taken into account.



2018



Sets the overall guiding principles and requirements

for solid waste management in Lebanon. Regarding

hazardous waste, MoE shall prepare a feasibility

study and shall take the necessary steps to build

interim hazardous waste storage sites and build

needed treatment facilities.

Enacted by the ISWM National Strategy 2019.



To be taken into account with respect to

project waste management



2018



The policy takes into consideration the following

procedural aspects:





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household solid waste



Requirements relevant to the project will be

taken into account.



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Policy



Year



Brief scope





gradual closure and rehabilitation of

uncontrolled dumpsites







hazardous and other wastes.



Relevance to project



Road Map 2019-2030 for the ISWM

sector



2019



Decisions of the Council of Ministers regarding the

Road Map 2019-2030 for the Integrated Solid Waste

Management (ISWM) sector.



Requirements relevant to the project will be

taken into account.



A National Energy Strategy for

Lebanon



2017



It presents Lebanon’s national aspirations for the

energy sector specifically electricity and oil & gas



Information relevant to the project will be

taken into account.



Source: FAO (2019); MoEW (2016, 2019); Khoury and Alhaj (2019); MoE (2006)



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2.4



National legislation

Figure 2.1 presents the hierarchy of legislation in Lebanon.

The Lebanese Constitution represents the strongest legislative text in Lebanon, and

proposed legislation cannot be issued if in contradiction with the Constitution.

International treaties/agreements ratified by Lebanon have second priority in the

Lebanese legislative framework. These are discussed in more detail in Section 2.7.

The need for environmental protection has long been recognised by the Lebanese

authorities and many parliamentary Laws, Council of Ministers’ Decrees and Ministerial

Decisions and Orders are available for enforcement. These are summarised in Table 2.3

along with their relevance to the Block 4 exploration drilling programme.



Figure 2.1: Hierarchy of legislation in Lebanon



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Table 2.3: Key national legislation of relevance to the Block 4 exploration drilling programme

Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



Offshore Petroleum

Resources Law (OPRL)



Law sets the principles and procedures for the management of

offshore petroleum operations.

It requires the State to conduct a strategic environmental

assessment study (SEA) prior to awarding any petroleum rights.

It requires EIA studies for any plan for development, production,

transportation, storage, utilisation, cessation of petroleum activities

and decommissioning.

It requires a permit for venting and flaring.

It sets out inspection, monitoring and verification requirements.



Includes EIA requirements for

development of petroleum activities

relevant to project

Specifies that a permit is required

for venting and flaring

Competent authority has the right to

inspect any facility used for

petroleum activities in order to

monitor and verify the consistency of

information and reports relating to

activities



The Exploration and

Production Agreement

(EPA)



Article 17 is related to health, safety and environmental

requirements. It requires the right holders and operators to comply

with: (i) best international petroleum industry standards relating to

health, safety and the environment; (ii) applicable Lebanese laws

relating to health, safety and the environment; and (iii) reasonable

requirements of the Lebanese Petroleum Administrator or any

other competent authority relating to the protection pf health, safety

and the environment.

EIA studies required for development and production; construction,

placement and operation of a transportation facility, and plan for

cessation of petroleum activities and decommissioning of facilities

Block-specific environmental requirements included in EPA



Requirements of the EPA need to

be taken into consideration in the

impact assessment, including any

block-specific requirements



Petroleum legislation



Law No.

132/2010



Decree 43 Annex

2 2017



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



Decree

10289/2013



Petroleum Activities

Regulations (PAR)



Includes regulations on provisions for SEAs and EIAs for the

sector, reconnaissance licensing and activities, exploration and

production rights, petroleum production and transportation,

cessation of petroleum activities and decommissioning of facilities,

production entitlements and fees, drilling and wells, managing

facilities, health, safety and environment, as well as general and

final provisions. Requires all parties in the upcoming oil and gas

sector to comply with the requirements in the industry.

Requires a flaring or venting permit to be awarded by the MoEW.

Article 141 requires use of modern technologies and practices that

guarantee protection from environmental damage and control of

wastes and avoidance of unnecessary losses and damages to

natural resources.

Article 128 requires preferential use of materials and chemicals

which are least hazardous or damaging offering improved safety

elements and thus minimising the risks to the health and safety of

personnel, to the environment and to property.

The Right Holder has to provide protection from: accidents and

physical damage due to his activities, damage or risk of damage to

workers, damage to fauna, flora, marine biodiversity and

archaeology, marine pollution, air pollution and damage to

hydrocarbon bearing formations. The Right Holder has to assure

the implementation and monitoring of mitigation measures.

Article 141 stipulates that the Petroleum Administration must be

informed of the amount of operational and accidental discharges,

leakages and waste, and such information will be made public.

For other requirements/articles reference is made to the decree.



Main decree governing offshore

petroleum activities. It details

different phases licensing conditions

and requirements in addition to HSE

requirements.

Test production subject to a permit

stipulating procedure, volumes, and

including when required in case of

necessity, flaring or venting.

Specifies that operational and

accidental discharges are to be

reported to authorities.

Requirement to have an EIA

including criteria for choices made,

description of development stages,

co-ordination, permitting and legal

compliance, list of quality standards,

number of wells, equipment used,

injection of any component,

management – planning,

organisation & implementation,

mitigation measures, emergency

measures for safety, costs of the

development. For a full list see

article 44.



Decree

1177/2017



Amendment of some

articles of Decree

10289/2013



Deletes Article 79: ”General Provisions Regarding the Valuation of

Petroleum” and amends Article 80: ”Valuation of Crude Oil” and

Article 81: ”Valuation of Petroleum Other than Crude Oil” of the

PAR



Amendments to the main decree

governing offshore petroleum

activities.



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



Decree

7968/2012



Lebanese Petroleum

Administration



The establishment of the LPA and the roles of each department.



Role of LPA detailed in Table 2.1.



Law No 84/2018



Strengthening

Transparency in the

Petroleum Sector



This law defines the following:





transparency support in the petroleum sector







the duties of the Petroleum Sector Management Authority







National Authority for Combating Corruption.



LPA commitment to complying with

transparency procedures and

enhancing public access to

information.



Environmental legislation

Includes general provisions for protection of the environment (see

Section 2.3).

Article 30: It is strictly forbidden for all discharges, immersions or

burning in the Lebanese territorial waters of every material that

may directly or indirectly



Law No.

444/2002



Environmental Protection

Law



affect the health of human beings or natural marine

resources







harm the activities and marine creatures, including

shipping, fishing, flora and seaweed







corrupt the quality of marine water







Permit required for discharge into

territorial waters.

Permit required for import, handling

and disposal of hazardous

chemicals.



reduce the entertainment value and tourism possibilities of

the sea and the Lebanese coast.

Article 31: requires a permit for discharge to sea (application

decree not issued).

Article 44: requires a permit for the import, handling or disposal of

dangerous/hazardous chemicals (application decree not issued).



Decree

8633/2012



Environmental Impact

Assessment



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Decree aims at setting forth the rules that shall be considered in

the EIA of public and private projects to avoid potential

environmental impacts during construction, operation and

decommissioning of these projects. More information provided in

Section 2.5.



The Lebanese government has

specified that an EIA is required for

the Block 4 exploration drilling

programme.

The EIA report will be prepared in

accordance with the requirements of

the Decree.

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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



SEA



Decree aims at determining mandatory procedures to be followed

for the assessment of potential environmental impacts of any

policy, plan, programme, study, investment or organisation

proposal that tackles an entire Lebanese region, or an activity

sector, in order to ensure that these activities are compliant with

conditions related to health, public safety, the protection of the

environment and the sustainability of natural resources.



Mitigation measures approved in the

SEA for Exploration and Production

Activities Offshore Lebanon are

mandatory to petroleum sector

activities.



Law No.

690/2005



Organisation of the MoE



The MoE is responsible for all matters related to the environmental

sector.



MoE responsible for imposing the

preparation of EIA/IEE studies and

for subsequent review and approval

or rejection.



Law 130/2019



Law of Protected Areas



Defines the categories of protected areas and sets the procedures

for the creation of protected areas.



Applicable in case of the presence

of potential protected areas.



Decree

2275/2009



Organisation and

mandates of the MoE



Application Decree on the organisation and mandates of the MoE,

its divisions and departments



Departments of the MoE practice

their mandated functions related to

the offshore petroleum activities.



Decision 262/1 of

2015



Defining the procedures

for filing and review of an

objection on MoE

Decisions related to EIAs



Defines the procedures for filing and review of an objection on MoE

Decisions related to EIAs



Shall be adhered to during EIA

studies conducted for petroleum

activities.



Decision 261/1 of

2015



Defining the procedures

for the review of Scoping



Includes the mechanism and procedures to review the EIA scoping

reports and EIAs



Shall be adhered to during EIA

studies conducted for petroleum

activities.



Decision No.

1294/1 of 2017



Environmental conditions

for transport of healthcare

wastes



Regulates the transport of hazardous and infectious waste within

Lebanese territory and determines the environmental conditions for

transport from production sites to treatment sites



Applicable for the transport of

healthcare wastes generated from

petroleum activities to treatment

facilities.



Decree

8213/2012



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



Discharges, emissions, waste and hazardous materials legislation

Ministerial

Decision No.

52/1 of 1996

(amended by

MoE Decision

8/1 of 2001)



Specification and

Standards for

Environmental Quality

and Emission Limit

Values into the Air Water

and Soil



Standards and specifications are provided in 14 Annexes to

Decree 52/1 of 1996.

Decision 8/1 of 2001 overwrites Decision 52/1 in the form of 6

Annexes (with the exception of Annex 10 - noise levels and

exposure limits)



Standards and limits applicable to

the project from these decisions are

included in Section 2.10.1.



Law No. 78/2018



Law for Protection of Air

Quality



The law aims to protect ambient air quality by identifying,

monitoring and assessing, preventing and controlling air pollution

resulting from anthropogenic activities.



Law has specific requirements to

adopt BAT for emissions reduction.



Decree No.

3277/2016

amending

Decree No.

2604/2009



Control of Materials that

Deplete the Ozone Layer



Decree aims to control substances that deplete the ozone layer

which are listed in the annexes of the Montreal Protocol.



Import of ozone-depleting

substances listed in the Decree is

prohibited.



Law No. 77/2018



Water Resources Law



Law aims to organise, develop and protect water resources. It also

aims to promote sustainability by strengthening water

establishments.



Sets out penalties on unauthorised

discharges or disposal of any kind of

waste in water resources, including

seawater.



Law No. 80/2018



Integrated Solid Waste

Management



The law sets integrated solid waste management principles. It

provides guidelines for the management of non-hazardous and

hazardous waste.



Applicable to management of waste

from exploration drilling programme.



Determination of the

Fundamentals of

Hazardous Waste

Management



Defines the fundamentals of hazardous waste management

including the characterisation and classification of these wastes, as

well as the establishment of an appropriate monitoring and

controlling system to control the operations of generation, sorting,

collection, transport, storage, recovery, treatment and final disposal

of hazardous waste, aiming at minimising the negative impacts on

the environment. Specifies requirements for waste carriers, waste

storage facilities, and recovery/treatment/disposal facilities.

An environmental licence is required from the MoE for the

transportation, storage, and recovery/treatment/disposal of



Decree No.

5606/2019



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Applicable to management of

hazardous waste generated by

exploration drilling programme.



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



hazardous waste in accordance with templates in Annex VI and

Annex VII of Decree.

Requires a report to be submitted to the MoE every three months

stating the types and quantities of hazardous wastes transported

outside the lot or lots where they were generated, the date of

transfer, the name of the carrier, the storage facility and/or

recovery, and/or treatment and/or final disposal. The reports

should include all completed hazardous waste movement forms.

The decree refers to sorting of solid waste at source depending on

the type and avoiding the following:



Decree No.

5605/2019



Law No. 64/1988



Sorting of Solid Waste

from Source



Preservation of the

environment against

pollution from dangerous

waste and hazardous

substances



pollution of surface water, air, groundwater, soil, fauna and

flora







harm to public health







nuisance to surrounding environment from odour







impacting protected areas (if any) and harming nature







threatening nature and biodiversity.



Applicable to municipal-like solid

waste generated by exploration

drilling programme.



The law defines dangerous waste and hazardous substances, and

includes general provisions for handling hazardous waste, and sets

sanctions in case of non-compliance with the provisions of the law.



Applicable to management of waste

from exploration drilling programme.



Legislative

Decree No. 105

of 1983

Decree No.

15512/2005



Regulating the use of and

protection from ionising

radiation



Stipulates licensing, regulation and authorisation process for all

practices that include ionising radiation.



Applicable to well logging activities.

Import, storage, use and export of

radioactive material, or devices

generating ionising radiation, subject

to a permit from the Minister of

Public Health.



Decree No.

5243/2001



Classification of industrial

facilities



This Decree identifies and classifies the different types of industrial

facilities in categories numbered from one to five taking into

consideration its potential environmental impacts.



Applicable if hazardous waste

warehouse will be available, for

storage and/or treatment.



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



Decree No.

8018/2002



The conditions, criteria

and rules for the

permitting of the industrial

establishments



Process for obtaining an industrial permit



Applicable if hazardous waste

warehouse will be available, for

storage and/or treatment.



Marine protection legislation

Decision 1044/1

of 2014



General Conditions to

Protect Cetaceans



Aims at protecting cetaceans by prohibiting capture, transfer or

sale of whale and dolphin species



Will be taken into consideration in

impact assessment mitigation.



Decision 125/1 of

1999



Prohibiting fishing of

whales, seals and marine

turtles



Decision sets the categorical prohibition to fish whales, seals and

turtles in Lebanese waters



Will be taken into consideration in

impact assessment mitigation.



Decision 396/1 of

2014



Ban on Catching Seabirds



Aims at protecting animal species by prohibiting capture, transfer

or sale of seabirds



Will be taken into consideration in

impact assessment mitigation.



Decision No.

129/1 of 1992



Creating a protected

marine area within the

territory of the Institute of

Marine Sciences and

Fishing in the region of Al

Batroun



Creation of a protected maritime area within the territory of the

Institute of Maritime Sciences in the jurisdictional waters of Al

Batroun area and providing for the construction of 15 research

laboratories, an aquarium, a fishing school, an area for pisciculture,

and a harbour



Al Batroun inshore from Block 4.



Law 121/1992



Establishment of Palm

Islands Nature Reserve



Declares the Palm Islands a protected area



Palm Islands north-east of Block 4.



Decision No.

200/1 of 1997

(cancelled by

Decision No.

14/1999)



Declaring rocks of marine

zone and coast in front of

Wati Salam (Tabarja) a

protected zone



Declares the rocks of the zone extending long the coast in front of

Wati Salam a protected zone



Wati Salam inshore from Block 4.



Decision No.

188/1/1998



Classification of Nahr

Aarqa watercourse as a

protected area



Declares Nahr Aarqa water course as a protected area



Located inshore north-east of

Block 4.



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



Decree No.

3362/1972



Terraces and beach of

southern Tripoli towards

Qalamoun



Includes beachfront regulations



Located inshore north-east of

Block 4.



Decision no.

22/1998



El Jawz River estuary



Declares El Jawz River located in Batroun area as a protected

area



Located inshore east of Block 4.



Decision no.

129/1991



Batroun National Marine

Hima at the National

Centre for Marine Sciences



Declares a National Marine Hima at the Marine Sciences Center in

Batroun



Located inshore east of Block 4.



Decision no.

34/1997



Ibrahim River estuary



Declares Ibrahim River estuary as a protected area



Located inshore east of Block 4.



Decision

No.97/1998



El Kelb River estuary and

historical site



Classifies Wadi Nahr el-Kalb watercourse as a protected area



Located inshore east of Block 4.



Beirut River estuary



Classifies Nahr el-Beirut watercourse as a protected area. Beirut River

estuary is considered a natural site protected bythe MoE. The MoE, in

coordination with the Directorate General of Urban Planning, will

determine the conditions for licensing any construction or projects in

Beirut River estuary within a framework consisting of protection

measures deemed necessary by the MoE. The MoE shall determine if

the construction and project activities ensure that environmental

conditions are met, and therefore request the competent authorities to

refuse to grant licences or close existing constructions and projects

when these conditions are not met. The licence conditions shall apply

to all industrial, residential and tourism projects.



Located inshore south-east of

Block 4.



Awali River estuary



This Decision classifies Nahr el-Awali watercourse as a protected

area. The MoE, in coordination with the Directorate General of

Urban Planning, shall determine the conditions for licensing any

construction or projects in Awali River estuary within a framework

consisting of protection measures deemed necessary by MoE. The

MoE shall determine if the construction and project activities

ensure that environmental conditions are met, and therefore

request the competent authorities to refuse to grant licences or

close existing constructions and projects when these conditions



Located inshore south-east of

Block 4.



Decision

No.130/1998



Decision

No.131/1998



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



are not met. The licence conditions shall apply to all industrial,

residential and tourism projects.

Cultural heritage legislation



Decision

166/1933



Law 37/2008



Antiquities System



Sets the procedures for protecting and preserving antiquities and

reporting of new archaeological findings



Archaeological sites shall be

protected, and new archaeological

findings shall be reported to

antiquities directorates within 24

hours from discovery.



Cultural Properties



Defines cultural properties, identifies them into categories and sets

protection measures



Cultural heritage protection

measures will be taken into

consideration in impact assessment

mitigation measures.



The Right of Access to

Information



Allows any person the right to request access to information from

all public entities and some private entities as well. The law

provides a limited list of exceptions to this right including secrets of

national defence and information that falls within the right of

privacy of individuals. The law also requires all public entities to

release annual reports and documents to strengthen

understanding of regulations and associated decisions.



MoE and LPA are committed to

complying with transparency

procedures and enhancing public

access to information.

The EIA document will be disclosed

to public.



Labour Code



Regulates labour sector and includes provisions related to

employment contracts, employment of children and women, work

hours and holidays, dismissal, inspection, health and safety and

sanctions



Provisions of the law applicable to

offshore petroleum activities (those

not overruled by the OPRL and

PAR) shall be adhered to.



Requires all industries to apply for an Environmental Compliance

Certificate (ECC) every three years to comply with permitting

requirements of establishment and operations. It stipulates the

preparation of environmental audits that include an Environmental

Management Plan and relevant mitigations. The renewal of the



Mostly relevant to any production

phase



Access to information legislation



Law No. 28/2017



Labour legislation

1946 Labour

Code and its

amendments



Compliance and enforcement legislation

Decree No.

8471/2012



Environmental

Compliance for Industrial

Establishments



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Legislation



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



ECC, according to Article 6 of the Decree, requires industries to

submit a Self- Environmental Audit as per Annex 3 of the Decree.

Law No.

251/2014



Lawyers and Investigative

Judges for Environmental

Related Cases



Law assigns fulltime lawyers and investigation judges for

environmental related cases and defines environmental crimes.



Applicable in the event of breaching

of environmental laws and

regulations



Decree

3989/2016



Environmental Police



Designation of an Environmental Police Department within the

MoE to regulate environmental crimes and enforce penalties.



Applicable in the event of breaching

of environmental laws and

regulations



National Coordination

Committee



To adopt the necessary measures and procedures to coordinate

disaster response operations and national crises resulting from

events, acts of war, natural disasters, or crises that threaten the

security and safety of the community and environment, and require

interference at a national level



The committee practice its duties in

case of large scale accidental

events from the offshore petroleum

sector.



Application decree to

Article 20 of law 444/2002

(tax reduction)



Tax reduction on environmental industry activities and on spending

aimed at protecting and preserving the environment in a

sustainable manner

This decree provides tax exemptions on income and customs for

individuals or legal entities that are engaged in environmental

activities or importing goods to be used to avoid, reduce or

eliminate pollution or to treat recycle and or reuses waste.



Can be considered as possible

incentives wherever applicable to

the project



Other relevant legislation



COM Decision

41/2013



Decree 167/2017



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Legislation



Decision No.

96/2018



Decree No.

4461/2000



Title



Key requirements



Relevance to project



MOPWT Organisational

Decree



As per this Decision, MoPWT is involved in the rules of control and

supervision of the bodies approved by the Directorate General of

Land and Maritime Transport.



The MoPWT is the marine

competent authority responsible for

all matters related to national

maritime transportation activities in

line with local and international

maritime requirements. The MoPWT

is responsible for protecting the

marine environment from pollution in

coordination with MoE.



Customs Law



It presents the general provisions and principles governing

customs, the import and export restrictions, duty deferral statuses

and other similar statuses, on exemptions and privileges, different

charges imposed on services rendered by customs, coastal

navigation and domestic trade, customs jurisdiction, and

procedures, proceedings and final provisions.



Applicable in the event of import and

export



Source: Kanbar (2015); LOGI (2017); MoE (2017); LPA (2018); Ramboll (2018); FAO (2019), Khoury and Alhaj (2019)



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2.5



National EIA process and approvals

The Environmental Impact Assessment Decree No. 8633/2012 deals with all the

requirements for screening and preparation of the environmental assessment and the

supervision of the environmental assessment process including consultation and

disclosure. Full authority for the implementation of the Decree and associated decisionmaking is assigned to the MoE.

According to Article 5 (related to project classification), upon receiving the proposed

project classification request as per the standard format and supporting documents, the

MoE shall verify whether the project falls in the domain of Annex 1 or Annex 2, or is

located in an area listed in Annex 3 in addition to the likelihood of a significant impact on

that area.

If the proposed project falls in the domain of Annex 1, it will be subject to an EIA study 1.

If it falls in the domain of Annex 2, it will be subject to an IEE. If the proposed project is

classified in the domain of Annex 2 and located in a sensitive area (these are listed in

Annex 3), or it may have a significant environmental impact on that area, the project will

be subject to an EIA study. If the project does not fall in the domain of Annex 1 or Annex

2 but is located in an area listed in Annex 3 where it may have a significant environmental

impact, it will be subject to an IEE or EIA. The MoE based on an informed review may

request an IEE or an EIA report for the project regardless of its classification.

Figure 2.2 presents the Lebanese EIA process and approval system.

Based on the submission of the screening report for Block 4, the Lebanese government

confirmed that a full EIA is required for the Block 4 exploration drilling programme,

prepared in line with Decree No. 8633/2012.

Guidance on the content and methodology for preparing an environmental impact

assessment in Lebanon is also provided in the draft ‘Sector-specific EIA guidelines for oil

and gas reconnaissance and exploration drilling activities in Lebanon’ prepared by the

MoE and LPA (MoE and LPA, 2019). Although not legally binding, the requirements of

the EIA Guidelines have been taken into consideration in the preparation of this EIA

document.



1



Annex 1: Projects that duly require an EIA study: # 9 Oil and gas:

Installation of pipelines on / off the beaches; excavation and extraction of oil and gas; refineries; platforms; tanks.

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Figure 2.2: Diagram of the EIA system

Source: Reproduced after Annex 9 of Decree 8633/2012



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2.6



Exploration and production agreement for petroleum

activities in Block 4

The Lebanese Constitution and the OPRL vest full ownership of petroleum resources

and their management in the state. Petroleum activities cannot be performed without

official authorisation, which gives oil and gas companies the exclusive right to explore

for, develop and produce oil and gas in Lebanon’s territorial waters and EEZ.

Exploration and production rights are awarded through an Exploration and Production

Agreement (EPA) approved by the Council of Ministers and signed by the oil and gas

company and the Minister of Energy and Water.

On 29 January 2018, the Government of the Republic of Lebanon signed an EPA with

TEP Liban, Eni Lebanon BV and NOVATEK Lebanon SAL for offshore Block 4. The

Minister of Energy and Water approved the exploration plan for the block in May 2018,

triggering the start of an initial three-year exploration period.

An EPA allows rights holders to carry out petroleum activities in the contract area. It

defines the rights and obligations of the rights holders between themselves and towards

the state, and includes requirements related to health, safety and the environment (HSE).

Article 17 of the Block 4 EPA includes the following requirements:

Petroleum activities should at all times comply with (i) best international petroleum

industry standards relating to the protection of HSE; (ii) applicable Lebanese laws relating

to HSE; and (iii) the reasonable requirements of the Petroleum Administration or any

other competent authority relating to the protection of HSE. The right holders shall also

cause anyone carrying out work on their behalf including any contractors and

subcontractors to comply with the foregoing.

In particular, the right holders will





















make all efforts to prevent accidents, damage to assets, injuries, loss of life and

environmental damage and, should any adverse impact on the environment or

risks to the workforce or the public occur, to minimise such damage and the

consequences thereof

prevent harm to the degradation of livelihood or quality of life of surrounding

communities and should some adverse impact and ensure proper compensation

for injury to persons or damage to property or ecosystems caused by the effect

of petroleum activities

instil a culture of proactive commitments to HSE values among all personnel

involved in the petroleum activities

develop detailed guidelines that meet best international petroleum industry

standards for HSE protection, monitoring and community interaction

conduct internal HSE audits and inspections and implement self-monitoring

processes

report on a regular basis on the HSE performance to the relevant competent

authorities

facilitate the work and access of the SHE inspectors and auditors from relevant

competent authorities.



Without prejudice to any other applicable Lebanese law (including the Environmental

Protection Law No. 444 (2002), Decree 8633/2012, Organisation of the MoE Law No.

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690 (2005), Integrated Solid Waste Management Law No. 80 (2018) and Law for the

Protection of Air Quality No.78 (2018)), the Right Holders shall at all times comply with













the general obligation to conduct petroleum activities in a responsible and prudent

matter in accordance with Article 61 of the OPRL

the provisions concerning HSE contained in Chapter 9 of the OPRL and Chapter

9 of the PAR

the obligation to prepare an EIA study in connection with (i) a development and

production plan in accordance with Article 43 of the PAR; (ii) the construction,

placement and operation of a transportation or storage facility in accordance with

Article 55 of the PAR; and (iii) a plan for cessation of petroleum activities and

decommissioning of facilities in accordance with Article 61 of the PAR

the obligation to prepare and regularly update and develop an HSE plan that

contains, as a minimum, the information detailed in Article 129 of the PAR.



Where an EIA is required, the right holders will engage third-party specialised HSE

professionals to conduct such a study.

In the event of any accident, damage, injury or other significant occurrence arising from

petroleum activities and affecting the environment, the operator will immediately notify

the petroleum administration in accordance with Article 133 of the PAR and promptly

implement an emergency response plan prepared in accordance with Article 138 of the

PAR. The operator should also take such action as is prudent and perform such site

restoration as may be necessary in accordance with best international petroleum industry

standards.

Article 20 of the Block 4 EPA includes requirements for recruitment and training and

specifies that the right holders shall develop and carry out an effective recruitment and

training programme for Lebanese personnel in accordance with the OPRL and the EPA.

It states that a proposal for a detailed recruitment and training programme shall be

submitted to the petroleum administration for approval no later than six months after the

effective date of the EPA. It also requires that an updated programme for recruitment and

training be submitted annually to the petroleum administration. This article also specifies

the percentage of employees that shall be Lebanese nationals.



2.7



International conventions and agreements

The Lebanese government has ratified several environmental, socio-economic and

cultural heritage conventions, protocols and agreements. Table 2.4 presents those of

particular relevance to the Block 4 exploration drilling programme.



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Table 2.4: Relevant international conventions and protocols

Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope



Relevance to the

project



Ratified via

Law No.

295/1994



Governs the delimitation of the

EEZs of maritime nations and

provides a universal legal

framework for the management of

marine natural resources,

including efforts to prevent,

reduce and control marine

pollution



Ratification of

UNCLOS by the

Government of

Lebanon established

the nation’s EEZ

extending the state’s

sovereign rights to

200 nm offshore.

Block 4 is within

Lebanon’s EEZ.



In support of conserving biological

diversity, governments commit to

the integration, conservation and

sustainable use of biological

resources into national decisionmaking, establishing a system of

protected areas and requiring

environmental impact assessment

of proposed projects that may

adversely affect biological

diversity



Applicable to

biodiversity studies

and assessment of

potential impact on

protected areas in the

study area.

Lebanon’s National

Biodiversity Strategy

Action Plan described

in Table 2.2



Aims at conserving and sustaining

the utilisation of wetlands in

addition to recognising their

fundamental ecological functions

along with their economic,

cultural, scientific and recreational

values.



Applicable to any

Ramsar sites in the

study area.

Four Ramsar sites in

Lebanon – the project

relevant marine and

coastal sites are the

Palm Islands Nature

Reserve, the Tyre

Coast Nature Reserve,

and Ras El Chekaa

Cliffs



General



United Nations Law

on the Sea

(UNCLOS), 1982



Protection of habitats and species



Convention on

Biological Diversity,

1992



The Convention on

Wetlands of

International

Importance (Ramsar)



Ratified via

Law No.

360/1994



Ratified via

Law No.

23/1999



Agreement on the

Conservation of

African-Eurasian

Migratory Water Birds

(AEWA)



Grant to

join via Law

No.

412/2002



Aims to conserve the migratory

waterbirds and their habitats

across Africa, Europe, the Middle

East, Central Asia, Greenland and

the Canadian Archipelago



Applicable to

biodiversity studies

and assessment of

potential impact on

protected areas in the

study area

Project activities shall

not affect waterbird

species or habitats.



Agreement on the

Conservation of

Cetaceans of the

Black Sea,

Mediterranean Sea

and Contiguous



Grant to

join via Law

No.

571/2004



A cooperative tool for the

conservation of marine

biodiversity in the Mediterranean

Sea and Black Sea. Its purpose is

to reduce threats to cetaceans in



Applicable to

biodiversity studies

and assessment if

potential impact on

cetaceans.

ACCOBAMS guidance



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Atlantic Sea

(ACCOBAMS, 1996)



Brief scope

these waters and improve

knowledge of these animals



Relevance to the

project

applicable to

underwater noise

impact assessment



Protection of atmosphere and climate



Kyoto Protocol of the

United Nations

Framework

Convention on

Climate Change

(UNFCCC)



Paris AgreementParis Climate

Conference (COP21)

2015



Vienna Convention

for the Protection of

the Ozone Layer,

1993

Montreal Protocol on

Substances that

Deplete the Ozone

Layer, 1987



Ratified via

Law No.

738/2006



Has as its objective the reduction

of negative changes to the Earth’s

climate, with a particular focus on

GHGs. Commits industrialised

countries (Annex 1) to limit and

reduce GHG emissions in

accordance with agreed individual

targets

Being a non-Annex 1 party

Lebanon is only required to

periodically prepare GHG

inventories as part of its reporting

to the UNFCCC.



Project to minimise

GHG emissions and

an inventory of emitted

gases to be prepared



Signed in

2016



Agreement within the UNFCCC to

respond to global climate change

threat by keeping the global

temperature rise below 2°C above

pre-industrial levels and to pursue

efforts to limit temperature

increase to 1.5°C



Project to minimise

GHG emissions



Vienna Convention commits

governments to take measures to

protect human health and

environment against adverse

effects resulting from depletion of

the ozone layer.

Montreal protocol designed to

regulate the production and

consumption of ozone depleting

substances. Phase-out schedules

specified for controlled

substances as substitutes are

developed. Copenhagen

amendment aims at amending the

list of substances that deplete the

ozone layer.

The main modifications include 1)

adjustments strengthening

existing measures for the control

of substances covered by the

original Protocol; 2) control

measures for ozone-depleting

substances not originally

regulated; 3) establishment of a

multilateral fund to assist



No import or use of

prohibited ozone

depleting substances,

e.g.,

chlorofluorocarbons

(CFC) and hydro

chlorofluorocarbons

(HCFCs) in the Block 4

exploration drilling

programme.



Ratified by

Law No.

253/1993



Copenhagen

Amendment to the

Montreal Protocol



Ratified by

Law No.

122/1999



Beijing Amendment

to Montreal Protocol



Ratified

21/11/2008



London Amendment

to the Montreal

Protocol



Accession

31/3/1993



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Montreal Amendment

to the Montreal

Protocol



Accession

31/7/2000



Kigali Amendment to

the Montreal Protocol



Committed

to

ratification

but not yet

ratified



Relevance to the

project



Brief scope

developing countries in meeting

Montreal Protocol commitments;

and 4) provisions for further

investigation of specific scientific,

technical, and legal matters.

It includes the phase-out of

HCFCs in developing countries,

as well as the phase-out of methyl

bromide in developed and

developing countries in 2005 and

2015, respectively.



Marine pollution

Main international convention

covering prevention of pollution of

the marine environment by ships

from operational or accidental

causes. MARPOL 73/78 currently

comprises six annexes:



International

Convention for the

Prevention of

Pollution from Ships

(MARPOL 73/78)



Ratified via

Law No.

13/1983

Lebanon

has ratified

MARPOL

Annexes

I-V.

Lebanon

has not

ratified

MARPOL

Annex VI.







Annex I Regulations for

the Prevention of

Pollution by Oil







Annex II Regulations for

the Control of Pollution by

Noxious Liquid

Substances in Bulk







Annex III Prevention of

Pollution by Harmful

Substances Carried by

Sea in Packaged Form







Annex IV Prevention of

Pollution by Sewage from

Ships







Annex V Prevention of

Pollution by Garbage from

Ships



Applicable to project

support / supply

vessels and rig.

Section 2.10.2.1

summarises the main

MARPOL 73/78

provisions relevant to

the Block 4 exploration

drilling programme.







Annex VI Prevention of

Air Pollution from Ships.

It should be noted that the

Mediterranean Sea is designated

under MARPOL 73/78 Annexes I

and V as a ‘special area’ that is

provided with a higher level of

protection.



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope



Barcelona

Convention

(Convention for the

Protection of the

Marine Environment

and the Coastal

Region of the

Mediterranean) 1976,

amended 1995



Ratified via

Decree No.

126/1977



The Barcelona Convention

generally commits its contracting

parties to take appropriate

measures to prevent, abate,

combat and eliminate pollution of

the Mediterranean Sea and to

protect and enhance the marine

environment so as to contribute

towards its sustainable

development. It further commits

the parties to



Amendments to

Barcelona

Convention



Ratified

22/04/2009



Barcelona

Convention:

1976 Dumping

Protocol and

1976 Emergency

Protocol



Ratified via

Decree No.

126/1977











apply the “polluter pays”

principle, i.e., the costs of

pollution prevention,

control and reduction

measures are to be borne

by the polluter, with due

regard to the public

interest







undertake EIAs for

proposed activities that

are likely to cause a

significant adverse impact

on the marine

environment and are

subject to authorisation by

competent national

authorities.



Applicable to project

discharges and impact

assessment.



Dumping Protocol:

Aims to prevent and abate

pollution of the Mediterranean

Sea area caused by dumping

from ships and aircraft, and

combat pollution resulting from

exploration and exploitation of the

continental shelf and the seabed

and its subsoil. Amended in 1995.



It should be noted that

dumping does not

include the disposal at

sea of wastes or other

matter incidental to, or

derived from, the

normal operations of

vessels or aircraft and

their equipment.



Emergency Protocol:

Objective is to protect the coastal

and the marine ecosystem of the

Mediterranean Sea area against

pollution by oil and other harmful

substances resulting from



Applicable to project

oil spill response



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apply the precautionary

principle, i.e., where there

are threats of serious or

irreversible damage, lack

of full scientific certainty

shall not be used as a

reason for postponing

cost-effective measures

to prevent environmental

degradation



Relevance to the

project



2-35



Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Relevance to the

project



Brief scope

accidental causes or an

accumulation of small discharges.

Amended in 2002.



Barcelona

Convention:

1980 Land Based

Sources Protocol and

1982 Specially

Protected Areas

Protocol



Barcelona

Convention:

1995 Protocol on

Integrated Coastal

Zone Management in

the Mediterranean



Convention on the

Prevention of Marine

Pollution by Dumping

of Wastes and Other

Matter, 1972



International

Convention for the

Prevention of

Pollution of the Sea

by Oil (OILPOL),

1954 and its 1962

amendments



2-36



Ratified via

Law No.

292/1994



Accessed

via Law No.

639/2014



Signature:

15/5/1973



Ratified via

Law No.

68/1966



Land Based Sources Protocol:

Objective is to prevent, abate,

combat and eliminate the pollution

of the Mediterranean Sea caused

by discharges from rivers, coastal

establishments or outfalls, or

emanating from any other landbased sources and activities

within their territories, giving

priority to the phasing out of

inputs of substances that are

toxic, persistent and liable to

bioaccumulate.



Applicable to any

discharges from

project supply-base.



Specially Protected Areas

Protocol:

Objective is to protect the coastal

and the marine ecosystem of the

Mediterranean Sea area against

pollution by oil and other harmful

substances resulting from

accidental causes or an

accumulation of small discharges.



Applicable to any

project activities in

proximity to marine

protected areas



The Contracting Parties establish

a common framework for the

integrated management of the

Mediterranean coastal zone.

Incorporates transboundary

cooperation requirements.



Applicable to project

activities taking place

in the coastal zone of

Lebanon

Applicable to potential

transboundary impacts

of project



Concerns the international control

and prevention of marine

pollution. It prohibits the dumping

of certain hazardous materials

and requires a prior special permit

for the dumping of several other

identified materials as well as a

prior general permit for other

wastes or matter.



Convention does not

apply to the disposal of

wastes incidental to or

derived from the

normal operation of

installations, therefore

not applicable to the

discharge of drill

cuttings

Only applicable to

dumping of hazardous

materials



Attempts to tackle the problem of

pollution of the seas by oil through





definition of ships

including platforms, oil

transport and storage

facilities



Applicable to disposal

of oil related wastes

from the project.



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope





delimitation of zones with

oil cannot be dumped







establishment of dumping

far from land rule







sanctions in case of

breach







creation of zones in ports

to handle waste and

dumping.



Relevance to the

project



IMO Ballast Water

Management

Convention, 2004



CoM

Decision

31/2009.



Objective is to prevent, minimise

and ultimately eliminate the

transfer of harmful aquatic

organisms and pathogens through

the control and management of

ships' ballast water and

sediments.

Convention requires all ships to

implement a ballast water and

sediments management plan. all

ships required to carry a ballast

water record book and carry out

ballast water management in line

with given standards.



International

Convention on the

Control of Harmful

Anti-Fouling Systems

on Ships, 2001



Grant to

join via Law

No.

100/2010



It aims to prohibit and/or restrict

the application, re-application,

installation, or use of harmful antifouling systems on ships.



Applicable to antifouling of project

vessels and rig



Accession:

30/3/2005



Establishes measures for dealing

with marine oil pollution incidents

nationally and in co-operation with

other countries. Ships are

required to carry a shipboard oil

pollution emergency plan

(SOPEP), in accordance with the

provisions adopted by the IMO for

this purpose



Applicable to project

oil spill response



IMO International

Convention relating to

Intervention on the

High Seas in cases of

Oil Pollution

Casualties, 1960



Ratified via

Decree No.

9226/1974



Affirms the right of a coastal State

to take such measures on the

high seas as may be necessary to

prevent, mitigate or eliminate

grave and imminent danger to

their coastline or related interests

from pollution or threat of pollution

of the sea by oil, following upon a

maritime casualty or acts related

to such a casualty



Applicable to project

oil spill response



International

Convention relating to

the Limitation of the

Liability of Owners of



Accessed

via Law No.

294/1994



Objective is to determine uniform

rules relating to the limitation of

the liability of owners of sea-going

ships



Applicable to project

vessels



IMO International

Convention on Oil

Pollution

Preparedness,

Response and Cooperation (OPRC),

1995



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Applicable to project

ballast water exchange

activities, see Section

2.10.2.2



2-37



Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope



Relevance to the

project



Accessed

via Decree

No.

10285/2013



Aim of Convention is to ensure

that adequate, prompt, and

effective compensation is

available to persons who suffer

damage caused by spills of oil,

when carried as fuel in ships’

bunkers



Applicable to project

oil spill response.



Ratified via

Law No.

28/1973



It attempts to ensure that

adequate compensation would be

available where oil pollution

damage was caused by maritime

causalities involving oil tankers. It

establishes owner’s liability for

any pollution damage caused by

oil which has escaped or been

discharges from the ship as a

result of the incident.



Applicable to project

civil liability



Grant to

join via Law

No.

607/2004



The Protocol of 1992 changed

compensation limits and widened

the scope of the Convention to

cover pollution damage caused in

the EEZ or equivalent area of a

State Party. It covers pollution

damage as before, but

environmental damage

compensation is limited to costs

incurred for reasonable measures

to reinstate the contaminated

environment. It also allows

expenses incurred for preventive

measures to be recovered even

when no spill of oil occurs,

provided there was grave and

imminent threat of pollution

damage.



Applicable to project

civil liability



Sea-going Ships and

Protocol, 1957

International

Convention on Civil

Liability for Bunker Oil

Pollution Damage

(BUNKER)



The International

Convention on Civil

Liability for Oil

Pollution Damage

(CLC), 1969



1992 Protocol which

amends the

International

Convention on Civil

Liability for Oil

Pollution Damage

(CLC) (1969)



Control of waste and hazardous materials

Main objectives of the Convention

are to:



Basel Convention on

the Control of

Transboundary

Movements of

Hazardous Wastes

and their Disposal,

1989



2-38



Ratified by

Law No.

387/1994





reduce the transboundary

movement of wastes

subject to the convention

to a minimum consistent

with the environmentally

sound and efficient

management of such

wastes



Applicable to any

hazardous wastes

generated by the

project



minimise the amount and

toxicity of hazardous

wastes generated and

ensure their

environmentally sound

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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope



Relevance to the

project



management as close as

possible to the source of

generation





assist developing

countries in

environmentally sound

management of the

hazardous and other

wastes they generate.



Ratified via

Law No.

728/2006



Convention promotes open

exchange of information and calls

on exporters of hazardous

chemicals to use proper labelling,

include directions on safe

handling, and inform purchasers

of any known restrictions or bans.

Signatory nations can decide

whether to allow or ban

importation of chemicals listed in

the treaty, and exporting countries

are obliged to make sure that

producers within their jurisdiction

comply.



Applicable to project

drilling and cementing

chemicals



Stockholm

Convention on

Persistent Organic

Pollutants (POPs),

2001



Ratified via

Law No.

432/2002



Global treaty to protect human

health and the environment from

POPs by prohibiting; phasing out

as soon as possible; or restricting

the production, placing on the

market and use of these

substances.



No use of POPs by

Block 4 exploration

drilling programme



Minamata Convention

on Mercury



Entered

into Force

on 16

August

2017



Global treaty to protect human

health and the environment from

the adverse effects of mercury.



Applicable to the

project in case of the

use of mercury



Defines the kind of natural or

cultural sites that can be

considered for inscription on the

World Heritage List and sets out

the duties of states/parties in

identifying potential sites and their

role in protecting and preserving

them



Applicable to

environmental and

cultural heritage

studies and

assessment of

potential impact on

any UNESCO World

Heritage Sites in the

study area.

Five UNESCO World

Heritage Sites in

Lebanon – the project

relevant marine and

coastal sites are

Byblos, Tyre and

Sidon.



Rotterdam

Convention on the

Prior Informed

Consent Procedure

for Certain

Hazardous

Chemicals and

Pesticides in

International Trade



Cultural heritage



UNESCO Convention

on the Protection of

Cultural & Natural

Heritage, 1972



Adhesion

via Law 19

dated

30/10/1990



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



UNESCO Convention

on the Protection of

the Underwater

Cultural Heritage,

2001



UNESCO Convention

for the Safeguarding

of Intangible Cultural

Heritage, 2003



Status



Brief scope



Relevance to the

project



Acceptance

8 January

2007



The convention sets out basic

principles for the protection of

underwater cultural heritage,

provides a detailed state

cooperation system and provides

widely recognised practical rules

for the treatment and research of

underwater cultural heritage.

It intends to protect all traces of

human existence having a

cultural, historical or

archaeological character which

have been underwater for over

100 years.



Applicable to chance

finds, cultural heritage

studies and

assessment of

potential impact



Ratified

January

2007



Aimed at safeguarding the uses,

representations, expressions,

knowledge and techniques that

communities, groups and, in

some cases, individuals,

recognise as an integral part of

their cultural heritage. This

intangible heritage is found in

forms such as oral traditions,

performing arts, social practices,

rituals, festive events, knowledge

and practices concerning nature

and the universe, and traditional

craftsmanship knowledge and

techniques



Applicable to cultural

heritage studies



Labour

There are eight fundamental

Conventions protecting the rights

of the workforce. Those ratified by

Lebanon are:



Core Conventions of

the International

Labour Organisation

(ILO)



2-40



Detailed in

next

column







Right to Organise and

Collective Bargaining

Convention, 1949 (No.

98) – ratified June 1977







Forced Labour

Convention, 1930 (No.

29) – ratified June 1977







Abolition of Forced

Labour Convention, 1957

(No. 105) – ratified June

1977







Minimum Age

Convention, 1973 (No.

138) – ratified June 2003







Worst Forms of Child

Labour Convention, 1999

(No. 182) – ratified

September 2001



Applicable to human

resource issues.



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope





Relevance to the

project



Equal Remuneration

Convention, 1951 (No.

100) – ratified June 1977







Discrimination

(Employment and

Occupation) Convention,

1958 (No. 111) – ratified

June 1977.

Lebanon has not ratified the

remaining ILO core convention:







Freedom of Association

and Protection of the

Right to Organise

Convention, 1948 (No.

87).



UN Convention on

the Elimination of all

Forms of

Discrimination

against Women

(CEDAW)



Ratified

1996



Concerns discrimination against

women



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Weekly Rest

(Industry)

Convention, 1921,

No. 14



Ratified

July 1962



Concerns the application of

weekly rest in industrial

undertakings



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Vocalisation

Rehabilitation and

Employment

(Disabled Persons)

Convention, 1983,

No. 159



Ratified

February

2000



Concerns the vocalisation

rehabilitation and employment of

disabled persons



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Working

Environment (Air

Pollution, Noise and

Vibration)

Convention, 1977 No.

148



Ratified

April 2005



Concerns protection of workers

against occupational hazards in

the working environment



Applicable to rig and

vessel crew



IMO Convention on

the Standards of

Training, Certification

and Watchkeeping

for Seafarers, 1978

amended 1995



Ratified

April 2003



Establishes basic requirements

on training, certification and watch

keeping for seafarers on an

international level



Applicable to rig and

vessel crew



ILO Seafarer’s

Pensions

Convention, 1946,

No. 71



Ratified

December

1993



Concerns seafarer’s pensions



Applicable to rig and

vessel crew



UN International

Convention on the

Elimination of All

Forms of Racial



Ratified

November

1971



Concerns elimination of all forms

of racial discrimination



Applicable to human

resource issues



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Convention/

Treaty/Protocol



Status



Brief scope



Relevance to the

project



ILO Protection of

Wages, 1949, No. 95



Ratified

June 1977



Concerns protection of wages



Applicable to human

resource issues.



ILO Occupational

Safety and Health

(Dock Work)

Convention, 1979,

No. 152



Ratified

September

2004



Concerns occupational safety and

health in dock work



Applicable to logistics

base and supply

vessel crew.



ILO Medical

Examination of

Young Persons

(Industry)

Convention, 1946,

No. 77



Ratified

June 1977



Concerns medical examination for

fitness for employment in industry

of children and young persons



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Medical

Examination

(Seafarers)

Convention, 1946,

No. 73



Ratified

December

1993



Concerns the medical

examination of seafarers



Applicable to rig and

vessel crew



ILO Labour

Inspection

Convention, 1947



Ratified

July 1962



Concerns the organisation of

labour inspection in industry and

commerce



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Labour

Administration

Convention, 1978,

No. 150



Ratified

April 2005



Concerns labour administration:

role, functions and organisation



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Hours of Work

(Industry)

Convention, 1919,

No. 1



Ratified

June 1977



Limits the hours of work in

industrial undertakings to 8 in the

day and 48 in the week



Applicable to human

resource issues



ILO Occupational

Cancer Convention,

1974, No. 139



Ratified

February

2000



Concerns prevention and control

of occupational hazards caused

by carcinogenic substances and

agents



Applicable to health

and safety of rig and

vessel crew and

logistics base workers



ILO Equality of

Treatment

Convention, 1919,

No. 1



Ratified

June 1977



Concerns equality of treatment for

national and foreign workers as

regards workmen's compensation

for accidents



Applicable to health

and safety of rig and

vessel crew and

logistics base workers



Discrimination

(ICERD), 1965



Source: FAO (2019), MoE (2017), Khoury and Alhaj (2015, 2019), Ramboll (2018)



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2.8



Corporate commitments



2.8.1



TOTAL’s Safety, Health, Environment, Quality (SHEQ) Charter

TOTAL has developed a Safety, Health, Environment, Quality (SHEQ) Charter that sets

out the basic principles applicable within the Group regarding protection of people,

property and environment (see Figure 2.3). This charter is implemented at several levels

within the Group by means of its management systems.



2.8.2



TOTAL’s General Specification Documents

This EIA will be carried out taking into consideration the requirements of the following

Total General Specification documents:





Environmental Baseline and Monitoring Studies: Offshore and Nearshore Sites

(GS EP ENV 112)









Social Baseline Study (GS EP SDV 101)

Environmental Impact Assessment of Exploration and Production Activities (GS

EP ENV 120)

Social Impact Assessment (GS EP SDV 102)

Environmental Requirements for Projects Design and Exploration and Production

Activities (GS EP ENV 001).









2.8.3



OSPAR Convention

It should be noted that TOTAL’s General Specification document ‘Environmental

Requirements for Projects Design and Exploration and Production Activities’ (GS EP

ENV 001) requires conformance with the Convention for the Protection of the Marine

Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention)2.

Lebanon is not a contracting party to the OSPAR convention. However, for parties

operating in the North-East Atlantic Ocean, the OSPAR Convention aims to protect the

marine environment. The convention has implemented a Harmonised, Mandatory Control

Scheme (HMCS) for use and reduction of discharges of offshore chemicals. This system

promotes the shift towards the use of less hazardous or preferably non-hazardous

substances.

The OSPAR Convention requires documentation of ecotoxicological properties of

chemicals used in the offshore oil and gas industry. The OSPAR HMCS ranks chemical

products using a chemical hazard and risk management model based on ecotoxicology.

The properties are documented in the Harmonised Offshore Chemical Notification

Format. More information is provided in Section 2.10.2.3.



2



The OSPAR Convention started in 1972 with the Oslo Convention against dumping at sea and was broadened

to cover land-based sources and the offshore industry by the Paris Convention of 1974. These two conventions

were unified, updated and extended by the 1992 OSPAR Convention.

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Figure 2.3: Total’s SHEQ Charter



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2.9



Best available industry practice

TOTAL is committed to ensuring that the proposed operations are undertaken in a

manner informed by good industry practice. The following represent key guidance

documents:

















2.10



World Bank EHS Guidelines – Offshore Oil and Gas Development (World Bank,

2015)

ACCOBAMS Methodological Guide: Guidance on Underwater Noise Mitigation

Measures (ACCOBAMS, 2016)

Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-59 – NOAA Technical Guidance for

Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing –

Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary

Threshold Shifts (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, April

2018)

A Cross-sector Guide for Implementing Mitigation Hierarchy (IOGP, 2015)

OSPAR Guidelines for Monitoring the Environmental Impact of Offshore Oil and

Gas Activities (2017)

IOGP Report No. 457/2012: Offshore Environmental Monitoring for the Oil and

Gas Industry.



Standards and limits for the project

The standards and limits adopted by the project follow the hierarchical approach of











applicable Lebanese legislation and regulations

requirements of relevant international/regional conventions, protocols and

agreements

Total corporate requirements

international best practice.



These are discussed in more detail below and the project adopted standards/limits for

the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign are summarised in Section 2.10.4.



2.10.1



National environmental standards

National emission and discharge standards were established by the MoE in Decision No.

52/1/1996 ‘Environmental Quality Standards and Criteria for Air, Noise, Water and Soil’

and MoE Decision No. 8/1/2001 ‘National Standards for Environmental Quality (NQES)

related to air contaminants and liquid waste emitted from classified establishments into

receiving water bodies’. These are presented below.



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2.10.1.1 Air quality

Ambient air contaminants

Table 2.5 presents the maximum allowable concentrations of air contaminants.

Table 2.5: Maximum allowable concentrations of ambient air contaminants

(MoE Decision No. 52/1/1996)

Limit value (ug/m3)



Duration of exposure



350



1 hour



120



24 hours



80



1 year



200



1 hour



150



24 hours



100



1 year



150



1 hour



100



8 hours



30,000



1 hour



12,000



8 hours



TSP



120



24 hours



SPM10



80



24 hours



Lead



1,000



1 year



Benzene (ppm)



5 ppm



1 year



Pollutant



SO2



NO2



O3



CO



Air emission limit values

Emission standards are given as mass flows and as concentrations. For mass flows lower

than those provided in column 3 of Table 2.6, no concentration emission limit value exists.

If the mass flows appearing in column 3 are exceeded, the concentration emission limit

values of column 2 apply.

Table 2.6: Maximum emission limits of air contaminants (MoE Decision No. 8/1/2001)

Parameter

Dust (mg/m3)



Particulate

inorganic

pollutants (mg/m3)



2-46



Emission limit value



Remark



200 for new establishments

500 for old establishments



Non-containing

hazardous compound



Group I



1



Mass flow > 5 g/h



Group II



10



Mass flow > 25 g/h



Group III



30



Mass flow > 50 g/h



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Parameter



Gaseous

inorganic

pollutants (mg/m3)



Gaseous organic

pollutants (mg/m3)



Cancer causing

pollutants (mg/m3)



Emission limit value



Remark



Group I



1



Mass flow > 50 g/h



Group II



5



Mass flow > 300 g/h



Group III



30



Mass flow > 1 kg/h



Group IV



500



Mass flow > 10 kg/h



Group I



20



Mass flow > 500 g/h



Group II



100



Mass flow > 4 kg/h



Group III



200



Mass flow > 6 kg/h



Group I



0.2



Mass flow > 5 g/h



Group II



2



Mass flow > 10 g/h



Group III



10



Mass flow > 50 g/h



2.10.1.2 Water quality

Standards for wastewater discharge into receiving water bodies (also referred to as

emission limit values, ELVs) are set out in MoE Decision No. 8/1/2001 and are shown in

Table 2.7.

Table 2.7: Maximum limits (ELVs) for wastewater discharge into receiving

waterbodies and public sewers (MoE Decision No. 8/1/2001)

Maximum allowable limits for receiving water bodies

Parameter



Public sewers



Surface water

(inland)



Sea



Colour



None



None



None



pH



6–9



6–9



6–9



Temperature



35°C



30°C



35°C



BOD (5 day,

20°C)



125 mg/l



25 mg/l



25 mg/l



COD (dichromate

method)



500 mg/l



125 mg/l



125 mg/l



Total

phosphorous



10 mg/l



10 mg/l



10 mg/l



Total nitrogen



60 mg/l



30 mg/l



30 mg/l



Suspended solids



60 mg/l



60 mg/l



60 mg/l



AOX



5



5



5



Detergents



-



3 mg/l



3 mg/l



2000



2000



Coliform bacteria

37°C in 100 ml

Salmonellae



Absence



Absence



Absence



Hydrocarbons



20 mg/l



20 mg/l



20 mg/l



Phenol index



5 mg/l



0.3 mg/l



0.3 mg/l



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Maximum allowable limits for receiving water bodies

Parameter



Public sewers



Surface water

(inland)



Sea



Oil and grease



50 mg/l



30 mg/l



30 mg/l



Total organic

carbon (TOC)



750 mg/l



75 mg/l



75 mg/l



Ammonia (NH4+)



-



10 mg/l



10 mg/l



Silver (Ag)



0.1 mg/l



0.1 mg/l



0.1 mg/l



Aluminium (Al)



10 mg/l



10 mg/l



10 mg/l



Arsenic (As)



0.1 mg/l



0.1 mg/l



0.1 mg/l



Barium (Ba)



2 mg/l



2 mg/l



2 mg/l



Cadmium (Cd)



0.2 mg/l



0.2 mg/l



0.2 mg/l



Cobalt (Co)



1 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



Chromium total

(Cr)



2 mg/l



2 mg/l



2 mg/l



Hexavalent

chromium (CrVI)



0.2 mg/l



0.2 mg/l



0.2 mg/l



Copper total (Cu)



1 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



1.5 mg/l



Iron total (Fe)



5 mg/l



5 mg/l



5 mg/l



Mercury total (Hg)



0.05 mg/l



0.05 mg/l



0.05 mg/l



Manganese (Mn)



1 mg/l



1 mg/l



1 mg/l



Nickel total (Ni)



1 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



Lead total (Pb)



1 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



0.5 mg/l



Antimony (SB)



0.3 mg/l



0.3 mg/l



0.3 mg/l



Tin total (Sn)



2 mg/l



2 mg/l



2 mg/l



Zinc total (Zn)



10 mg/l



5 mg/l



5 mg/l



Active Cl2



-



1 mg/l



1 mg/l



1 mg/l



0.1 mg/l



0.1 mg/l



Fluorides (F)



15 mg/l



25 mg/l



25 mg/l



Nitrate (NO3)



-



90 mg/l



90 mg/l



Phosphate

(PO43-)



-



5 mg/l



5 mg/l



Sulphate (SO42-)



1,000 mg/l



1,000 mg/l



1,000 mg/l



Sulphide (S2-)



1 mg/l



1 mg/l



1 mg/l



Cyanides



2-48



(CN-)



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2.10.1.3 Airborne noise

Table 2.8 and Table 2.9 present the national maximum allowable noise level and the

permissible noise exposure standards as per MoE Decision No. 52/1/1996. As per this

Decision, the maximum instantaneous noise level (Lmax) should not exceed 134 dB(A).

Table 2.8: Maximum allowable noise levels

Limit dB (A)

Type



Day time

(7 am – 6 pm)



Evening

(6 pm – 10 pm)



Night time

(10 pm – 7 am)



Industrial areas



60–70



55–65



50–60



Table 2.9: Permissible noise exposure standards



2.10.2



Duration per day (hours)



Sound level dB (A)



8



85



4



88



2



91



1



94



½



97



¼



100



Environmental standards – international/regional conventions



2.10.2.1 Prevention of pollution from ships

The key convention with respect to discharge and emissions standards from vessels is

MARPOL 73/78. Table 2.10 summarises the requirements of this convention.

Table 2.10: Key provisions in MARPOL 73/78 of relevance to the Block 4 exploration

drilling programme

Environmental

aspect



Relevant provisions of MARPOL 73/78



Annex



Drainage water



Requirements for the Mediterranean Sea as a ‘special

area’:

Oil and all oily mixtures shall either be retained onboard for

subsequent discharge to reception facilities or discharged

to the sea in accordance with the following provisions:

1. The ship is proceeding en route.

2. For ships of >400 gross tonnage, oil filtering

equipment shall be provided with alarm arrangements

and arrangements that the discharge is automatically

stopped when the content of the effluent exceeds 15

ppm. For ships of <400 gross tonnage, the ship has

in operation equipment of a designed approved by

the administration that ensures that the oil content of

the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15ppm.



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2-49



Environmental

aspect



Relevant provisions of MARPOL 73/78



Annex



Accidental oil

discharge



A shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (SOPEP) is

required.



I



Bulked

chemicals



Prohibits the discharge of noxious liquid substances,

pollution hazard substances and associated tank

washings. Vessels are required to undergo periodic

inspections to ensure compliance. All vessels must carry a

procedures and arrangements manual and a cargo record

book.



II



Sewage

discharge



Discharge of sewage is permitted only if the ship has

approved3 sewage treatment facilities, the test result of the

facilities is documented, and the effluent will not produce

visible floating solids nor cause discoloration of the

surrounding water.



IV



Garbage



Disposal of garbage from ships and fixed or floating

platforms is prohibited. Ships must have a garbage

management plan and shall be provided with a garbage

record book.



V



Food waste



Requirements for the Mediterranean Sea as a ‘special

area’: Discharge of food waste ground to pass through a

25-mm mesh is permitted more than 12 nm from nearest

land.



V



Air pollutant

emissions4



Sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions

from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of

ozone-depleting substances, including halons and

chlorofluorocarbons. Sets limits on emissions of nitrogen

oxides from diesel engines. Prohibits the incineration of

certain products on board, such as contaminated

packaging materials and polychlorinated biphenyls.

From 1 January 2020, vessels not fitted with scrubbers will

no longer be able to burn fuel with a sulphur content in

excess of 0.5% as a result of the implementation of the

revisions to this Annex.



VI



2.10.2.2 Ballast water discharge

Under the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast and

Sediments (Ballast Water Convention 2004), all ships in international traffic are required

to manage their ballast water and sediments to a certain standard, according to a shipspecific ballast water management plan. All ships will also have to carry a ballast water

record book and an international ballast water management certificate. The ballast water

management standards will be phased in over a period of time. As an intermediate



By definition, an “approved” treatment plant is one that meets Resolution MEPC.2(VI) 1976, if the sewage

treatment plant (STP) is installed prior to January 1, 2010: Fecal coliforms < 250 /100ml; TSS < 50 mg/l (shoreside

testing); TSS < 100 mg/l (shipboard testing); BOD5 <50mg/l. After 1 Jan 2010, an “approved” STP is one that

meets Resolution MEPC.159(55) 2006: Thermotolerant coliforms < 100 / 100ml; TSS <35 mg/l; BOD5 <25 mg/l;

COD <125 mg/l; pH 6 < 8.5.

3



4



Lebanon has not ratified Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78.



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solution, ships should exchange ballast water mid-ocean. However, eventually most

ships will need to install an on-board ballast water treatment system.

Ballast water exchange

A ship conducting ballast water exchange to meet the standards specified below will

whenever possible, conduct such ballast water exchange at least 200 nm from the

nearest land and in water at least 200 m in depth. In cases where the ship is unable to

conduct ballast water exchange in accordance with this requirement, such ballast water

exchange shall be conducted as far from the nearest land as possible, and in all cases

at least 50 nm from the nearest land and in water at least 200 m in depth.

Ballast water exchange standard

Ships performing ballast water exchange shall do so with an efficiency of at least 95%

volumetric exchange of ballast water. For ships exchanging ballast water by the pumpingthrough method, pumping through three times the volume of each ballast water tank shall

be considered to meet the standard described. Pumping through less than three times

the volume may be accepted provided the ship can demonstrate that at least 95%

volumetric exchange is met.

Ballast water performance standard

Ships conducting ballast water management shall discharge







less than 10 viable organisms per cubic metre >50 µm in minimum dimension

less than 10 viable organisms per millilitre <50 µm in minimum dimension and

>to 10 µm in minimum dimension.



Furthermore, discharge of the following indicator microbes shall not exceed the specified

concentrations:









toxicogenic Vibrio cholerae – less than 1 colony forming unit (cfu) per 100 mL or

less than 1 cfu/g (wet weight) zooplankton samples

Escherichia coli – less than 250 cfu per 100 mL

intestinal Enterococci – less than 100 cfu per 100 mL.



2.10.2.3 Chemical selection

Total’s General Specification document ‘Environmental Requirements for Projects

Design and E&P Activities’ (GS EP ENV 001) requires that chemicals are selected

according to the following criteria: lowest toxicity, lowest bioaccumulation potential and

highest biodegradation. GS EP ENV 001 also states that offshore chemicals will be

selected according to a pre-screening scheme based on the OSPAR methodology in

force5 and provided with their material safety data sheet (MSDS). Although OSPAR rules

do not apply in Lebanon, as it is not a member of OSPAR, they are a good indication of

the environmental properties of a product.

The OSPAR Harmonised Mandatory Control Scheme (HMCS) ranks chemical products

using the Chemical Hazard and Risk Management (CHARM) model. Data used in the

CHARM assessment includes toxicity, biodegradation and bioaccumulation. The CHARM

model calculates the ratio of predicted effect concentration against no effect

5



OSPAR Recommendation 2017/1 on a Harmonised Pre-screening Scheme for Offshore Chemicals.



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2-51



concentration (PEC:NEC). This is expressed as a hazard quotient (HQ), which is then

used to rank the product. The HQ is converted to a colour banding (see Table 2.11).

Table 2.11: HMCS hazard quotients and colour bands

Minimum HQ value



Maximum HQ value



Colour banding



>0



<1



Gold



≥1



<30



Silver



≥30



<100



White



≥100



<300



Blue



≥300



<1000



Orange



≥1000



Lowest hazard



Purple



Highest hazard



Source: CEFAS (2017)



Products not applicable to the CHARM model (i.e., inorganic substances, hydraulic fluids

or chemicals used only in pipelines) can be assigned an Offshore Chemical Notification

Scheme (OCNS) grouping of A–E6. Group A includes products considered to have the

greatest potential environmental hazard and Group E the least.

In addition to the above, the OSPAR Commission has prepared a ‘List of Substances/

Preparations Used and Discharged Offshore which are considered to Pose Little or No

Risk to the Environment (PLONOR)’ which contains substances whose use and

discharge offshore do not need to be strongly regulated.



2.10.3



Environmental standards – international best practice



2.10.3.1 Underwater noise

Underwater acoustic thresholds for the onset of injury in marine mammals will be

assessed in accordance with the limits proposed by the US National Oceanic and

Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-59, April 2018,

see Table 2.12.

Table 2.12: Marine mammal criteria for onset of injury (per 24-hour period)

Injury criteria

Marine

mammal group



Low-frequency

cetaceans



Peak pressure

(db re 1 μPa)



Cumulative SEL

(dB re 1 μPa2s

M-weighted)



Single or multiple pulses impulsive



219



183



Non-impulsive continuous noise



-



199



Type of sound



6



This methodology is used in the UK, where non-CHARMable chemical products are ranked on the basis of toxicity

test data.

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Injury criteria

Marine

mammal group



Peak pressure

(db re 1 μPa)



Cumulative SEL

(dB re 1 μPa2s

M-weighted)



Single or multiple pulses impulsive



230



185



Non-impulsive continuous noise



-



198



Single or multiple pulses impulsive



202



155



Non-impulsive continuous noise



-



173



Single or multiple pulses impulsive



218



185



Non-impulsive continuous noise



-



201



Single or multiple pulses impulsive



226



190



Non-impulsive continuous noise



-



206



Type of sound



Mid-frequency

cetaceans



High-frequency

cetaceans

Phocid

pinnipeds

(underwater)



Sirenians



Source: Xodus (2019)



Guidance from volume 70 of the US Federal Register (Federal Register, 2005) sets the

Level B harassment threshold7 for marine mammals at 160 dB re 1 μPa (rms) for

impulsive noise and 120 dB re 1 μPa (rms) for continuous noise. The value for continuous

sound sits at the lower end of the range identified in Southall et al. (2007), namely 120–

160 dB re 1 μPa (rms) subject to the hearing type of marine mammal. Taking a

precautionary approach, a level of 120 dB re 1 μPa (rms) represents the onset of

disturbance while a level of 140 dB re 1 μPa (rms) is considered to represent the potential

for strong behavioural reaction. These values are summarised in Table 2.13.

Table 2.13: Marine mammal criteria for onset of disturbance

Disturbance criteria

(db re 1 μPa)



Type of sound

Continuous



Multi-pulse



Potential strong behavioural reaction



>140



Low level (mild) disturbance



120



Potential strong behavioural reaction



160



Low level (mild) disturbance



140



For sea turtles, the most relevant criteria for injury are considered to be those contained

in the Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles (Popper et al., 2014), see

Table 2.14. As it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the potential disturbance

effects from guidance presented in Popper (2014), thresholds for behavioural reactions

to pulsed sounds based on the work by McCauley et al. (2000) (see Table 2.15).



7



Level B harassment is defined as having the potential to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in

the wild by causing disruption of behavioural patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing,

breeding, feeding, or sheltering but which does not have the potential to injure a marine mammal or marine

mammal stock in the wild.

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Table 2.14: Sea turtle criteria for onset of injury (impulsive noise)

Animal

Sea turtle



Parameter

SEL dB re 1



Mortality and injury

μPa2s



210



Peak dB re 1 μPa2s



>207



Table 2.15: Sea turtle criteria for onset of disturbance

Disturbance criteria

(db re 1 μPa)



Type of sound

Continuous and

multi-pulse



2.10.4



Potential strong behavioural reaction



175



Low level (mild) disturbance



166



Summary of project adopted standards/limits

The project adopted standards/limits for discharges and emissions resulting from the

Block 4 exploration drilling campaign are summarised in Table 2.16 and Table 2.17.

Standards for chemical selection are provided in Table 2.18.



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Table 2.16: Environmental discharge standards for Block 4 exploration drilling campaign

Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Water based drilling fluids

should be preferred when

appropriate.

Offshore, chemicals shall be

selected according to a prescreening scheme based on

the OSPAR methodology in

force (refer to OSPAR

Recommendation 2008/1).

See Section 2.10.2.3



Water-based cuttings and

drill fluids from riserless well

sections will be discharged

to sea.

If high-performance waterbased drilling fluids

(HPWBDFs) used in lowerhole well sections, cuttings

will be discharged to sea.

Drilling fluids will be

separated from the cuttings

on the MODU, using the

onboard solids control

equipment, and will be

reused in the next hole

section. At the end of the

drilling campaign, the

remaining drilling fluid will

be sent to shore for reuse

on future projects.

Chemicals in water-based

drill fluids will be selected in

accordance with the

OSPAR Harmonised

Mandatory Control Scheme

and Offshore Chemical

Notification Scheme, see

Section 2.10.2.3 and Table

2.18.



Under the Barcelona Convention

(Offshore Protocol8) water-based

drilling fluids and drill cuttings are

subject to the following

requirements:





Water-based

cuttings and drill

fluids



8



No Lebanese requirements

specific to the discharge of

cuttings from offshore

exploration activities. Where

national legislation is silent,

project will adopt best

industry practices and/or

findings/recommendations

presented in the SEA



The use and disposal of

such drilling fluids shall be

subject to the chemical use

plan and the provisions of

this protocol regarding

harmful and noxious

substances.







Drill cuttings shall either be

disposed of on land or into

the sea in an appropriate

site or area as specified by

the competent authority.

Under the World Bank EHS

Guidelines for Offshore O&G

Development discharge to sea of

WBDF cuttings is permitted

providing





facility is located > 3 miles

(4.8 km) from shore







Hg: 1 mg/kg dry weight in

stock barite







Cd: 3 mg/kg dry weight in

stock barite



It should be noted that Lebanon has ratified the Barcelona Convention, but not the Offshore Protocol.



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2-55



Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Applicable international

requirements





Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Treatment and disposal

options shall be

systematically studied taking

into account the regulatory

and environmental context.

The use of diesel oil in

drilling mud is forbidden.

When a non-aqueous drilling

fluid is used, the content in

aromatics of the base fluid

should be less than 0.1%

and shall be, in any case,

less than 3% by weight.

In conventional offshore

areas, the drill cuttings

treatment system shall

ensure that the percentage of

NADF discharged to the sea

with cuttings and

centrifugation residues

(fines) shall not exceed 8%

by weight for each completed



If non-aqueous drilling fluids

(NADFs) used in lower-hole

well sections cuttings will

not be discharged to the

marine environment, they

will be contained and

shipped to shore for

treatment and disposal as

per requirements of the SEA

and findings of the EIA

process.

Non-aqueous drilling fluids

will be separated from the

cuttings on the MODU,

using the onboard solids

control equipment, and will

be reused in the next hole

section. At the end of the

drilling campaign, the

remaining drilling fluid will

be sent to shore for reuse

on future projects.



maximum chloride

concentration must be less

than four times the ambient

concentration of fresh or

brackish receiving water







discharge via a caisson to

ensure good dispersion of

the solids.

Under the OSPAR Convention,

disposal of water-based cuttings

and drill fluids is permitted.

Under the Barcelona Convention

(Offshore Protocol8) oil-based

drilling fluids and drill cuttings are

subject to the following

requirements:



Non-aqueous

cuttings and drill

fluids



2-56



No Lebanese requirements

specific to the discharge of

cuttings from offshore

exploration activities. Where

national legislation is silent,

project will adopt best

industry practices and/or

findings/recommendations

presented in the SEA.







Such fluids shall only be

used if they are of a

sufficiently low toxicity and

only after the operator has

been issued a permit by the

competent authority when it

has verified such low

toxicity.







Disposal into the sea of

such drilling fluids is

prohibited.







Disposal of drill cuttings

into the sea is permitted

only on the condition that

efficient solids control

equipment is installed and

properly operated, the



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Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Applicable international

requirements

discharge point is well

below the surface of the

water and the oil content is

less than 100 g/kg of dry

cuttings.





Disposal of such drill

cuttings in specially

protected areas is

prohibited.







In case of production and

development drilling, a

programme of seabed

sampling and analysis

relating to the zone of

contamination must be

undertaken.

The use of diesel-based drilling

fluids is strictly prohibited unless a

special exception is granted.



Cement



No Lebanese requirements

specific to the discharge of

cement from offshore

exploration activities. Where

national legislation is silent,

project will adopt best

industry practices and/or

findings/recommendations

presented in the SEA.



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No specific international

requirements for cement discharge

Under OSPAR, all offshore

chemicals (including those used in

cementing) are subject to prescreening using OSPAR

Harmonised Mandatory Control

Scheme.



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



well and only for the sections

drilled with NADF. In

addition, daily, the average

content of NADF in the dry

drill cuttings discharged to

the sea shall never exceed

14% by weight.

In sensitive marine areas,

NADF cuttings discharge

shall not exceed an oil

concentration of 1% by

weight on dry cuttings.

When not feasible, other

practicable solutions shall be

studied, such as cuttings

reinjection or transfer/ship to

shore for treatment.



Offshore, chemicals shall be

selected according to a prescreening scheme based on

the OSPAR methodology in

force (refer to OSPAR

Recommendation 2008/1).

See Section 2.10.2.3.



Careful calculation of

cement volumes to keep

cement discharges to a

minimum

Chemicals in cement will be

selected in accordance with

the OSPAR Harmonised

Mandatory Control Scheme

and Offshore Chemical

Notification Scheme, see

Section 2.10.2.3.



2-57



Parameter



Sewage / sanitary

from rig and

vessels



Food waste from

rig and vessels



Desalinisation

brine from rig and

vessels



2-58



Lebanese requirements



Law 13/1983 ratifies

MARPOL requirements.



Law 13/1983 ratifies

MARPOL requirements.



No Lebanese requirements

specific to salinity of

offshore discharges. Where

national legislation is silent,

project will adopt best

industry practices and/or

findings/recommendations

presented in the SEA.



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Requirements in Annex IV

MARPOL 73/78, see Section

2.10.2.1



Discharges of effluents from

the sewage treatment system

into the environment must be

compliant with the local

regulations and with

MARPOL 73/78 for offshore

installations



Discharge of sewage to

comply with Lebanese Law

13/1983 and therefore

MARPOL 73/78



-



Discharge of food waste to

comply with Lebanese Law

13/1983 and therefore

MARPOL 73/78

No discharge of macerated

food waste within 12 nm

from the nearest land

(MARPOL Special Area

requirements)

No discharge of macerated

food waste from B4-1 well

site as only 11 nm from

nearest land



Offshore, chemicals shall be

selected according to a prescreening scheme based on

the OSPAR methodology in

force (refer to OSPAR

Recommendation 2008/1).

See Section 2.10.2.3.



It is not anticipated that antiscaling and antifouling

chemicals will be used,

however in the

circumstance of requirement

these will be selected in

accordance with lowest

toxicity, lowest

bioaccumulation potential

and highest biodegradation

as per best industry

practice.



Requirements in Annex V MARPOL

73/78, see Section 2.10.2.1



Requirements in World Bank EHS

Guidelines for Offshore O&G

Development for desalination brine

limited to “mix with other discharge

waste streams, if feasible”.



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Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Discharge of bilge to comply

with Lebanese Law 13/1983

and therefore MARPOL

73/78



Water discharge from

MODU slop treatment unit

will not exceed 15 ppm oil in

water



Bilge water from rig

and vessels



Law 13/1983 ratifies

MARPOL requirements.



Requirements in Annex I MARPOL

73/78, see Section 2.10.2.1.



Machinery space effluents

drainage (or bilge waters)

shall be collected separately

and treated in order to be

disposed of with a maximum

oil content of 15 ppm in

compliance with MARPOL

73/78



Slop water

(contaminated

drilling and

completion fluids,

cleaning residue

from the rig pits,

tanks, pipes and

decking, and

contaminated rain

and wash water)



Maximum allowable limits

for wastewater discharge

into the sea are specified in

Decision No. 8/1/2001, see

Section 2.10.2.1.

Maximum allowable limit of

discharge of oil and grease

to sea is 30 mg/l



OSPAR has set the discharge limit

to 30 ppm oil in water in slop (North

Sea).



Previous Total projects have

used a corporate standard of

30 ppm oil in water in slop.



Maximum allowable limits

for wastewater discharge

into the sea are specified in

Decision No. 8/1/2001, see

Section 2.10.2.1.

Maximum temperature of

waste water discharge to

sea 35°C



Under the World Bank EHS

Guidelines for Offshore O&G

Development cooling water

discharge should result in a

temperature increase of no more

than 3°C at edge of the zone where

initial mixing and dilution take

place. Where the zone is not

defined, use 100 m from point of

discharge.

In the UK, no limits on cooling

water discharges



For coastal or offshore

waters, the generally

accepted temperature

increase shall not exceed a

maximum of 3°C, 100 m

away from the outfall

discharge point.

The temperature of the outlet

effluents shall be adapted to

the sensitivity of the local

environment.



Cooling water from

rig and vessels



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Discharge of cooling water

to comply with Lebanese

maximum allowable limits

with regards to discharge

temperature (Decision No.

8/1/2001) and TOTAL/

World Bank temperature

requirements 100 m away

from discharge point



2-59



Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Ballast water from

rig and vessels



CoM decision 31/2009

ratifies ‘International

Convention for the Control

and Management of Ships'

Ballast Water and

Sediments 2004’.



Garbage from rig

and vessels



Law 13/1983 ratifies

MARPOL requirements.



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Requirements in ‘International

Convention for the Control and

Management of Ships' Ballast

Water and Sediments 2004’, see

Section 2.10.2.2.



Ballast tanks must be

designed in compliance with

MARPOL 73/78.

Any discharge of

contaminated effluents shall

be discharged according to

MARPOL 73/78.



Discharge of ballast water to

comply with Lebanese CoM

decision 31/2009 and

therefore the ‘International

Convention for the Control

and Management of Ships'

Ballast Water and

Sediments 2004’.



Requirements in Annex V MARPOL

73/78, see Section 2.10.2.1.



Offshore, the disposal of

garbage must comply with

MARPOL 73/78

requirements.

An Environmental

Management Plan for project

shall cover waste

management.



Discharge of garbage to

comply with Lebanese Law

13/1983 and therefore

MARPOL 73/78.

Conformance with TOTAL

corporate requirements with

respect to Waste

Management Plan.



*Total General Specification ‘Environmental Requirements for Projects Design and E&P Activities’ (GS-EP-ENV-001)



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Table 2.17: Atmospheric emission standards and noise emission standards for Block 4 exploration drilling campaign

Parameter



Flaring during well

testing



Rig emissions and

vessel emissions



Lebanese requirements



Emission limit values are

specified in Decision 8/1/2001.

Emission standards given as

mass flows and as

concentrations, see Section

2.10.1.1.

Maximum allowable

concentrations of ambient air

contaminants specified in

Decision 52/1/96, see Section

2.10.1.1.

A flaring permit is required from

the Minister of Energy and Water

under the PAR (Decree

10289/2013) and OPRL (Law No.

132/2010)



Following recommendation in

draft SEA, 2019:





Ratification of MARPOL

Annex VI to decrease

emissions from vessels.



Total E&P Liban Sal

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Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Requirements of the Paris

Agreement (2015) to

minimise greenhouse gas

emissions.



Well test discharges and

emissions shall be minimised.

The test equipment shall be

correctly designed in order to

ensure adequate effluents

collection and to avoid any

liquid overflow or drop-out

(with the test separator

correctly sized and the

burners designed to fully flare

all fluid volumes).

Well test burners shall be

selected according to the BAT

concept with improved

combustion. An efficient flare

tip (smokeless device) shall

be installed in order to

maximise the combustion

efficiency.

Whenever possible, the liquid

phase of the separator shall

be re-injected into the process

lines or stored in appropriate

tanks, and only the gaseous

phase shall be burned.



Well testing of Block 4

exploration wells is not

currently planned, however, it

is an option if an appraisal well

is drilled.

If a well test is necessary, it will

be carried out in conformance

with TOTAL corporate

requirements and Lebanese

emission limit values and

allowable ambient

concentrations will be

respected.



Requirements of Annex VI

MARPOL 73/78, see

Section 2.10.1.1.



Utility fuels with the lowest

possible sulphur content shall

be selected.



Emissions from rig and vessel

operations to comply with

MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI.



2-61



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



Decree No. 2604/2009 Control of

Materials that Deplete the Ozone

Layer (amended by Decree No.

3277/2016) - aims to control

substances that deplete the

ozone layer which are listed in

the annexes of the Montreal

Protocol.

Government of Lebanon issued

HCFC import quotas for 2018 at

52.58 ODP tonnes, which is

lower than the Montreal Protocol

control targets and the maximum

allowable consumption set in its

Agreement with the Executive

Committee.



Requirements of Montreal

Protocol on Substances

that Deplete the Ozone

Layer (1987)



Ozone depleting substances

and all products listed in the

Montreal Protocol: any use of

CFC, HCFC and halons,

which contribute to

decreasing the ozone layer, is

prohibited except for essential

use, under derogation.

Alternatives shall be used.



Compliance with requirements

of Montreal Protocol and

Lebanon’s HCFC import

quotas



Decision 52/1/96 specifies

maximum allowable noise levels

and the permissible noise

exposure standards, see Section

2.10.1.3.



IFC Environmental Health

and Safety Guidelines

(2007): Noise Level

Guidelines (Outdoors) One

hour LAeq (dBA)

Industrial, commercial:

70 dBA (based on World

Health Organization 1999

Guidelines)

Or noise impacts should

not result in a maximum

increase in background

levels of 3 dB at the

nearest receptor location

off-site



Onshore, the design shall

ensure that the noise levels

recorded out of doors of

typical receptors, beyond the

property boundary of the

facilities during normal

operation of the site, do not

exceed the limits set out

below or result in a maximum

increase in background levels

of 3dB at the nearest receptor

location off-site, at any time.

Noise Level Guidelines

(Outdoors) One hour LAeq

(dBA)

Industrial, commercial:

70 dBA



Compliance with Lebanese

maximum allowable noise

levels (Decision 52/1/96), see

Section 2.10.1.3. Lebanese

requirements have more

stringent night-time standards

for industrial areas than IFC

guidelines and TOTAL’s

corporate requirements.



Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Ozone depleting

substances

(generally used in

firefighting and

refrigeration

systems)



Airborne noise,

logistics base

operation



2-62



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Parameter



Lebanese requirements



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



-



Impact assessment based on

NOAA (2018), Southall et al.

(2007) and McCauley et al.

(2000), see Section 2.10.3.1.



Best practice:





Underwater noise

from drilling

operations, vessel

movements and

VSP activities



-



Criteria for onset

of marine mammal

injury based on

NOAA Technical

Memorandum

NMFS-OPR-59

(2018). Marine

mammal

disturbance

thresholds based

on other studies,

see Section

2.10.3.1.



*Total General Specification ‘Environmental Requirements for Projects Design and E&P Activities’ (GS-EP-ENV-001)



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Table 2.18: Chemical selection standards for Block 4 exploration drilling campaign

Parameter



Drilling and

cementing

chemical selection



Lebanese requirements



-



Applicable international

requirements



Total corporate

requirements*



Project adopted standard



-



Requires that chemicals are

selected according to the

following criteria: lowest

toxicity, lowest

bioaccumulation potential

and highest biodegradation.

GS EP ENV 001 also states

that offshore, chemicals will

be selected according to a

pre-screening scheme based

on the OSPAR methodology

in force and provided with

their material safety data

sheet (MSDS). See Section

2.10.2.3



Chemical selection in line with

the OSPAR Harmonised

Mandatory Control Scheme and

Offshore Chemical Notification

Scheme.

Preference for HQ Band Gold,

OCNS Group E and PLONOR

chemicals, see Section

2.10.2.3.



*Total General Specification ‘Environmental Requirements for Projects Design and E&P Activities’ (GS-EP-ENV-001)



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3



PUBLIC PARTICIPATION



3.1



Introduction

Public participation and stakeholder engagement are integral parts of the environmental

and social impact assessment (EIA) process and the foundation for developing and

maintaining a project’s social licence to operate. They help to develop and sustain trusting

relationships and build a project’s reputation as a venture that is socially responsible and

acts with integrity.

Public participation and stakeholder engagement for this project are being undertaken in

accordance with the requirements of Lebanese legislation, TOTAL policies for

stakeholder engagement and international best practice (Appendix 3.1).

A project-specific stakeholder engagement plan (SEP) has been developed for the EIA

of the Block 4 offshore exploration drilling study (hereafter called the project) to support

meaningful and effective engagement throughout the EIA process. The SEP forms the

basis of this chapter. The first version of the SEP was submitted to the Ministry of

Environment (MoE) in May 2019. An updated version of the document was submitted in

August 2019.

This chapter describes how stakeholder engagement activities have been undertaken

since the outset of the project and outlines how stakeholder engagement will be

continued after EIA. This chapter includes













3.2



objectives of the stakeholder engagement

stakeholder analysis

activities undertaken

analysis of issues and concerns raised by stakeholders

lessons learnt and recommendations.



Objectives of the stakeholder engagement

The objectives of the stakeholder engagement are to

















inform stakeholders about the project, the EIA process, the draft scoping report

and the draft EIA report

provide stakeholders with an opportunity to raise questions, concerns, comments

and suggestions to the project and EIA and ensure these are addressed in the

EIA

disclose the findings of the draft scoping report and ensure stakeholders

understand and accept the validity of these findings

obtain stakeholder input into the scope of the EIA with regards to environmental

and socio-economic indicators, impact identification, potential sources of

cumulative impact and to discuss how best to avoid, mitigate or compensate

impacts

provide feedback to the stakeholders on the impact assessment and associated

management or mitigation measures



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3-1







provide a mechanism for ongoing stakeholder engagement and outline the ways

in which stakeholders can be involved in the process.



3.3



Stakeholder identification and analysis



3.3.1



Stakeholder identification

Stakeholders are defined as persons or groups external to the project who may be

impacted by the project, have influence over it or have an interest in it. Project

stakeholders were identified by RSK, DAR and TOTAL jointly based on the following:





















understanding of the project activities

the SEA conducted for the oil and gas sector (published March 2019, (MoEW,

2019))

identification of the AOIs for the project

knowledge of the social and administrative structure in the project AOIs

early scoping of impacts and consideration of categories of people potentially

affected by the project

knowledge of the EIA process and the national bodies involved in permitting

consultation with MOE and Lebanese Petroleum Administration (LPA) and their

recommendations

area of interest/mandate and capacity to influence and mobilise activities

potentially linked to the project (NGOs)

snowballing, where encountered stakeholders identify additional stakeholders.



Many stakeholders were identified and grouped into categories, as presented in Table

3.1.

Table 3.1: Stakeholder categories

Stakeholder groups

Relevant authorities



Stakeholders

National government ministries and authorities

Municipal/local authorities



Agencies



Associations, syndicates



International agencies



International organisations, e.g., United Nations

agencies

Non-governmental organisations (international, national

and regional)

Political organisations



Civil society



Community organisations, e.g., civil society groups,

development associations, women’s groups, farming,

fishing or other activity-based cooperatives

Cultural heritage organisations



3-2



Academia



Relevant universities and research centres



Business



Industries, traders and service providers, tourism

providers, beach resorts, hotels and restaurants,

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Stakeholder groups



Stakeholders

Informal businesses

Coastal community members



Potentially affected

communities/groups



Livelihood groups including: fishermen, farmers, natural

resource users

Potentially vulnerable and/or marginalised groups

including youth, women, elderly, minority or

marginalised groups, artisanal fishermen,



The SEP1 sets out a complete methodology for stakeholder identification. The process of

stakeholder identification is dynamic and ongoing throughout the life of the EIA.



3.3.2



Identification of vulnerable groups

During stakeholder identification relevant to the project, vulnerable groups have been

outlined using the following World Bank definition:

“A vulnerable group is a group that has some specific characteristics that make

it at higher risk of falling into poverty than others living in areas targeted by a

project. Vulnerable groups include the elderly, the mentally and physically

disabled, at-risk children and youth, ex-combatants, internally displaced

people and returning refugees, HIV/AIDS-affected individuals and

households, religious and ethnic minorities and, in some societies, women.”

Youth, women, the elderly, and minority or marginalised groups (who generally lack social

status or community decision-making power) were identified as the main vulnerable

groups. Efforts were made to engage these groups in the meetings. Meetings sought to

collect baseline data and to provide information about the project. The stakeholder

engagement team attempted to ensure that representatives of these groups were

included in the meetings. Focus group discussions were held with artisanal fishermen,

female-only and youth groups (see Section 3.4). During the meetings and throughout the

stakeholder engagement activities, women were specifically encouraged to voice their

comments and ask questions.



3.3.3



Stakeholder analysis

The SEP2 sets out a methodology for stakeholder analysis (see Figure 3.1). This includes

analysis of the following aspects:









level of influence stakeholders may have on the project, rated as low,

medium, important and critical

level of impact the project may have on stakeholders, rated as low, medium,

important and critical

intensity of interest stakeholders may have in the project, rated as high,

medium, low or critical.



The level of impact and influence determines the level of intensity of collaboration

between the project and the stakeholder:

1

2



See SEP for details on the stakeholder identification methodology.

See SEP for details on the stakeholder analysis methodology.



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3-3







type of collaboration with the stakeholder, rated as collaborate, keep informed

and monitor, based on contact with the stakeholder.



Level of Interest



Figure 3.1: Stakeholder analysis methodology



It should be noted that the stakeholder analysis, to a certain extent, is subjective,

depending on personal experience with different stakeholders. To reduce subjectivity in

analysing stakeholders, the process was carried out as a collaborative exercise.

Stakeholders were analysed in terms of the type and level of impact they may endure

from the project, the type and level of influence the may have over the project and the

interest they may have in the project. Once the analysis was completed, the mapping of

each stakeholder was undertaken. At local level, stakeholder categories were mapped

collectively.

Stakeholder mapping is an ongoing exercise, as stakeholders’ relationships to the project

may change at any time. The detailed mapping results, however, are an internal

confidential document of the project proponent, which reflects the company’s

understanding of external risks affecting their commercial decisions. A complete table of

all stakeholders and their analysis can be found in Appendix 3.2.



3.4



Scoping public consultation meeting



3.4.1



Activities undertaken

According to Lebanese Decree No 8633/2012, projects in Lebanon that require an EIA

to be undertaken should ensure public participation at several stages of the EIA process.

Public participation was undertaken during the scoping phase. The objective was to raise

awareness of the project and the EIA among the general public and all interested parties



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and to receive input from stakeholders into the EIA scoping report and the terms of

reference for the EIA. The public participation process is described below.



3.4.2



Public consultation preparation

The draft scoping report was published online at rsklebanon.com/total/blocks4and9/

scoping-comments/ for one month from 3 May to 2 June 2019. The general public, public

authorities and other interested parties were invited to provide feedback on the scoping

report via a comments and questions form. Comments and questions were submitted

automatically to the LPA and MoE and were collated and addressed in the updated

scoping report. The website also provided the date and location of the planned public

consultation meeting.

Additionally, an advert was placed in two local newspapers (Al Akhbar and An-Nahar) on

3 May, 15 working days before the public consultation meeting, advertising the online

publication of the draft scoping report and inviting stakeholders to review and provide

feedback. The newspaper advertisement explained that an EIA is required for the project

and provided the date and location of the planned public consultation meeting (Appendix

3.3).

Announcements related to the project and the planned public consultation meeting were

prepared, sent and displayed at municipalities in the AOI (Appendix 3.4).



3.4.3



Presentation materials used for public consultation

Several materials were prepared ahead of the public consultation meeting to enhance

communication and ensure an informed discussion. These included:









3.4.4



a background information document (BID) introducing the project and outlining

the EIA process (produced in Arabic and English) (Appendix 3.5)

PowerPoint Presentations introducing the project, the EIA process and draft

scoping study results (produced in Arabic) (Appendix 3.6 and Appendix 3.7)

videos (in Arabic) introducing TOTAL and summarising the offshore

environmental baseline study (EBS) survey conducted in April 2019.



Reference material for stakeholder engagement materials

The stakeholder engagement team used a frequently asked questions document (FAQ)

to assist with responding to stakeholder questions during the public consultation meeting.

The document was prepared by RSK and approved by TOTAL (Appendix 3.8).



3.4.5



Undertaking the public consultation meeting

The public consultation meeting was held by the EIA team, which consisted of consultants

from RSK and DAR, and representatives from Total E&P Liban. The facilitator in the

meeting was a representative from DAR.

The meeting was held in Arabic, with provision of simultaneous interpretation services for

English-speaking participants. BIDs were distributed to all stakeholders.

The meeting began with introductions and opening remarks by the facilitator who outlined

the purpose and format of the meeting.



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3-5



This was followed by two presentations; the project description given by Total E&P Liban

and the EIA process presented by the EIA consultants (Appendix 3.6 and Appendix 3.7).

Videos were used to introduce TOTAL, present the exploration activities and the EIA

process, and summarise the offshore environmental baseline study (EBS) survey

conducted in April 2019.

After the presentations, the floor was opened and a question and answer session was

conducted. Efforts were made to enable all stakeholders present to have their concerns

heard. The EIA team responded to questions using the FAQ document outlined above.

Participants were also provided with an additional sheet of paper on which they could

submit comments or questions in writing.

A grievance mechanism was laid out, including contact details, enabling stakeholders to

comment on the project or ask any further questions. Refreshments were provided to all

participants.

Attendance sheets were completed and signed by participants and business cards were

exchanged to facilitate ongoing communication.



3.4.6



Recording the public consultation meeting

During the public consultation meeting, all verbal questions, comments and concerns and

responses provided were transcribed in an RSK template (Appendix 3.9). This

information was recorded, forwarded to the RSK database manager and entered into a

relational Microsoft Access stakeholder engagement database, and has been considered

in the updating of the draft scoping report.

Written comments received during the public consultation were also entered into the

database. Where consent was not given alongside a question or concern, names were

not recorded.

Photographs were taken after permission was granted by participants (Appendix 3.10).

Attendance sheets were completed (Appendix 3.11), forwarded to the database manager

and logged in the database.



3.4.7



Analysis of stakeholder issues raised

This section presents the main concerns and questions raised by stakeholders during the

public consultation in the scoping phase. Appendix 3.12 includes a more comprehensive

list of the concerns and responses disaggregated for the public consultation and

stakeholder engagement meetings, which is described below.

The scoping phase public consultation meeting took place on 24 May 2019 at Radisson

Blue Hotel, Verdun, Beirut, and was attended by the general public. The meeting also

included 40 stakeholders from national authorities, municipal authorities, agencies, civil

society, academia, businesses and other interested parties.

The concerns and questions are first categorised into topics (see Table 3.2)3 and

secondly in terms of gender.



3



It should be noted that the allocation of questions and comments to topics is not mutually exclusive. In some

cases, an issue has been allocated to more than one category.

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Table 3.2: Stakeholder issue categories

Topic



Description



Project characteristics



Methods to acquire data

Objective of the survey

Extent of the area of influence

Project infrastructure



EIA related



Baseline studies

Mitigation measures

Request for data

Request for further involvement



Environment



Biodiversity/protected areas



Figure 3.2 provides the number of questions and comments from stakeholders during the

public consultation for the different concern categories. The figure shows that during the

public consultation the majority of questions and comments raised were EIA related,

followed by questions or comments about project characteristics.

Stakeholders inquired about the timeline of the EIA activities and how the results of the

EIA may influence the design and selection of the exploration vessel and the drilling

location. Other comments related to the methodologies of social and environmental

baseline studies, the potential environmental impacts associated with waste generated

by the exploration activities and the onshore capacity to manage this waste.

Data was further analysed by gender; see Figure 3.3. The figure shows that men, in

general, raised more issues than women during the public consultation meeting. From

the figure, concerns and questions about the EIA were raised more frequently amongst

males than females. Males also raised all concerns in the topic of project characteristics,

whereas females raised all environmental concerns and questions raised during the

public consultation meeting.



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3-7



20

18

18



16



Frequency of questions raised



14



12



10



8



7



6



4



3



2



0

EIA Related



Project Characteristics



Environment



Topic



Figure 3.2: Frequency of issues raised by topic during public consultation

3-8



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14

13



Frequency of questions raised



12



10



8

7

6

5

4

3

2



0

EIA



Project Characteristics



Environment



Topic

Male



Female



Figure 3.3: Frequency of issues raised by gender during public consultation



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3-9



3.5



Scoping phase stakeholder engagement



3.5.1



Activities undertaken

Whereas public participation is targeting the general public, stakeholder engagement

targets specific groups and individuals who may be impacted by the project, have

influence over it or have an interest in it. This includes authorities, international and

national agencies, civil society and NGOs, academia, businesses and potentially affected

groups.

The main aim of scoping phase stakeholder engagement was to ensure that the different

categories of stakeholders were informed about the project and had an opportunity to

provide input into the terms of reference for the EIA. The stakeholder engagement

process during the scoping phase is described below.



3.5.2



Arrangement of scoping stakeholder engagement meetings

Scoping phase stakeholder engagement meetings were arranged as follows.

Meetings were arranged with identified stakeholders. At the national, governorate and

municipality levels, letters of invitation were sent before the stakeholder engagement

meetings (a sample letter is provided in Appendix 3.13) and followed up by telephone

calls to confirm dates, times and venues. A full list of stakeholders invited to meetings

during the scoping phase is presented in Appendix 3.14.

Certain stakeholders (NGOs and some local level stakeholders) were invited to attend a

scheduled meeting via emails or phone calls.

The timing of each meeting was arranged to ensure maximum attendance and minimise

potential interference with daily commitments.



3.5.3



Presentation materials used during scoping engagement meetings

The following information materials were prepared for use by the stakeholder

engagement teams:













3.5.4



BID document as mentioned in Section 3.4.3 above

PowerPoint Presentations PowerPoint Presentations introducing the project, the

EIA process and draft scoping study results (produced in Arabic) (Appendix 3.15

and Appendix 3.7)

videos as described in Section 3.4.3 above

question and answer recording templates.



Reference materials used for scoping engagement meetings

The stakeholder engagement team used an FAQ document, as mentioned above (see

Section 3.4.4), for scoping phase meetings.



3.5.5



Undertaking the scoping phase engagement meetings

Scoping stakeholder engagement meetings were attended by national authorities,

municipal authorities, international agencies, agencies, NGOs and businesses.

Attendance lists for the meetings are provided in Appendix 3.11. The meetings began



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with introductions and opening remarks by the facilitator who outlined the purpose and

format of the meetings. The facilitator in the meeting was a representative from DAR.

This was followed by two presentations: the project description given by Total E&P Liban

and the EIA process presented by the EIA consultants. Videos were used to present the

exploration activities and the EIA process.

After the presentation, the floor was opened and a question and answer session was

conducted. The EIA team responded to questions using the FAQ document outlined

above.

Participants were also provided with an additional sheet of paper on which they could

submit comments or questions in writing.

A feedback mechanism was laid out including contact details, enabling stakeholders to

comment on the project or ask further questions.

Refreshments were provided to all participants.

Attendance sheets were completed and signed by participants and business cards were

exchanged to facilitate ongoing communication.



3.5.6



Recording the scoping phase engagement meetings

During the scoping phase engagement meetings, all verbal questions, comments and

concerns and responses provided were transcribed in an RSK template (Appendix 3.9).

This information was recorded, forwarded to the RSK database manager and entered in

to a relational Microsoft Access stakeholder engagement database, and was considered

in the updating of the scoping report.

Written comments received during the scoping engagement have also been entered into

the database. Where consent was not given alongside a question or concern, names

were not recorded. All questions, comments and concerns received during the scoping

engagement (verbal and written) have been shared with TOTAL.

Photographs were taken after permission was granted by participants (Appendix 3.10).

Attendance sheets were completed (Appendix 3.11), forwarded to the database manager

and logged in the database.



3.5.7



Analysis of stakeholder issues raised

Five scoping phase stakeholder engagement meetings took place on 14 and 15 May

2019.

Concerns and questions are first categorised into topics (see Table 3.3)4 and secondly in

terms of gender.



4



It should be noted that the allocation of questions and comments to topics is not mutually exclusive. In some

cases, an issue has been allocated to more than one category.

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Table 3.3: Stakeholder issue categories

Topic



Description



Project characteristics



Methods to acquire data

Objective of the survey

Extent of the area of influence

Project infrastructure



EIA related



Baseline studies

Mitigation measures

Request for data

Request for further involvement



Community development



Communities benefitting from the project



Employment



Employment opportunities from the project



Livelihoods



Water-based livelihoods

Land-based livelihoods



Health and safety



Health and safety issues relating to the

project



Cultural heritage



Protected sites

World Heritage Sites



Environment



Biodiversity/protected areas



Data collection



Stakeholder engagement

Further data collection



Consultation and feedback



Consultation and feedback



Other



Other comments made



Figure 3.4 illustrates the relative frequency of the categories of questions or comments

for the stakeholders during the five stakeholder engagement meetings. The figure shows

that most commonly reported questions and comments across all meetings were EIA

related, followed by questions and comments about project characteristics.

Stakeholders at all meetings were interested to know more about the methodologies

applied in the various studies and whether the final EIA would be made publicly available

to them. Some questions related to the location and duration of environmental offshore

surveys, the sampling design and the equipment that was used. Other frequently asked

questions related to further detail on the mitigation of environmental impacts,

development of management plans and what would be carried out in the case of

accidents.

The questions raised relating to project characteristics concerned project design and

description, logistics, as well as specific queries relating to the selection of well site

location. The impression given was that stakeholders were genuinely interested in the

project.

A higher number of questions relating to ‘livelihoods’ were raised at the meeting with

agencies. This could be because the attendees were mostly from fishermen’s syndicates.

Most of their questions related to fisheries and the supply chain. Concerns related to

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potential effects of exploration activities on fish stocks and impacts associated with the

exclusion zone surrounding the drill ship. One stakeholder raised concerns about the

potential risks to navigation and suggested that there should be close coordination

between the operator and authorities in charge of fishing vessels.

Very few questions were raised relating to cultural heritage. Only one question was raised

relating to cultural heritage by a stakeholder from an NGO, who advised that the laws on

protected sites in Lebanon were detailed several years ago and may not be robust

enough to protect the sites from potential impacts of oil and gas development.

Figure 3.4 shows that a considerable number of questions and comments categorised as

‘Other’ were raised by NGOs. These questions did not fall into any of the categories and

were mostly beyond the remit of the EIA.

Data was also analysed by gender (see Figure 3.5). The figure shows that males raised

the greatest number of questions and concerns throughout the scoping phase meetings,

with the majority of questions raised relating to the EIA and project characteristics topics.

Females also raised the highest number of concerns relating to the EIA. The ‘livelihood’

topic also raised a number of concerns from both men and women.

A complete list of questions and responses is provided in Appendix 3.12.



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20

18

18

16



Frequency of topics raised



14



12



11



11



10



9



8



9



7



9 9



7



6



4

4



3



3

2



2



3

2



2



3



3



3



2



2



2



1



1



1 1 1 1



1



2



1

0



0



0

EIA Related



Data Collection



Consultation

and Feedback



Employment



Environment



Cultural

Heritage



Livelihoods



Health and

Safety



Project

Characteristics



Other



Topic

Business



International Agencies



Civil Society (NGOs)



Authorities (National Government)



Authorities (Municipalities)



Figure 3.4: Frequency of issues raised during the scoping phase stakeholder meetings



3-14



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40

36



36



35



Frequency of topics raised



30



25



20



15

12

9



10

5



7



6



5



4



5

2



2



1



1



4

2



1



0

EIA Related



Data Collection



Consultation

and Feedback



Employment



Environment



Cultural

Heritage



Livelihoods



Health and

Safety



Project

Characteristics



Other



Topic

Male



Female



Figure 3.5: Frequency of concerns raised by gender during scoping phase



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3.6



Baseline phase stakeholder engagement



3.6.1



Activities undertaken

During the baseline phase, the EIA stakeholder engagement activities were linked to the

social and additional environmental data collection process. Full environmental baseline

data collection was conducted as a separate process.

Social baseline data collection focused on gathering relevant information at the local and

national level (meaning authorities and agencies with mandates covering the entire

country) to understand and describe the importance and sensitivity of the receptors

potentially affected by the project. The methodology for the social baseline data collection

is described in the Chapter 5 of this EIA.

In addition, stakeholders who were identified during the scoping phase and who had not

been met were also met to inform them about the project and the EIA and to receive their

comments, which have been included in this EIA.

Baseline phase stakeholder engagement also enabled engagement with vulnerable

groups including









3.6.2



youth

women

minority or marginalised groups, e.g., artisanal fishermen and natural/coastal

resource users.



Arrangement of baseline stakeholder engagement meetings

Baseline phase meetings were arranged as follows.

As a natural result of scoping activities, some additional NGOs were identified for

consultation. These included







Operation Big Blue

Terre Liban











Diaries of the Ocean

Green Area

Legal Agenda.



Potentially affected communities were selected according to the social baseline

methodology (see Chapter 5). These communities were selected based on a range of

land uses in the coastal zone, including fishing ports, tourist resorts, industrial areas,

protected areas and UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHS). Municipalities were identified

as the gate keeper to communities and the stakeholders to be met within those

communities. The national level stakeholders included are those whose activities are

relevant to some aspect of the project and those from whom data will be collected. Some

of these stakeholders were engaged with during the scoping phase.



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Stakeholders were also selected for primary baseline data collection. These stakeholders

were selected based on their proximity to Block 4, and by using purposive sampling5,

based on a diversity of land uses.

At the governorate, municipality and civil society level, letters of invitation were sent

before the meetings (Appendix 3.13). Meetings with potentially affected groups, including

women, youth, and fishermen were arranged through letters, emails, phone calls and adhoc encounters. Letters of invitation were sent and followed up by phone calls nearer the

time to confirm dates and venues.

Venues for meetings were selected based on proximity to stakeholders, ease of access

and adequate seating capacity.



3.6.3



Presentation materials used during baseline engagement meetings

Materials used for baseline phase engagement meetings included







3.6.4



BID document as mentioned in Section 3.4.3 above

posters introducing the project and the EIA process (produced in Arabic)

(Appendix 3.16).



Reference materials used during baseline engagement meetings

The stakeholder engagement team used an FAQ document, as mentioned above (see

Section 3.4.4), for baseline phase meetings.

FGD guides and the KII interview guides were prepared for the data collection. These are

provided in the social baseline chapter (Chapter 5).



3.6.5



Undertaking baseline phase engagement meetings

Between 13 and 24 May, 29 KIIs and 14 FGDs took place. Meetings were attended by

municipality officials, NGOs and civil society organisations (CSOs), commercial and

industrial enterprises and directly affected groups. National level data collection

continued until the submission of the EIA in early September 2019. A full list of baseline

meetings is shown in Table 3.4 below.

Table 3.4: Baseline phase engagement meetings

KII

Industry – salt workers/salt miners



Anfeh



Head of fishermen’s cooperative



Batroun, Dbayeh



Commercial business – diving centre/

yacht and boat services



Dbayeh



Restaurant owner



Tripoli, Jounieh, Amchit



Beach resorts



Chekka, Batroun



DPNA



Tripoli



Women in Front



Dbayeh



5



Purposive sampling is a non-probability sample and is selected on particular characteristics of the population

relevant to the objective of the study.

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Green Square NGO



Amchit



UNESCO



Jbeil



Medical specialist – Lebanese Association

for Safety and Emergency



Batroun



Municipality officials



Chekka, AlMina, Batroun, Safra, Okaibeh,

Amchit, Jbeil, Fidar, Dbayeh, Anfeh,

Bebnine, Anfeh



Ministry of Energy and Water

Ministry of Culture – Directorate of

Antiquities

Ministry of Agriculture – Directorate of

Fisheries and Aquaculture

CNRS (RS department)

CNRS (geology department)

CNRS (geophysical department)

Ministry of Public Works and Transport –

Directorate General of Land and Maritime

Transport



Beirut



Disaster Risk Management Unit

Port of Beirut

Ministry of the Displaced

Ministry of Tourism

Ministry of Social Affairs

Ministry of Justice

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission

FGD

Fishermen



Anfeh, Chekka, Jbeil, Okaibeh, Dbayeh,

Bebnine



Anglers



Jbeil, Jounieh, Dbayeh



Fishing households (women)



Anfeh, Okaibeh, Jbeil



Youth



Anfeh



Farmers



Safra



FGD teams of two people from RSK and InfoPro, a facilitator and an assistant facilitator,

conducted the FGD meetings. Additionally, a KII team of two facilitators per team, a

facilitator and an assistant facilitator, conducted the KII meetings.

The timing of each meeting was arranged to ensure maximum attendance and minimise

interference with the stakeholder/communities’ daily commitments.

All meetings were held in Arabic and BIDs, produced in Arabic, were distributed to all

stakeholders.

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The meetings began with introductions and opening remarks by the facilitator who

outlined the purpose and format of the meeting to set the group at ease. Facilitators

explained that participation was voluntary and stakeholders were able to decline to

participate at any point.

Facilitators asked participants for oral consent to participate and permission to audiorecord the conversations. Facilitators explained that no names would be used when

reporting the findings unless consent was given.

Data collection activities commenced with a stakeholder engagement event (the project,

the EIA process and the stakeholder engagement process was presented using the

stakeholder materials, e.g., BIDs and posters). After this, the floor was opened and a

question and answer session was conducted. Sufficient time was allocated to the

question and answer session and efforts were made to enable all stakeholders present

to have their concerns heard. All verbal questions and responses were recorded and

responses provided. These were entered into a stakeholder engagement database and

will be collated in the final EIA report.

The FAQ document was used by facilitators to respond to questions.

A grievance mechanism was clearly laid out including contact details, enabling

stakeholders to comment on the project or ask further questions.

Refreshments were provided to all participants.



3.6.6



Recording the baseline phase engagement meetings

During the baseline phase engagement meetings, all verbal questions, comments and

concerns and responses provided were transcribed in an RSK template (Appendix 3.9).

This information was recorded, forwarded to the RSK database manager and entered in

to a relational Microsoft Access stakeholder engagement database.

Written comments received during the baseline engagement have also been entered into

the database. Where consent was not given alongside a question or concern, names

were not recorded.

Photographs were taken after permission was granted by participants (Appendix 3.10).

Attendance sheets were completed (Appendix 3.11), forwarded to the database manager

and logged in the database.

During these engagements, and where permission was granted by participants, minutes

were audio-recorded.



3.6.7



Analysis of stakeholder issues raised

EIA stakeholder engagement activities for this project are linked to the social baseline

data collection process. In May 2019, stakeholders at the local level were engaged with

as part of primary data collection efforts.

Figure 3.6 provides the number of questions and comments from stakeholders during the

baseline stakeholder engagement meetings for the different concern categories. The

figure shows that during meetings, the most commonly raised questions or comments

related to project characteristics followed by questions or comments about EIA.



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Stakeholders were interested to know more about the technical design of the drilling

activities, the methods to be used, the precise location of the block and the depth of the

wells. Stakeholders also asked about the precise location of the logistics base and

facilities.

Questions were raised during meetings about the types of environmental and social

studies that would be conducted and when, and when the final EIA would be available.

Some stakeholders asked about the types of waste that the project would generate and

how this would be managed.

The third most common category of questions and comments was livelihoods:

stakeholders in Block 4 were concerned about the risks of releases of chemicals or oils

into the sea and the knock-on effects on tourism, particularly in Anfeh which is known to

have some of the cleanest water in Lebanon.

Stakeholders were eager to know how job opportunities could benefit them. Stakeholders

recommended that fishermen and users of the sea should be prioritised for employment

opportunities.

The data was further analysed by gender; see Figure 3.7. From the figure, it can be seen

that female stakeholders raised a larger number of questions relating to employment than

male stakeholders. Very few questions were raised by either gender for the topics of

cultural heritage, community development, and health and safety.



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120

107



105



Frequency of Questions Raised



100



80



60



40



20



34



17

12



15



17



13

2



2



2



0



Topic

Figure 3.6: Frequency of issues raised during the baseline phase engagement meetings



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3-21



90



85

81



80



Frequency of Qestions Raised



70

60

50

40

30



26



24



20

20



16

9



10



1



3



6



11



9

2



0



0



2



13



10

2



2



4

0



0

ESIA Related



Data

Collection



Consultation Employment Community

and Feedback

Development



Cultural

Heritage



Environment



Livelihoods



Health and

Project

Safety

Characteristics



Other



Topic

Male



Female



Figure 3.7: Frequency of questions raised by gender during baseline phase engagement meetings in Block 4



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3.7



Disclosure public consultation meetings

The objective of the public consultation was to raise awareness of the project, the EIA

outcomes and the grievance mechanism among all concerned parties, and to allow

stakeholders to voice their questions, concerns and comments on project activities and

the EIA.



3.7.1



Activities undertaken

The draft EIA was published online at https://www.rsklebanon.com/total/block4/eiacomments/, for one month between 4 September and 4 October. The general public,

public authorities and other interested parties were invited to provide feedback on the EIA

report via online comments and questions form. Any comments were sent directly to the

LPA and MOE and were collated and, where necessary, have been addressed in this

updated EIA.

Two public consultation meetings were undertaken during disclosure phase. The first took

place on 19 September 2019 at the Radisson Blu Hotel, Verdun, Beirut. The second

meeting took place on 20 September at Byblos Cultural Centre, Jbeil. Ninety-six

stakeholders attended the two meetings.



3.7.2



Arrangement of disclosure public consultation meetings

An advert was published in two local newspapers (Al Akhbar and An-Nahar) informing

stakeholders of the online publication of the EIA report and inviting them to provide

feedback for a period of one month from 4 September 2019.

The newspaper advertisement and the website also invited all stakeholders and

communities to attend two public consultation meetings in which they could voice their

questions and comments, and provided the date, time and location of these (Appendix

3.3).

Additionally, stakeholders were invited to the public consultation meetings by formal

letters, emails and WhatsApp messages (Appendix 3.17).



3.7.3



Presentation materials

Visual and printed materials used during public consultation meetings included

PowerPoint Presentations introducing the project, executive summary, the EIA process,

previous stakeholder engagement activities and the reference to project grievance

mechanism (produced in Arabic) (Appendix 3.18 and Appendix 3.19).



3.7.4



Reference materials

The stakeholder engagement team used an updated version of the frequently asked

questions document to assist with responding to stakeholder questions during the public

consultation meetings. The document was prepared by RSK and approved by TOTAL

(Appendix 3.20).

During the public consultation in Jbeil (20 September 2019), a video was shown in

response to a comment on oil spills.



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3.7.5



Undertaking disclosure public consultation meetings

The public consultation meeting was held by the EIA team, which consisted of

international consultants from RSK and national consultants from DAR, and

representatives from Total E&P Liban.

The meeting was held in Arabic, with provision of simultaneous interpretation services for

English-speaking participants.

The meeting began with introductions and opening remarks by the facilitator from local

EIA consultancy DAR, who outlined the purpose and format of the meeting.

This was followed by two presentations: the project description given by Total E&P Liban

and the EIA process and previous stakeholder engagement, presented by the EIA

consultants (Appendix 3.18 and Appendix 3.19).

A grievance mechanism was laid out in the presentation, including contact details,

enabling stakeholders to comment on the project or ask any further questions.

After the presentations, the floor was opened and a question and answer session was

conducted. Efforts were made to enable all stakeholders present to have their concerns

heard. Full details of questions and responses are given in Appendix 3.12.

Participants were also provided with an additional sheet of paper on which they could

submit comments or questions in writing.

Attendance sheets were completed and signed by participants and business cards were

exchanged to facilitate ongoing communication.

Refreshments were provided to all participants.



3.7.6



Recording the disclosure public consultation feedback

Feedback was received verbally and in writing during the disclosure public consultation

meetings, as well as submitted online through the draft EIA website.

All verbal questions, comments and concerns and responses provided were transcribed

in an RSK template (Appendix 3.9).

During the meeting, where consent was not given alongside a question or concern,

names were not recorded.

Photographs were taken after permission was granted by participants (Appendix 3.10).

Attendance sheets were completed (Appendix 3.11), forwarded to the database manager

and logged in the database.

During these engagements, and where permission was granted by participants, minutes

were audio-recorded.

Detailed responses to all stakeholder feedback, both written and verbal, is given in

Appendix 3.12. The information was also entered into a Microsoft Access database and

is summarised in the following section.

During the consultation period, comments were also received from the regulators and

addressed in the final version of the EIA submitted for approval.



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3.7.7



Analysis of stakeholder issues raised

Figure 3.8 summarises the number of questions and comments from stakeholders during

the public consultation meetings. The figure shows that during the public consultation

meetings, stakeholders raised a high number of questions and comments relating to the

EIA findings, followed by project characteristics. Many stakeholders were interested to

know about the social and environmental surveys that had taken place, and had

questions and recommendations relating to the EIA online submission.

Stakeholders were interested in the duration of the exploration phase and what would

happen if hydrocarbons are found in the AOI. Other stakeholders were interested in how

mud and waste from the project will be treated and disposed of. Stakeholders also

enquired about the management plans and mitigation measures that will be taken.

Data was further analysed by gender (Figure 3.9). From the figure, female stakeholders

raised all questions and comments relating to cultural heritage; stakeholders questioned

the surveys undertaken for archaeological research and stated that although nothing of

interest was found during these studies, it does not mean that there are no sites in the

area.

Male stakeholders raised more questions on project characteristics, whereas both male

and female stakeholders raised many comments relating to the EIA.

Very few comments were raised by either gender for the topics of employment community

development cultural heritage, environment, livelihoods, and health and safety.

Detailed question and responses are shown in Appendix 3.12.



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3-25



60



Frequency of Questions Raised



50



48



40



30



21

20



10

4



3



2



1



3



3

1



0

ESIA Related



Employment



Community

Development



Cultural Heritage



Environment



Livelihoods



Health and Safety



Project

Characteristics



Other



Topic

Figure 3.8: Frequency of questions raised during the disclosure public consultation meetings



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35



Frequncy of Questions Raised



30



29



25



20



19



18



15



10



5



4



3



2



1



1



3



2



3



1



0

ESIA Related



Employment



Community

Development



Cultural Heritage



Environment



Livelihoods



Health and Safety



Project

Characteristics



Other



Topic

Male



Female



Figure 3.9: Frequency of questions raised by gender during disclosure public consultation meetings



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3.8



Grievance management procedure

In line with TOTAL standards and international best practice, and to ensure any

complaints and grievances that may arise due to the project’s activities are resolved as

quickly as possible to prevent escalation, a grievance management procedure has been

developed by the company. This grievance mechanism ensures that stakeholders have

an easy means of lodging grievances and are assured there will be a follow up.

The concept of the grievance mechanism was presented to stakeholders during the

stakeholder engagement meetings and public consultation meetings. It was explained

that grievances can be raised by stakeholders via written letters to TEP Liban, or emails

sent to EP.TEPL-Info@total.com.

Grievances raised during the EIA process were logged in a database by a database

manager (RSK) and communicated to TEP Liban to manage, as appropriate. Figure 3.10

shows the grievance mechanism steps. Grievances raised after the completion of the EIA

study will be directly collected, registered and addressed by TEP Liban.



Figure 3.10: Grievance mechanism steps



A comprehensive version of the grievance mechanism can be found in Section 8.6.4.



3.9



Conclusion

The scoping and baseline stakeholder engagement process has been executed in line

with the SEP and with Lebanese regulations and international best practice. Stakeholders

were analysed and met, and their issues recorded and entered into the stakeholder

engagement database.



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During scoping and baseline stakeholder engagement, questions and comments about

the EIA process and about project characteristics were prominent among all stakeholder

categories. Stakeholder questions, concerns and comments were similar across the two

phases and different stakeholder groups (national level, regional level and local level).

However, there were some differences. Local level stakeholders identified issues around

social topics such as employment and livelihoods whereas national and regional level

stakeholders raised more questions and concerns relating to environmental topics.

The stakeholder issues and comments to date are addressed in the EIA.

The report-back phase of stakeholder engagement on the EIA began in early September

2019. The aim of the engagement is to ensure that stakeholders are informed about and

comprehend the outcome of the EIA, particularly the identified impacts and mitigation

measures. This phase allows for stakeholders to provide comments and queries either

via online feedback tools or during public consultation meetings, with those comments

and concerns to be addressed in this final EIA report.

Stakeholder engagement will continue after EIA submission. A drilling operations

stakeholder management plan (DOSMP) has been developed, describing the

management approach for the implementation of stakeholder engagement commitments

identified during the environmental impact assessment stage (see Section 8.6.3). The

DOSMP will ensure that COMPANY stakeholder engagement activities comply with

Lebanese regulations, TEP Liban corporate standards and good international practice on

stakeholder engagement during the operational phase of the project.

The project will be implemented by authorised contractors who will submit to TEP Liban

their engagement plans to ensure project commitments on stakeholder engagement are

met. TEP Liban will have overall ownership of the stakeholder engagement process and

will ensure that certain project stakeholder groups continue to be engaged. These may

include but are not limited to the





LPA













MOE

Port Authorities of Beirut

fishermen’s syndicate

Ministry of Tourism.



A complete table of all stakeholders and their analysis can be found in Appendix 3.2.

The format of the engagement, regularity of meetings and the attendance will be agreed

with each of the stakeholder groups based on the drilling operations stakeholder

management plan and/or project needs.

The meetings will focus on updates on project activities and health and safety and provide

opportunities for stakeholders to voice concerns, ask questions and queries.



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4



PROJECT DESCRIPTION



4.1



Introduction

TEP Liban intends to carry out exploration drilling activities in offshore Block 4, Lebanon.

Total’s reservoir specialists have assessed seismic survey data (see Section 4.2) and

identified a priority area within which the drilling will take place (see Figure 4.1).

Drilling of the first exploration well (B4-1) is scheduled for February 2020 in the eastern

part of the Block 4 priority area. The primary objective of the drilling is to evaluate the

presence of a hydrocarbon bearing reservoir, its quality and its fluid content. If the results

of exploration well B4-1 are positive, a second exploration well, and potentially an

appraisal well, may also be drilled within the priority area in Block 4.

The plans for B4-1 are well advanced and this chapter confirms the available details.

However, the design of the possible second exploration well and appraisal well are not

advanced as yet, and where design options for either well B4-1 or the possible second

and third wells remain, they are explained.

To enable as full an assessment as possible of a three-well programme, discharge

estimates for the possible future wells have been assumed to be the same as those for

B4-1. Notes are provided throughout this chapter to indicate where the selection of

different options could result in substantial change to the discharge estimates, and in

these cases the range of potential discharges are provided.

Providing information on the range of possible discharges enables the full envelope of

options to be assessed (see Chapter 6) meaning that whichever options are finally

selected for any future wells, the significance of all potential impacts will be covered by

this EIA.

Well B4-1 will be about 11 nm (20 km) from the shore in water depths of 1520 m.

Coordinates for the Block 4 priority area1 and well B4-1 are provided in Appendix 4.1.



4.2



Previous related activities

In the last two decades, the Lebanese government has commissioned 2D and 3D seismic

surveys within Lebanese offshore waters. As part of this work, Geo-Services (PGS)

conducted two 2D seismic surveys (2008 to 2011; covering about 8800 km²)

complimented by six 3D seismic surveys (2006 to 2013, covering about 9700 km²)

(Lebanese Petroleum Association).

Under the exploration and production agreement, TEP Liban has analysed this data to

identify possible hydrocarbon-containing formations. Expectations from the seismic data

analysis are that the discovery, if any, is likely to be gas with condensate. In order to

confirm the presence of hydrocarbons in the formations, offshore exploration drilling is

necessary, hence the proposed drilling campaign.



1



Water depths in the priority area range from 1450 to 1760 m.



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4-1



Drilling in Block 4 will be the first offshore exploration drilling activity in Lebanon.



Figure 4.1: Location of Block 4, the priority area, and first exploration well (B4-1)

Source: TEP Liban



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4.3



Mobile offshore drilling unit

TEP Liban proposes to use a dynamically positioned drillship (the Tungsten Explorer) to

carry out the drilling of the first well in Block 4 (well B4-1). For any further exploration or

appraisal wells, a drillship or a semi-submersible drilling unit could be used to undertake

the works (see Figure 4.2).

A drillship or semi-submersible typically has a crew of around 180 people. Drillships and

semi-submersibles are both referred to as a mobile offshore drilling units (MODU)

throughout this EIA.

Specifications for the Tungsten Explorer, an ultra-deep water sixth-generation drillship,

are included in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Tungsten Explorer drillship specifications

Drillship specifications

Type



Ultra-deep water sixth-generation drillship



Dimensions



Approx. 238 m long and 42 m wide



Dynamic positioning



DPS 33



Year built



2013



Flag



Bahamas



Water depth rating



Design: 3,658 m Outfitted: 3,048 m



Drilling depth rating



12,190 m



Operating draft



39 ft



Tonnage



68,486 GT



Persons on board (POB)



Max. 200 with ventilated living quarters (positive pressure)

equipped with fire and gas detection system



Variable deck load



25,000 t



Mud system



4 × mud pumps

8 x dual deck shale shakers



Blowout preventer (BOP)

equipment



1 × BOP rated to 15,000-psi



Fuel storage capacity



9,400 m3



Mud storage capacity



>1600 m3



Base oil storage capacity



500 m3



Brine storage capacity



500 m3



Drill water storage

capacity



>2000 m3



Bulk storage capacity



Cement 4 × 3000 cubic feet

Barite/bentonite 4 × 3000 cubic feet



Power generation



Main engines 6 × STX-MAN 14V32/40 diesel engines

7000 kW @ 720 rpm c/w HHI 8437 kVA AC alternators



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4-3



Drillship specifications

Emergency engines 1 × STX-MAN B&W diesel engine c/w

HHI 2625 kvA AC alternator

Sewage treatment units



1 × DVZ-SKA-150 Biomaster (max. hydraulic load 27,250

1 × unit – total sewage flow 1200 L/day

2 Vaccumarator (2 × 25 MBA)



Figure 4.2: Example drillship (left – Tungsten Explorer) and semi-submersible drilling

unit (right)

Source: MarineTraffic.com (2019); Business Korea (2019)



4.3.1



MODU mobilisation, installation and demobilisation



4.3.1.1 Mobilisation

TEP Liban proposes to use a dynamically positioned drillship to carry out the drilling of

the first well in Block 4 (well B4-1). It will be mobilised from its previous work location and

will transfer directly to the B4-1 well site. The drillship will move into position using its own

power.

If a semi-submersible rig is selected for any future exploration / appraisal wells in Block

4, it may be towed into position using tugboats or move to the drilling position using its

own propulsion system.

Installation

No anchoring impacts are anticipated from the use of a drillship for well B4-1 (as would

be the case if a drillship is used for any future well). The ship’s position at the well site

will be maintained using dynamic positioning thrusters. Dynamic positioning systems

employ computer-controlled motor-driven thrusters (propellers) to adjust for the action of

winds and waves. They respond automatically to satellite GPS signals coordinated with

acoustic beacons placed on the sea floor.

If a semi-submersible rig is selected for any future exploration / appraisal wells in Block

4, anchoring may be required at the well site. Any anchor chain arrangement (generally

8–12 opposing anchors) will be dependent on the strength of prevailing tides and

currents. When all the anchors have been deployed in their correct position, the rig will

be ballasted down and the anchors firmly bedded using cable tensioning. Some semisubmersibles employ dynamic positioning systems to replace or supplement the mooring

system.

4-4



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4.3.1.2 Implementation

A 500-m safety zone2 will be in place around the MODU during the drilling programme.

The purpose of this zone is to protect the safety of people working on or in the immediate

vicinity of the MODU and the facility itself against damage. Safety zones also protect

fishermen and other mariners by reducing the risk of collision with the temporary

installation and preventing loss of gear that can become snagged on underwater

equipment. A support vessel will be present near the MODU to ensure the safety zone is

respected.

4.3.1.3 Demobilisation

At the end of the B4-1 drilling programme (and for any future wells), the MODU will be

prepared for demobilisation. For well B4-1, the drillship will leave the well site under its

own power, as would be the case if a drillship is used for any future well. If a semisubmersible is used for any future well, the anchors (if used) will be lifted and the rig

towed from the drill site or moved using its own propulsion system.



4.4



Drilling



4.4.1



Overview of drilling process

This section provides a general overview of the offshore drilling process. Specific

information regarding the B4-1 exploration well is provided in Section 4.4.2.

The first step in the drilling process is to ‘spud’3 the well using a large-diameter

conductor4. This large-diameter conductor is either set in place by jetting or drilling the

sea floor formation. Drilling then continues from the bottom of the conductor going deeper

through the sea floor. Drilling typically proceeds by applying weight on a drill string made

up of drill pipe and a bottom hole assembly that includes the drill bit, drill collars, heavyweight drill pipe, jarring devices and down-hole measuring equipment. Normally, the

MODU’s top drive or rotary table rotate the drill string to turn the drill bit at its lower end.

The drill bit has a larger diameter than the drill string, so that an annular space is formed

around the drill pipe as drilling progresses. The drill bit cuts into the rock formation and

detaches cuttings. Drilling fluid is pumped down inside the drill string, through nozzles in

the drill bit, and flushes the cuttings up through the annular space between the drill string

and the borehole wall until they are removed from the well.

Wells are drilled in sections: the upper-hole sections are typically drilled without a riser

and the drilling fluids and cuttings are ejected from the well at the seabed. For the lowerhole sections, a marine riser/BOP assembly is installed connecting the well back to the

rig (see Figure 4.3). The advantages of this are that





the drilling fluids can be circulated back to the rig, cleaned and reused



2 The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982 requires all ships to respect safety zones

around offshore installations.

3 Spudding is the term used in the drilling industry to describe the start of the well drilling process by removing rock

and other seabed material with the drill bit.

4 The conductor is a large-diameter pipe that is set into the ground to provide the initial stable structural foundation

for a borehole or well.



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4-5







a closed circuit of drilling fluid and cuttings makes it easier for well engineers to

assess the composition of the formation drilled







additional additives can be added to the drilling fluid to increase its weight and

counteract the risk of a well kick5 or blowout







if needed, in a blowout situation, the BOP can shear the drill pipe and seal in the

well by a succession of hydraulic rams.



Figure 4.3: Schematic of drilling process

Source: Total E&P



4.4.2



Well design

Well B4-1 will be a pseudo-vertical (slightly deviated) exploration well, with a terminal

depth about 4400 m below sea level. The design of any subsequent wells will be

dependent on the results from the first exploration well.

A 36-in. conductor casing will be run through the seabed sediments either in jetting or

drilling mode, to establish the wellhead in firm rock to a depth of about 60 m below seabed

level. The subsequent sections will then be drilled using drill bits of progressively smaller

diameter. When each section has been drilled to its target depth, a steel casing will be

lowered into the hole and cemented in place.

There will be five sections for the B4-1 exploration well. Figure 4.4 presents an

approximate drilling and casing plan.



5 A ‘kick’ is the entry of formation fluid into the wellbore during drilling operations. It occurs because the pressure

exerted by the column of drilling fluid is not great enough to overcome the pressure exerted by the fluids in the

formation drilled. The main objective of well control is to prevent a kick from occurring and if it happens, to prevent

it from developing into a blowout.



4-6



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



36" CP



26" Drilling

20" Casing



17½"

13⅜" Casing



12¼" Drilling

9⅝" Casing



8½" Drilling

7" Liner

8‐½" OH

or 6" OH



Figure 4.4: Preliminary drilling and casing plan, well B4-1

Source: TEP Liban

Note: The 8½-in. hole section may be drilled as a 6-in. hole; 8½-in. has been used in this EIA as a worstcase scenario.



4.4.3



Shallow hazards

Shallow hazards include subsurface hazards such as shallow gas, buried channels or

abnormal pressure zones, along with seafloor hazards such as fault scarps or unstable

slopes, and man-made hazards such as submarine cables or pipelines.

During the EBS survey, performed late March 2019, ROV observations showed a flat

muddy bathyal seafloor. There was a high abundance and frequency of anthropogenic

waste observed on the seafloor (various in size and nature) with an average of one piece

of waste per 50 m of video transect.

The seafloor consisted of relatively homogeneous soft sediment, except within a preidentified pockmark area (see Figure 5.60) where hard-relief outcrops 1-2 m high were

observed. These features possibly originated from the chemical reaction / precipitation of

seeping cold gases coming into contact with seawater at the sediment surface.

For Block 4, shallow gas is considered to be the main drilling hazard. This is defined as

any gas pocket encountered above the setting depth of the containing envelope, i.e.,

blowout preventer on top of the well, during drilling operations.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4-7



Using the seabed features and slope results from the EBS, and seismic attributes that

detect the presence of subsurface hazards, an assessment of the drill site was carried

out to evaluate the geohazards for well B4-1. The study results are presented below:





bathymetry/slope - 1515 m MSL / 4º to the north-west







seabed features - wellhead location selected as far as possible from steep

seabed slopes. The seabed displays a smooth signature with no seabed drilling

geohazards detected within a 100 m radius of the wellhead location. The

wellhead is located on a seabed high, eastwards from a canyon / linear

depression related to a salt deformation







sub-surface - no shallow gas hazard (no abnormal pressure) detected along the

studied trajectory. An interval of anhydrite detected above the top of salt is not

considered a drilling hazard







no pipelines or cables - risks were mapped based on the information

communicated by relevant Lebanese authorities and then checked visually with

an ROV during the EBS survey.



The geohazard assessment concluded that there were no geohazards in the interval

covered for B4-1 that would affect the drilling programme.



4.4.4



Drilling fluids

The functions of drilling fluid are to





control formation pressure and prevent well control issues







transfer cuttings from the wellbore to the surface







preserve wellbore stability







minimise formation damage and seal permeable formations







cool and lubricate the drill string







provide information about the wellbore







minimise risk to personnel, the environment, and drilling equipment (well barrier).



4.4.4.1 36-in. and 26-in. upper-hole sections (riserless)

The first two upper-hole sections of the Block 4 wells will be drilled using a seawater

system. Seawater will be pumped down the drill string forcing the cuttings back up the

borehole into the water column and onto the seabed. While drilling, the borehole will be

cleaned out using high-viscosity sweeps6. Before cementing, the hole will be displaced

to a pad mud7 to keep the hole open. The cuttings and drill fluids (pad mud and sweeps)

generated during this section will be discharged at the seabed.

4.4.4.2 Lower-hole sections (17½ in., 12¼ in. and 8½ in.)

The 26-in. surface casing will have been installed and the BOP and marine riser deployed

for the drilling of these sections.

There are two options with respect to drilling fluid use in these lower-hole sections:



A sweep is a relatively small volume of viscous fluid, typically a carrier gel that is circulated to sweep, or remove,

debris or residual fluids from the circulation system.



6



7



A pad mud is a ‘pump and dump’ drilling fluid that is specifically designed to be environmentally friendly for safe

discharge during riserless drilling of large top-hole sections.

4-8



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2







Option 1: Use of a non-aqueous drilling fluid (NADF) to ensure compatibility with

the geological formations encountered







Option 2: Use of a high-performance water-based drilling fluid (HPWBDF).



Once the marine riser/BOP assembly is in place, the drilling fluid and cuttings from these

sections will be returned to the rig and recovered using the onboard solids control

equipment (shale shakers and centrifuges), thus maximising reuse of the drilling fluid

(see Figure 4.5).

In the case of Option 1 (NADF), cuttings and associated drilling fluids from these lowerhole sections will not be discharged to the environment; they will be contained and

shipped to shore for treatment and disposal (see Section 4.6.5.2).

In the case of Option 2 (HPWBDF), the cuttings will be discharged to sea from the MODU.

Option 1 has been selected for the first B4-1 exploration well as the geological formations

downhole are currently not well known and NADF provides enhanced borehole stability.

Any subsequent wells in Block 4 will utilise either Option 1 or 2 depending on the findings

from the first well.

Table 4.2 summarises the drilling fluids proposed for the Block 4 drilling programme.

Table 4.2: Proposed Block 4 drilling fluids

Drilling fluid system

Option 1 – selected

for well B4-1 and

option for possible

future exploration /

appraisal wells in

Block 4



Casing

size



Hole

size



Hole

section

length (m)



36”



Jetting



72



Seawater



Seawater



20”



26”



683



Seawater, gel

sweeps, and salt

saturated pad mud



Seawater, gel sweeps,

and salt saturated pad

mud



13 5/8”



17 ½”



850



NADF



HPWBDF



9 5/8”



12 ¼”



285



NADF



HPWBDF



7”



8 ½”



1080



NADF



HPWBDF



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Option 2 - option for

possible future

exploration / appraisal

wells in Block 4



4-9



Option 1 (NADF): Ship to shore for treatment

and disposal. Option 2 (HPWBDF): Discharge

to sea (no cuttings skips used)



Figure 4.5: Non-aqueous drilling fluid circulation process and solids control onboard

the MODU

Source: Total E&P

4-10



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4.4.5



Drilling chemicals

Drilling fluids range from simple water or oil, to more complex water-based or oil-based

systems. Drilling fluid additives include weighting materials; viscosifiers; filtration control

additives; pH/alkalinity control chemicals; dispersants/deflocculants/thinners; surfactants

and emulsifiers; shale inhibitors; corrosion inhibitors/hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

scavengers; lubricants; biocide and lost circulation materials.

All drilling chemicals proposed for the Block 4 wells have been selected in accordance

with Total’s General Specification document ‘Environmental Requirements for Projects

Design and E&P Activities’ (GS EP ENV 001), which requires that chemicals are selected

according to the following criteria: lowest toxicity, lowest bioaccumulation potential and

highest biodegradation; and are selected in accordance with the pre-screening scheme

based on the OSPAR methodology in force (see Section 2.10.2.3).

The 36-in hole section of all Block 4 wells will be drilled using seawater only. Approximate

drilling fluid chemical usage for the 26-in. hole section of the Block 4 wells is presented

in Table 4.3.

Approximate drilling fluid chemical usage for the 17½-in., 12¼-in. and 8½-in. hole

sections for Option 1 (use of NADF) is presented in Table 4.4, and for Option 2 (use of

HPWBDF) in Table 4.5. Block 4 contingency chemicals have been listed in Table 4.6.

As stated previously, Option 1 has been selected for the first B4-1 exploration well. Any

subsequent wells in Block 4 will utilise either Option 1 or 2 depending on the findings from

the first well.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4-11



Table 4.3: Approximate chemical composition of WBDF to be used for the 26-in. hole

section of Block 4 wells

Estimated consumption per

drilling fluid type (t)



Product *



Function



HQ Band/

OCNS

Group/

PLONOR

**



Barite



Weighting

agent



E

(PLONOR)



Bentonite



Viscosifier



E

(PLONOR)



30



Caustic

soda



pH and

hardness

treatment



E



1.5



MIL BIO

SEA 98



Prevent

bacterial

degradatio

n



Gold



NaCl



Shale

inhibitor



E



XAN-PLEX

DSP



Viscosifier



Gold



MIL PAC /

MIL

STARCH



Fluid loss

reducer



E



Soda ash



Alkalinity

control



E



Sodium

bicarbonat

e



Fluid loss

control



E



Guar gum



Viscosifier



E



Potassium

chloride



Shale

stabiliser



E



Gel

sweeps



1



Salt

saturated

KCl mud



Estimated

consumption for

well B4-1

(t)



Estimated

consumption for all

three

possible

wells (t)



140



140



420



30



90



1.5



3.8



11.4



0.7



0.7



2.1



500



150



650



1950



1.5



1.5



4



12



5.5



5.5



16.5



2



4



12



0.2



0.2



0.6



2.4



7.2



37



111



Salt

saturated

PAD mud



0.8



2



2.4

37



Notes:

* Name of product may vary depending on supplier.

**See Section 2.10.2.3 for explanation of chemical ranking.

Information on MSDS, chemical packaging and number of packages provided in TEP Liban’s Chemical

Management Plan.



4-12



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Table 4.4: Approximate chemical composition of drilling fluid to be used for the

lower-hole sections of Block 4 wells (17½-in., 12¼-in. and 8½-in. lower-hole sections):

Option 1, NADF

Estimated

consumption for

well B4-1 (t)



Estimated

consumption

for all three

possible wells

(t)



Product *



Function



HQ Band/OCNS

Group/PLONOR

**



EDC 170 SE



Base oil



E



1300



3900



Barite



Weighting agent



E (PLONOR)



1000



3000



Calcium chloride



Shale inhibitor



E (PLONOR)



130



390



DELTA MOD



Viscosifier



Gold



2



6



DELTA GEL



Viscosifier



E



56



168



Ecco Block



Shale stabiliser



E



23



69



Ecco Mul E



Emulsifier



D



102



306



MAGMA GEL SE



Viscosifier



E



27



81



Lime



Alkalinity control



E



90



270



Notes:

* Name of product may vary depending on supplier.

**See Section 2.10.2.3 for explanation of chemical ranking.

Information on MSDS, chemical packaging and number of packages provided in TEP Liban’s Chemical

Management Plan.

EDC base fluid is a Group III non-aqueous drill fluid according to IPIECA’s OGP classification with a much lower

aromatic content than this category requires (Group III classification; <0.5% aromatic content and polycyclic

aromatic hydrocarbons lower than 0.001%).

Option 1 (NADF use in lower-hole sections) has been selected for well B4-1 and is an option for possible future

exploration / appraisal wells in Block 4.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4-13



Table 4.5: Approximate chemical composition of drilling fluid to be used for the

lower-hole sections of Block 4 wells (17½-in., 12¼-in. and 8½-in. lower-hole sections):

Option 2, HPWBDF

Estimated use (t)

Product *



Function



HQ Band/

OCNS Group/

PLONOR **



17½

in.



12¼ in.



8½ in.



Estimated

consumption

per well (if

Option 2

selected for

any future

wells)



Barite



Weighting agent



E (PLONOR)



93



65



117



275



Caustic soda



Alkalinity control



E



2.7



1.9



3.4



8



Soda ash



Alkalinity control



E (PLONOR)



2.7



1.9



3.4



8



Starch

Dextrid E

(or equivalent)



Fluid loss

control



E



19



13



23



55



Sodium chloride



Shale inhibitor



E (PLONOR)



280



196



350



826



Potassium

chloride



Shale inhibitor



E (PLONOR)



56



39



70



165



Cellulosic

polymer PAC-L

(or equivalent)



Fluid loss

control



E (PLONOR)



4.7



3.3



5.9



13.9



BARAZAN D

(or equivalent)



Viscosifier



Gold



6.4



4.5



8.1



19



BORE-HIB

(or equivalent)



Shale stabiliser



D



2.3



1.7



3



7



CLAY GRABBER

(or equivalent)



Shale stabiliser



Gold



0.82



0.58



1.05



2.5



CLAY SYNC II (or

equivalent)



Shale stabiliser



Gold



4.7



3.3



5.9



13.9



BARACARB 5 (or

equivalent)



Lost circulation

material



E (PLONOR)



14



10



17



41



BARACARB 50

(or equivalent)



Lost circulation

material



E (PLONOR)



14



10



17



41



Starcide

(or equivalent)



Biocide



Gold



1.0



0.7



1.3



3



RADIAGREENE

ME Salt

(or equivalent)



Ester base

lubricant for

WBDF



Gold



21



21



Notes:

* Name of product may vary depending on supplier. **See Section 2.10.2.3 for explanation of chemical ranking.

Information on MSDS, chemical packaging and number of packages provided in TEP Liban’s Chemical

Management Plan.

Option 2 (HPWBDF use in lower-hole sections) is an option for possible future exploration / appraisal wells in

Block 4.

4-14



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Table 4.6: Information on drilling fluid contingency chemicals for Block 4 wells

Product *



Function



HQ Band/OCNS

Group/PLONOR

**



Initially

mobilised

stock (t)



Notes



KWIK-SEAL F/M/C



Loss circulation

material



E



0



Mobilised only if

needed



LC LUBE PLUS



Bridging material



E



9.1



CHECKLOSS Plus



Bridging material



E



6.3



MIL SPOT II



Stuck pipe spot



A



3.1



Mil Carb 150



Bridging material



E



80



Mil Carb 50



Bridging material



E



80



Walnut plug or Mil

plug



Loss circulation

material



E



15



MD



Reduce bit balling



Gold



3.3



MICA F/M/C



Loss circulation

material



E



0



Seal or Mil seal



Loss circulation

material



E



15



Citric acid



Alkalinity control



E



2



WO DEFOAM



Foam prevention



Gold



1.7



Super sweep



Fibre sweep



Gold



0.1



PERMALOSE HT



Fluid loss reducer



B



10



DELTA LIFT



Viscosifier



B



18



Milgard XPR



H2S scavenger



Gold / silver



3.3



Used only if

equipment is

stuck in the well.



Mobilised only if

needed



Used only for

pills to improve

hole cleaning.

Recovered and

mixed with

cuttings.



In case of H2S it

will be mixed in

waste tank to

protect health of

rig personnel.



Notes:

* Name of product may vary depending on supplier.

**See Section 2.10.2.3 for explanation of chemical ranking.

Information on MSDS, chemical packaging and number of packages provided in TEP Liban’s Chemical

Management Plan.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4-15



4.4.6



Cementing

Cementing involves mixing a slurry of cement, cement additives and water and pumping

it down into the casing and up the annulus (void) formed between the casing and the well

bore. The cement sheath anchors and supports the casing string and protects the steel

casing from corrosion by formation fluids. It also provides a hydraulic seal that prevents

fluid communication between producing zones in the borehole and blocks escape of fluids

to the surface.



4.4.6.1 Cementing chemicals

Class G cement will be used for the Block 4 wells along with several chemical constituents

such as cement setting retarders and accelerators, surfactants, stabilisers and

defoamers. The type and amount of chemicals used may vary depending on subsurface

conditions encountered during the drilling programme. Table 4.7 presents the estimated

chemical use based on current understanding of conditions. Table 4.8 provides

information on contingency chemicals.

Table 4.7: Approximate chemical composition of cement for Block 4 wells

Consumption for

well B4-1

(t)



Estimated

consumption for

all three

possible

wells (t)



Consumption (t)



4-16



Product

*



Function



HQ Band/OCNS

Group/PLONOR

**



D907



Cement

powder



E (PLONOR)



Sodium

chloride



Salt



E (PLONOR)



D256



Fluid loss

control



Silver



D206



Antifoaming

agent



Gold



D155



Extender



E



D230



LT

dispersant



Gold



D275



Additive



Gold



D075



Silicate

additive



E (PLONOR)



D081



Retarder



D110



Retarder



D500



Gas

migration

control

additive



Gold



D077



Accelerator



E (PLONOR)



Barite



Weighting

agent



E (PLONOR)



Cement

for

WBDF

sections



Cement

for

NADF

sections



400



280



680



2040



25



7



32



96



45



8



53



159



1.8



0.5



2.3



7



119



24



143



429



6



1.6



7.6



23



0.2



-



0.2



0.6



-



7.5



7.5



23



Gold



-



0.5



0.5



1.5



Gold



-



0.7



0.7



2



-



7.5



7.5



22.5



-



8.3



8.3



25



-



30



30



90

Total E&P Liban Sal



Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Consumption (t)

Consumption for

well B4-1

(t)



Estimated

consumption for

all three

possible

wells (t)



Product

*



Function



HQ Band/OCNS

Group/PLONOR

**



Cement

for

WBDF

sections



Cement

for

NADF

sections



U066



Solvent



Gold



-



12



12



36



F103



Surfactant



Gold



-



12



12



36



D182



Additive



Gold



-



3.5



3.5



10.5



Notes:

* Name of product may vary depending on supplier.

** See Section 2.10.2.3 for explanation of chemical ranking.

Information on MSDS, chemical packaging and number of packages provided in TEP Liban’s Chemical

Management Plan.



Table 4.8: Information on cementing contingency chemicals for Block 4 wells

Product*



Function



HQ Band/OCNS

Group/PLONOR **



Initially

mobilised

stock (t)



D801



Retarder



E (PLONOR)



1.5



D095



Additive



E



0.9



D600G



Gas migration

control

additive



Gold



8.2



D111



Lost

circulation

additive



C



5



Notes



Used only if

heavy losses

are faced (well

integrity)



Notes:

* Name of product may vary depending on supplier.

** See Section 2.10.2.3 for explanation of chemical ranking.

Information on MSDS, chemical packaging and number of packages provided in TEP Liban’s Chemical

Management Plan.



4.4.7



Well logging

Well logging will be carried out to make a detailed evaluation (a well log) of the geological

formations penetrated by the well bore. Wireline logging will be performed by lowering a

logging tool (or a string of one or more instruments) on the end of a wireline into the well

bore and recording petrophysical properties using a variety of sensors. In addition,

logging while drilling (LWD) will be conducted with logging tools incorporated into the drill

string. LWD measurements provide drilling engineers with critical real-time well

information.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4-17



Wireline logging and LWD will involve the use of sealed radioactive sources8. Table 4.9

presents the sealed radioactive sources that will be used during logging of the Block 4

wells. It is anticipated that the same sources would be used for any future wells.

Table 4.9: Well logging radioactive sources

Sealed radioactive sources

Compensated spectral natural gamma ray. Activity: 0.0005 Curie, 0.0000185 GBq

Dual-spaced neutron tool. Activity: 15 Curie, 555 GBq

Spectral density logging tool. Activity: 1.78 Curie, 65.86 GBq

Thorium blanket (for calibration at surface). Activity: 0.0000017 Curie, GBq 0.0000629



4.4.8



Well test

It should be noted that a well test will not be undertaken for either of the Block 4

exploration wells, as it is anticipated that well logging will provide sufficient reservoir data.

If an appraisal well is drilled in Block 4, well testing (drill stem test) will be an option.

Drill stem testing involves deploying a series of tools known as a test bottom hole

assembly (BHA). A basic drill-stem-test BHA consists of a packer or packers, which act

as an expanding plug to be used to isolate sections of the well for the testing process,

valves that may be opened or closed from the surface during the test, and recorders used

to document pressure during the test.

During the well test, the zone to be tested is perforated and the formation fluids are

allowed to flow up the string to the processing equipment on the rig. Pressure-recording

tools in the BHA record the bottom hole pressure and temperature while the well is flowing

and when it is shut in. This data provides information on the likely production performance

of the reservoir.

Once on the rig, the gas and hydrocarbon fluids are generally separated, analysed and

flared off through the rig flare boom. Estimated well testing emissions for a potential future

appraisal well in Block 4 are provided in Table 4.11, Table 4.12 and Table 4.17.



4.4.9



Vertical seismic profile

During drilling of the Block 4 exploration wells, or subsequent appraisal well, there will be

an option to carry out vertical seismic profile (VSP) activities.

VSP refers to measurements made using geophones inside the wellbore and a source,

usually an airgun array, at the surface near the well. This methodology obtains images of

higher resolution than a surface-towed seismic survey.

At this stage, it is proposed that an airgun array of four guns (1000 cubic inches) would

be deployed from the MODU crane and activated 5 m below the sea surface. The

resulting sound waves will be recorded using receivers stationed at various depths within

the well bore, see Figure 4.6. It is estimated that 8–12 hours of VSP operations (2–3

hours of seismic shooting time, about 200 shots) may be required for each well.



Used to measure the formation properties by the interaction of reservoir molecules with radiation emitted by the

logging tool.



8



4-18



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Figure 4.6: VSP schematic

Source: Blackburn et al. (2007)



4.4.10



Abandonment

All wells will be plugged permanently and abandoned following standard procedures.

Typical abandonment activities include displacing the well with inhibited fluids (to prevent

tubular metal corrosion) and isolating all the zones of interest (formations containing

fluids) from the surface.

Cement plugs will be used to isolate the wells. The plugs will be designed to withstand

the conditions generated by the geological formations. All cement plugs will be pressure/

weight tested.

In each case, the drill string will be retrieved to the drilling rig and reused on future drilling

projects. The subsea wellhead will be left in place on the seabed in line with TOTAL

corporate standards, which state that wellheads in water depths more than 500 m will not

be recovered. A comparative risk assessment to support this decision has been

performed by TEP Liban. It assessed the impact of leaving the wellhead in place on the

seabed and established that the impact was low due to the following:





lack of fisheries in the area. Fishing is not permitted between 6 and 12 nm from

the shoreline for security reasons (B4-1 well site is 11 nm from shoreline) and

seabed trawling is not anticipated at such depths







currently no foreseen cable laying or pipe deployment in the wellhead area







wellhead will only have a height of 3 m, a radius of a few metres and be

detectable by sonar







wellhead location will be mapped and communicated to local authorities.



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



4-19



The challenges inherent to wellhead removal operations in deep water place a significant

amount of risk on wellhead removal operations (with an associated risk of failure) that

could in turn create more damage to the environment than the presence of the wellhead

itself. The risk assessment concluded that the environmental and societal risk of leaving

the wellhead in place is lower than that of removing it.

It should be noted that the actual wellhead will have no impact on the well integrity once

the well is plugged for abandonment, whether left in place or removed. Integrity will be

guaranteed by plugging the well with two independent barriers (cement plugs),

irrespective of the wellhead status.



4.4.11



Lifting and loading

Lifting and loading operations will be carried out at the MODU in order to transfer

materials onto the MODU from the supply vessels.

Cranes will carry out the lifting operations and all cranes and lifting equipment will be

certified and have a preventative maintenance system in place. Crane operators will also

be certified. Heavy loads will be transferred in a safe handling zone.



4.4.12



Upset conditions

Potential upset conditions on the MODU are described in the accidental impact

assessment section of the ESIA, see Section 6.5.



4.5



Shore-based operations and transfers



4.5.1



Logistics base

A logistics base for the Block 4 exploration drilling campaign will be established within

the Port of Beirut.

Main activities at the logistics base will be





reception of drilling and wells equipment and products







storage of drilling and wells equipment







storage of chemicals and hydrocarbons







lifting and handling operations







loading and back loading of supply boats







chemicals storage, drilling fluids mixing and transfer of logging equipment (sealed

radioactive sources).



Facilities at the logistics base will include



4-20







a pipe yard (outdoor storage up to 7000 m2)







warehousing (indoor storage minimum of 300 m2, 100 m2 for chemical storage/

dangerous goods and 6 m2 for cold room)







a 100-m linear jetty with 1000 m2 for laydown area and mobile cranes for vessels

operations







a drilling-fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities (1250 m2)







areas for offices (100 m2), canteen, vehicles, marshalling areas, cargo containers,

waste transfer and temporary storage (no waste treatment).



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The location of the logistics base, within the existing commercial Port of Beirut (Quay 3),

is shown in Figure 4.7. The area surrounding the logistics base is used for car storage

with no known flammable sources, hazardous chemical storage, etc.

Port authority approval for the logistics base is included in Appendix 4.2.

The logistics base will be built and operated by a contractor. It should be noted that no

heavy construction is involved as an existing covered storage area and warehouse will

be used. The rest of the logistics base is an open surface that will be fenced in order to

store pipes and some containers of equipment. There will also be some offices in

prefabricated containers.



4.5.2



Drilling fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities

This plant is designed to provide the offshore MODU with drilling fluids (drilling fluids

mixing plant) and cementing materials (cement bulk storage facilities).

The facility will be operated by two contractors – the drilling fluids mixing plant by the

drilling fluids contractor and the cement bulk plant by the cementing contractor.

The drilling fluids mixing plant will include the following equipment:





premixing tanks







premixing and transfer pumps – centrifugal pumps used for premixing and

transferring fluids







fluid mix hopper – allows additives to be added to the fluids







agitators – high-efficiency fluid mixing units







fluid storage tanks – used for the storage of fluids produced or returned from the

offshore MODU







centrifuge – used to remove barite from heavy drilling fluids







piping and flexible transfer lines – allows plant to conduct loading/unloading of

fluids from vessels and barite/bentonite loading/offloading.



The bulk facilities will include the following equipment:





bulk storage silos – used for the storage of bulk products such as cement







air compressor – low-pressure, high-volume compressors used to operate the

pneumatic bulk systems associated with the bulk plant







dust control – dust generated by the receipt and transfer of dry bulk materials will

be controlled







cutting bottle – used to cut and bulk big bags of cement or other materials.



Figure 4.8 shows the layout of the drilling fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities, while

Figure 4.9 presents a photographic example of such a facility.

The total storage capacity of the drilling fluids mixing plant is 6500 bbls.



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Figure 4.7: Proposed location of the logistics base in Port of Beirut (red rectangle)



4-22



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Figure 4.8: Schematic of the drilling fluids mixing plant and bulk facilities



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4-23



Figure 4.9: Photographic example of a drilling fluids mixing plant

Source: Total E&P



4.5.3



Use and storage of chemicals

The logistics base contractor will operate a dedicated hazardous materials storage area

within the existing logistics base warehouse (see Figure 4.10) that is cool, well ventilated

and free of any ignition source. Retention / drip trays will be provided that are 110% of

the volume of the stored chemical, or 25% of the largest volume in case of multiple

containers. Spill kits that are suitable for the materials being stored will be in place, along

with extinguishers, sand, emergency response procedures and hazard signage. Security

procedures will be enforced, and personnel permitted to handle hazardous materials will

have undergone appropriate training and will respect suppliers’ instructions (Material

Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)) and compatibilities / incompatibilities between materials.

It should be noted that project drilling fluid and cementing chemicals will be stored off site

at the service contractor’s warehouses (Aramex and Key Freight warehouses) in Beirut

Port. Management of these facilities will be in line with the service contractor’s chemical

and waste management plans. The drilling fluids mixing plant will have a small area

dedicated to the temporary storage of chemicals to keep a small stock for mixing needs.

Chemicals will be transferred from the warehouses to the logistics base by supply vessel.

All powder and fluid transfers to the supply vessels from the mixing plant will be by

dedicated transfer hoses and centrifugal pumps. Chemical products that are required at

the MODU (and have not been pre-mixed onshore) will be packed into mini containers,

or open cargo carrying unit baskets, that are DNV certified and appropriately colour coded

for safe transfer from jetty to supply vessel and supply vessel to MODU.

All chemical transfers will be accompanied by MSDS and hazardous labels.



4-24



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Maximum height of stored products: 5 m for liquids; 8 m for solids

Storage in cells of 5,000 m2, in small areas 600 m2, separated by 1.5 m each except for flammable products

where firefighting and prevention standards are applicable.



Figure 4.10: Schematic of dangerous good storage at the logistics base warehouse

Source: Fast Bollore, 2019



4.5.4



Waste storage and transfer

The quantity and duration of waste storage at the logistics base will be kept to a minimum.

It should be noted that the logistics base is not designed for permanent waste storage

and will only have a temporary ‘in-transit’ waste storage area.

Information on the waste streams generated and their treatment and disposal routes is

provided in Section 4.6.5. The equipment mobilised in order to collect, store and transport

waste, and the associated lifting apparatus, will be detailed in each contractor’s waste

management plan.

All project supply vessels will be certified and authorised according to International

Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG)

standards / requirements for sea transport of dangerous goods (hazardous waste,

including drill cuttings).



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4-25



4.5.5



Refuelling of vessels

One identified licensed bunkering company operates in Beirut Port. The method of fuel

transfer will be dependent on the timing of operations and the availability of services.

There are two options:





An auto propelled barge will come alongside the supply vessels when berthed at

the logistics base jetty inside the Port of Beirut, subject to prior authorisation.







A specialised tanker will carry out the refuelling of the supply vessels at a

dedicated area outside the Port of Beirut perimeter (anchorage area).



A dedicated oil spill response package will be available and will be deployed close to the

logistics base jetty for rapid deployment in case of a spill.

The MODU and support vessel will be refuelled out at the drill site from the supply

vessels. Vessels will have Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plans (SOPEPs) in line

with MARPOL 73/78 Annex I requirements.



4.5.6



Power and water supply

The logistics base will be connected to the electrical grid of the Port of Beirut. In addition,

there will be one back-up generator present on site (to be used only in case the electrical

grid power supply is unavailable and the port generators are also unavailable).

Generator details are as follows:





60 KVA rated







able to supply the entire base (including the drilling fluids mixing plant and cement

bulk plant)







open exhaust on top of the generator (~ 2m)







supplied from a 1000 L diesel tank







stationed together with the diesel tank within a 3000 L containment bund







located in utilities area on the base (remote from all activities).



In terms of water supply, the logistics base will be connected to the Beirut city water line

and fresh water will be stored on site in a storage tank/basin to supply large amounts of

water in a short period of time to the drilling fluids mixing plant.

Estimated water requirement at the logistics base is 2300 m3 for well B4-1 (2200 m3

required for drilling fluids mixing, 100 m3 required by logistics base personnel for washing,

etc).

It should be noted that the offshore MODU is self-sufficient in terms of daily water use

from onboard desalination.



4.5.7



Security

The logistics base will be fenced and equipped with 24/7 surveillance and security

guards. A pass will be required for access through the port gates, users will need to

undergo a safety induction and provide identification in order to obtain a pass. Control

and record of any movement (personnel and vehicles) will be carried out as well as POB

management.



4-26



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4.5.8



Decommissioning of logistics base

The duration of the logistics base will be dependent on the success of the B4-1 well and

any subsequent wells. Decommissioning of the logistics base is the responsibility of the

logistics base contractor (Fast Bolloré) and is specified in their contract. It has to be

returned to the port authorities in the same state that it was received. There will be a

formal handover of responsibility.

The drilling fluids mixing plant will be composed of tanks that will be set up for the

operations and then sent back abroad. It will not be a permanent construction. The drilling

fluids mixing plant will be demobilised after the drilling of the B4-1 well and remobilised

for any subsequent well. Demobilisation of the drilling fluids mixing plant is the

responsibility of the drilling fluids contractor and a dedicated expert will be at site to

properly decommission all equipment and leave the area as it was prior to installation of

the plant.

Drilling fluids from the B4-1 drilling activity will be temporarily stored inside the tanks of

the drilling fluids mixing plant and then exported to Egypt for reuse as per applicable

regulations (see Section 4.6.5.2). Any slops generated during cleaning of the drilling fluids

mixing plant and bulk facilities during decommissioning (which are considered as waste)

will be stored by the drilling fluids contractor, or their subcontractors, and then exported

in accordance with the Basel Convention.



4.5.9



Road transportation of waste and materials

Onshore transport of materials and waste will be limited within Lebanon.

Drilling and cementing chemicals will be delivered by vessel to the logistics base; the only

onshore transport of these chemicals will be within the boundaries of the port.

In terms of waste, incoming non-hazardous domestic waste from the MODU will be

transported by a locally approved waste collection company via a specialised truck that

can be mounted with Cargo Container Units (CCUs). One truck will be dedicated

exclusively for the project. The waste will be transported to the Karantina sorting facility.

The non-hazardous waste generated at the bulk facilities will be transported and

managed by the cement contractor’s subcontractor. More information on waste

transportation provided in Section 4.6.5.

For the transport of hazardous waste from the logistics base to the authorised treatment

/ disposal location, the waste will be collected by the company responsible for the

treatment / disposal facility in specialised trucks. It should be noted that certain hazardous

waste streams do not have treatment / disposal facilities in-country (e.g. drill cuttings).

These hazardous waste streams will be transferred direct from the MODU to the country

of treatment / disposal during operations, and to a storage facility during the

demobilisation phase before being exported, see Section 4.6.5.



4.5.10



Shore-based transfers

Two to three vessels will support the drilling operations from the logistics base. One

support vessel will be permanently at the drill site providing security and safety duties.

The other vessel(s) will be involved in transferring supplies, materials, equipment and

waste between the drillship and the logistics base. About 8–10 return trips are estimated

in total per week. Table 4.10 provides example vessel specifications.



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4-27



Transit routes of the supply vessel between Block 4 and the logistics base will be a direct

line between the two. Shipping lanes at the Port of Beirut are as per port guidelines and

navigation channels.

Helicopter transfers of personnel will take place from Beirut International Airport, with an

estimated 8-minute trip and around 10 return trips per week. Two helicopters will support

the operations, each with a capacity of 8 to 12 passengers. It is assumed that the

helicopter transit route between Block 4 and the airport will be a direct line between the

two.

Table 4.10: Example support/supply vessel specifications



4-28



Support vessel × 1



Supply vessel × 2



Type



Large PSV



Medium PSV



Medium PSV



Year built



After 2009



After 2009



After 2009



DP2



Mandatory



Deck cargo capacity



Approx. 900 m

1800 t min



Length



Approx. 90 m



Approx. 85 m



Approx. 85 m



Draft



7 m maximum



7 m maximum



7 m maximum



Tonnage (gross)



Approx. 3600 t



Approx. 3000 t



Approx. 3000 t



Estimated fuel

consumption per day

during support at well site



8.2 t



-



-



Estimated fuel

consumption per day

during transit



-



10t



10t



Fuel oil capacity



Approx. 1000 m3



Approx. 700 m3



Approx. 700 m3



Fresh water tank capacity



Approx. 900 m3



Approx. 500 m3



Approx. 500 m3



Drill water tank capacity



Approx. 1000 m3



Approx. 700 m3



Approx. 700 m3



Dry bulk tank capacity



Approx. 300 m3 in 4

tanks minimum



Approx. 250 m3

in 4 tanks

minimum



Approx. 250 m3

in 4 tanks

minimum



Liquid mud tank capacity



Approx. 1000 m3



Approx. 750 m3



Approx. 750 m3



Base oil capacity



Approx. 300 m3



Approx. 200 m3



Approx. 200 m3



Brine tank



Approx. 100 m3 with

mud capacities



Approx. 750 m3

with mud

capacities



Approx. 750 m3

with mud

capacities



Sewage treatment



Mandatory



Mandatory

2



Approx. 750 m

1200 t min



Mandatory

2



Approx. 750 m2

1200 t min



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) offshore exploration drilling EIA

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4.6



Emissions, discharges and wastes

The following sections provide estimated quantities of emissions, discharges and wastes

generated during drilling of the B4-1 well. To enable as full an assessment as possible of

a three-well programme, discharge estimates for the possible future exploration /

appraisal wells have been assumed to be the same as those for B4-1.

Notes are provided throughout this chapter to indicate where the selection of different

options could result in substantial change to the discharge estimates; in these cases, the

range of potential discharges are provided.

Predicted emissions, discharges and wastes for the whole of the Block 4 drilling

programme (assuming one further exploration well and one appraisal well) are provided

throughout and summarised in Table 4.17.



4.6.1



Air emissions

Atmospheric emissions related to the B4-1 exploration drilling campaign will be generated

by





engine exhaust emissions during MODU transfer to and from the drill site (likely

to be two days in total; however, a worst-case scenario of five days has been

used to calculate emissions)







exhaust emissions from power generation on the MODU during the well

programme (calculations based on a 60-day drilling programme9)







vessel engine exhaust emissions from support/supply vessel operations (based

on 10 supply vessel return trips to Port of Beirut per week throughout the drilling

programme (4-hour duration return trip), plus one support vessel permanently at

the well site providing security)







vessel engine exhaust emissions from transportation of NADF cuttings to Cyprus

for treatment and disposal (see Section 4.6.5) - Option 1 only (based on three

supply vessel return trips per week from Port of Beirut to Port of Limassol in

Cyprus throughout the drilling programme, 48-hour duration return trip10)







helicopter engine exhaust emissions during the transport of personnel to and from

Beirut International Airport (estimated at maximum 10 return trips per week

throughout the drilling programme, and approximate 20-minute duration return

trip)







operations at the logistics base. The base will be connected to the electricity grid

of the Port of Beirut. In addition, there will be one back-up generator present on

site (to be used only in case electrical grid power supply is unavailable and the

port generators are also unavailable). The calculations here are based on a

worst-case scenario of one generator used 24 hours a day during the drilling

programme.



There will be no incinerator on the Tungsten Explorer MODU therefore air emissions from

onboard incineration are not applicable to Well B4-1. For future wells it is possible that a

different MODU will be utilised for the drilling and may have an onboard incinerator. Air



The International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate (MARPOL 73/78) for the Tungsten Explorer is provided in

Appendix 4.3.

10 Transfer of cuttings is considered outside the scope of the EIA, calculations of air emissions included here for

completeness.

9



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4-29



emissions from onboard incineration on the MODU have therefore been included in

Tables 4.11 and 4.12 for completeness (for two possible future wells).

It should be noted that a well test will not be undertaken for either of the Block 4

exploration wells, as it is anticipated that well logging will provide sufficient reservoir data.

If an appraisal well is drilled in Block 4, well testing (drill stem test) will be an option. Air

emissions from well test of a possible future appraisal well have therefore been included

in Tables 4.11 and 4.12 for completeness.

Dust emissions from the drilling fluids mixing plant have not been included in the

emissions estimate as the products will be delivered and stored in sealed bags and a

dust collector unit will be used on the dry bulk silos to minimise dust migration to the

surrounding environment.

Table 4.11 outlines the projected emissions of criteria pollutants, including particulate

matter of 10 µm or less (PM10), sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile

organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the B4-1 drilling

programme.

Table 4.12 presents the estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for B4-1, based on

predicted amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)

generated.

Table 4.11: Estimated air pollutant emissions from B4-1 drilling programme (and the

full possible 3 well programme)

Activity



Total estimated emissions (t)

PM10



SOx



NOx



VOC



CO



MODU mobilisation/demobilisation



0.8



0.9



32.2



0.9



8.7



MODU power generation



4.4



4.8



168.0



4.6



45.6



Helicopter transfers



0.0



0.0



0.1



0.0



0.0



Support/supply vessel operations at well

site and during transfer to Beirut Port



1.2



1.3



38.5



1.6



5.2



Supply vessel operations transfer of

NADF cuttings to Cyprus (Option 1 only)



0.9



1.0



30.3



1.2



4.1



Logistics base operation



0.3



0.3



10.1



0.3



2.3



Total for B4-1



7.6



8.4



279.3



8.5



66.0



Total for three wells



22.8



25.3



837.8



25.5



198.1



Appraisal well test (if carried out)



0



0



2.7



11.7



14.8



MODU incinerator (if present on MODU

for two future wells) 11



0.4



0.0



0.0



0.0



0.0



Total for three wells (including well

test of appraisal well and incinerator

present on MODU for two wells)



23.2



25.3



840.5



37.2



212.9



11 Dioxin and furan emissions from any incineration on MODUs for future well drilling are insignificant. An emissions

factor of 3.5 mg International Toxic Equivalents (ITEQ) for dioxins and furans / tonne of waste incinerated combined

with the 14.4 t of waste predicted for a 60-day drilling programme gives a predicted emission of 50 mg.



4-30



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Calculations based on following fuel consumptions: Drillship during mobilisation/demobilisation approx.

92 t/day, 5 days max; Drillship during drilling programme (power generation) approx. 40 t/day, 60 days;

Supply vessels during transit 10 t/day, for 20 days; Support vessels at well site 8.2 t/day for 60 days;

Helicopter 0.297 t/hr, 12 hours per month, 2 months.

Emission factors: E&P Forum - Report No. 2.59/197 - Tonnes of Emissions per Tonnes of Fuel Used.

Total for 3 wells assumes drillship used for each well, same number of days for drilling programme, and

that NADF is used and cuttings shipped to Cyprus.



Table 4.12: Estimated greenhouse gas emissions from B4-1 drilling programme (and

the full possible three-well programme)

Total estimated emissions (t)

Activity



CO2



CH4



N2O



GHG (CO2

equivalent)



MODU mobilisation/demobilisation



1472



0.1



0.1



1504



MODU power generation



7680



0.3



0.5



7849



Helicopter transfers



27



0.0



0.0



28



Support/supply vessel operations at well

site and during transfer to Beirut Port



2089



0.2



0.1



2138



Supply vessel operations transfer of

NADF cuttings to Cyprus (Option 1 only)



1646



0.1



0.1



1684



Logistics base operation



487



0.0



0.0



488



Total for B4-1



13,401



0.7



0.9



13,691



Total for 3 wells



40203



2.2



2.7



41073



Appraisal well test (if carried out)



5935



93.8



0.2



9175



MODU incinerator (if present on MODU

for two future wells)



0.6



0



0



0.6



Total for three wells (including well

test of appraisal well and incinerator

present on MODU for two wells)



46139



96.0



2.9



50249



Calculations based on fuel consumptions and emission factors as per Table 4.11.

GHGs calculated in line with Total Guide and Manual ‘Estimation, Monitoring and Reporting of

Atmospheric Emissions (GM EP ENV 124)’, the emissions to be considered are the gases having a

direct greenhouse effect namely: CO2, CH4, N2O. Their respective weighting is given by the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2013-AR5): GHG (tCO2e – 100-year time horizon,

climate feedbacks included) = 1 CO2 + 34 CH4+ 298 N2O.

Total for 3 wells assumes drillship used for each well, same number of days for drilling, and that NADF

is used and cuttings shipped to Cyprus.



4.6.2



Drilling discharges

The following waste streams will be discharged from the MODU during the exploration

drilling campaign:





WBDF and cuttings



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4-31







cementing discharges







pipe dope







BOP testing discharges.



These are discussed in more detail below.

4.6.2.1 WBDF and cuttings

The first hole section of the well (36-in.) will be drilled using seawater only. The 26-in.

section will be drilled using seawater, gel sweeps and salt saturated pad mud. After the

drilling of the 26-in. section, water-based mud will be used to washout the hole. Drilling

chemicals used in the 26-in. section are all water-based and classified as environmentally

benign (Table 4.3). The cuttings and drilling fluids will be discharged at the seabed in the

estimated quantities shown in Table 4.13.

For Option 1 where the lower-hole sections of the well are drilled with NADF, the cuttings

will be transported to Cyprus for treatment and disposal (see Section 4.6.5.2).

For Option 2 where the lower-hole sections of the well are drilled with HPWBDF, cuttings

with associated HPWBDF will also be discharged to sea from the MODU. Table 4.13

provides estimated quantities.

As stated previously, Option 1 has been selected for the first B4-1 exploration well. Any

subsequent wells in Block 4 will utilise either Option 1 or 2 depending on the findings from

the first well. All wells will use seawater and water-based drilling fluids for the 36 and 26

in. upper-hole sections.

Table 4.13: Estimated quantities of water-based cuttings and drilling fluids

discharged per well in Block 4

Hole

section



Drilling fluids



Cuttings/

section (t)



Drilling fluids/

section (t)



Treatment/

disposal route



Option 1 (use of NADF in lower-hole sections)

36 in.



Seawater



26 in.



Seawater, gel

sweeps and salt

saturated pad mud



TOTAL



189



0



936



3488

+ 625 (washout)



1125



4113



Direct release

to seabed



No discharge of cuttings from lower-hole sections

Option 2 (use of HPWBDF in lower-hole sections)

36 in.



Seawater



189



0



26 in.



Seawater, gel

sweeps and salt

saturated pad mud



936



3488

+ 625 (washout)



17½ in.



HPWBDF



528



1350



12¼ in.



HPWBDF



90



945



8½ in.



HPWBDF



138



1688



1881



8096



TOTAL

4-32



Direct release

to seabed

Release from

MODU cuttings

chute (10 m

below sea

surface)



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If a second exploration well and an appraisal well are drilled, and both utilise Option 1,

the water-based drill fluid and cuttings discharges will total





(3 × 1125) 3375 t cuttings







(3 × 4113) 12339 t drilling fluids.



If these wells are drilled and the first two utilise Option 1 and the other uses Option 2, the

water-based drill fluid and cuttings discharges will total





(2 × 1125 + 1881) 4131 t cuttings,







(2 × 4113 + 8096) 16322 t drilling fluids.



If these wells are drilled and the first utilises Option 1 and the following two wells both

utilise Option 2, the water-based drill fluid and cuttings discharges will total





(1181 x 2 + 1125) 4887 t cuttings,







(8096 x 2 + 4113) 20305 t drilling fluids.



4.6.2.2 Cementing discharges

After drilling each hole section, cement is pumped down the casing and up the annulus

formed between the casing and the well bore. During this process, some excess cement

will be displaced into the water column and onto the seabed (20 in. casing only). The

approximate quantity of cement discharge per well will be 1 m3, up to a maximum of

10 m3 depending on the actual hole size.

During the drilling of the subsequent sections, a small amount of solid cement will be

drilled out from the top of each interval and comingled with the drill cuttings.

Any leftover cement from the drilling operations will be pumped downhole during the well

plug and abandonment activities therefore no waste cement will be generated offshore.

4.6.2.3 Pipe dope

Before any drilling activities, the rig crew will apply pipe dope to the drilling equipment

joints to prevent thread damage. Pipe dope is a lubricating grease that seals the joints to

stop them rubbing and wearing. A small amount of this lubricating grease will enter the

water column during drilling. The drilling programme for the first well will use the heavymetal free pipe dope Kopr-Kote (OCNS Category B).

4.6.2.4 BOP discharges

The BOP will be tested weekly for safety reasons, resulting in the discharge of small

volumes (3.5 m3) of BOP testing fluid (99% water, 1% Stack Magic) to sea. Stack Magic

is a biodegradable water glycol hydraulic control fluid (OCNS Category E). Total volume

of BOP testing fluid released during 60-day B4-1 well 28 m3. If a second exploration well

and an appraisal well are drilled using a similar well design, the maximum BOP testing

fluid to be released is estimated as 84 m3.



4.6.3



Other discharges

Routine wastewater discharges from the MODU and support/supply vessels include





sanitary wastewater







food waste



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4-33







desalination unit discharges







drainage (including deck drainage, bilge water, slop water and fire water)







cooling water







ballast water.



These are discussed in more detail below.

4.6.3.1 Sanitary wastewater

Estimated quantities of sanitary wastewater12 generated during the B4-1 drilling

programme are presented in Table 4.14 together with estimates for a three-well

programme. These estimates are based on





180 POB the MODU for the 60-day drilling programme







three support / supply vessels with 22 POB maximum for the support vessel, and

20 POB maximum for the two supply vessels, for the 60-day drilling programme.



Grey water will be discharged to sea (without treatment) from the MODU and vessels

providing no floating matter or sheen is observable. Black water will be treated onboard

in accordance with MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV prior to discharge (see Table 2.10).

Wastewater treatment sludge will be collected and maintained onboard, if there is a

requirement to empty the sewage sludge tanks (if they are full) sludge will be transported

to shore for treatment by a company approved by the competent authorities. The

International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate (MARPOL 73/78) for the Tungsten

Explorer is provided in Appendix 4.3.

Table 4.14 : Estimated quantities of sanitary waste generated during B4-1 drilling (and

the full possible three-well programme)



MODU (m )

3



Support/supply vessels (m3)

3



Total for B4-1 (m )

3



Total for three wells (m )



Grey water



Black water



1188



270



409



93



1597



363



4791



1089



Estimates based on standard multiplication factors of 0.025 m3 of black water per person per day and

0.11 m3 of grey water per person per day (factors provided by Total E&P Liban).



4.6.3.2 Food waste

In MARPOL ‘special areas’, such as the Mediterranean Sea, food waste may only be

discharged to sea following grinding in onboard macerators (particle size less than 25

mm) and providing the vessel / MODU is more than 12 nm from nearest land.



12



Onboard sanitary wastewater consists of two main streams: black water and grey water. Grey water as defined

in MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV is drainage from dishwater, galley sink, shower, laundry, bath and washbasin drains

and does not include drainage from toilets, urinals, hospitals and animal spaces, and does not include drainage

from cargo spaces. Black water is a term often used for sewage. Black water, which comes from onboard toilets,

consists of faecal matter, urine, toilet paper and flush water.

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As the B4-1 well site is only 11 nm from nearest land, macerated food waste will not be

discharged. In this case, it will be shipped to shore for treatment and disposal. If at any

time the support / supply vessels or MODU are outside 12 nm from nearest land during

the B4-1 drilling programme they will be permitted to discharge food waste in accordance

with MARPOL Annex V.

If future well sites in Block 4 are further offshore, discharge of macerated food waste will

be permitted.

4.6.3.3 Desalination unit discharges

The MODU and support/supply vessels will have an onboard desalination unit that will

produce freshwater from lifted seawater by reverse osmosis.

In terms of the MODU, it is estimated that around 750 m3/day of higher salinity water will

be discharged to sea from the desalination unit. The system will be dosed with the antiscaling chemical ‘HDC-ASI-ECO’. This organic product is inherently biodegradable and

classed as an environmentally sound product (see Appendix 4.4).

4.6.3.4 Drainage (including deck drainage, bilge water, slop water and fire water)

Deck drainage consists of wastewater resulting from rainfall, sea spray, deck and

equipment cleaning, rig washing and fire drills. The volume of deck drainage varies with

the amount of rainfall and differences in deck surface areas. Assuming a typical surface

area of about 10000 m2 for the MODU, 2400 m2 (×3) for the support/supply vessels and

an average monthly rainfall of about 160 mm13, the monthly deck drainage volume would

be 2752 m3 (a maximum of 5504 m3 for the 60-day B4-1 drilling campaign, and an

estimated 16512 m3 if all three wells are drilled). Deck washes may account for an

additional 3000 L per month, a total of 6000 L for the B4-1 drilling campaign (and an

estimated 18000 L if all three wells are drilled). There will be no discharge of free oil in

deck drainage that would cause a film or sheen or discolour the surface of the water.

Bilge water is defined in MARPOL 73/78 Annex I as water that may be contaminated by

oil resulting from issues such as leakage or maintenance work in machinery spaces. Any

liquid entering the bilge system including bilge wells, bilge piping, tank top or bilge holding

tanks is considered oily bilge water. Oily bilge water collected on the MODU and

support/supply vessels will be treated by passing through a separation system. The

discharge will be monitored to ensure that the oil in water content does not exceed the

MARPOL 73/78 Annex I discharge specification for oil in water of 15 ppm (see Table

2.10). Residual oil (sludge) will be collected and maintained onboard, if there is a

requirement to empty the sludge tanks (if they are full) sludge will be transported to shore

for treatment by a company approved by the competent authorities. The International Oil

Pollution Prevention Certificate (MARPOL 73/78) for the Tungsten Explorer is provided

in Appendix 4.3.

Slop water is made up of contaminated drilling and completion fluids, cleaning residue

from the rig pits, tanks, pipes and decking and contaminated rain and wash water. Slop

water will be treated onboard the MODU in a slop treatment unit. In the treatment unit,

flocculants will be used to coagulate the drilling fluid from the mixture. A membrane filter

13



Based on average rainfall data from December to February in Beirut (2008 – 2017).



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(0.05-micron pore size) will then be used to separate out the solids. The slops will be sent

to shore for treatment/disposal and the separated water discharged to sea providing the

oil in water content does not exceed 15 ppm. It should be noted that the flocculant

products used in this process will be bound to the separated drilling fluids and not the

water phase being discharged. It is estimated that slop water discharge will be

approximately 300 m3 per well (an estimated total of 900 m3 if all three wells are drilled).

The system is completely automated and uses an integrated oil-in-water analyser to

ensure the clean water meets the environmental requirements. If the system detects an

output near the discharge limits, it will automatically divert the water back to the feed tank

for re-processing. The data is saved to memory for tracking purposes. If liquid slops can’t

meet the 15 ppm after treatment, they will be transferred to Cyprus with the drill cuttings

for treatment. Slop water on the project support and supply vessels will be treated and

discharged in accordance with MARPOL Annex I.

The MODU will be equipped with a firewater distribution system, and the firewater pumps

will be tested on a weekly basis. A foam concentrate system may be in place to enhance

the effectiveness of the fire system’s deluge water spray. The foam concentrate system,

carbon dioxide firefighting equipment and dry powder extinguishers will only be

discharged in emergency situations. The fire-fighting foam on the Tungsten Explorer

MODU for well B4-1 will be Fomtec AFFF 3% A foam concentrate that will be used at 3

parts concentrate in 97 parts of water. Fomtec AFFF 3% A foam contains no

perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), see Appendix 4.5.

4.6.3.5 Cooling water

Drilling rigs use seawater for engine cooling. This filtered seawater passes through ducts

in non-contact heat exchangers where heat is transferred from a closed loop system that

circulates through the rig’s engines and pumps. The water is returned to the sea with an

elevated temperature.

On the MODU, seawater will be uplifted and discharged below the sea surface at an

estimated rate of around 105000 m3/day. The discharge temperature will comply with

Lebanese maximum allowable limits (Decision No 8/1/2001) and corporate requirements

for not exceeding 3°C above ambient 100 m from discharge point. The antifouling system

will be a marine growth prevention system (MGPS), which supplies an impressed current

to a copper anode. The copper anode produces ions that are carried away by seawater

into the system. The concentration of copper in the solution is less than 2 ppb, which is

sufficient to prevent marine life from settling.

The International Anti-Fouling System Certificate (International Convention on the

Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships, 2001) for the Tungsten Explorer is

provided in Appendix 4.3.

4.6.3.6 Ballast water

Ballasting, using untreated seawater, will be undertaken daily to maintain stability of the

MODU for effective drilling. Oil and chemicals will not come into contact with ballast water.



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The potential exists for introduction of invasive alien species14 in ballast water if the

MODU and support/supply vessels are mobilised from outside the Mediterranean, or if

the vessels are engaged in traffic between ports in the Mediterranean Sea area.

Ballast water exchange will be carried out in line with the requirements of the International

Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast and Sediments (2004), see

Section 2.10.2.2.

The International Ballast Water Management Certificate (Ballast Water Convention 2004)

for the Tungsten Explorer is provided in Appendix 4.3.



4.6.4



Discharges from logistics base

Discharges from the logistics base (areas without containment) will be limited to rainwater

runoff. This will only be permitted from non-contaminated areas such as the pipe yard,

jetty, marshalling areas and the warehouse area. For other areas where there is the

potential for spillages (liquid fluids mixing plant, dangerous goods storage area),

containment will be in place.

The drilling fluids mixing plant will have a concrete containment wall around the tanks of

1.8 m in height. This will be capable of containing up to 3000 bbls, equivalent to one and

a half complete storage tanks. If rainwater collects in the retention area it will be tested

(sheen test and / or retort) and discharged only if free of drilling fluid. Minor spills into the

retention area will be treated using spill kits. In case of significant spill volume, the drilling

fluids will be collected (by hose from the drainage points), fed back into the drilling fluids

mixing plant, and reused in the drilling operations. Any spills at the drilling fluids mixing

plant will be covered by the drilling fluid contractor’s Liquid Mud Plant Spill Prevention

Control and Containment Plan.

In the logistics base hazardous materials storage area, any spills would be treated using

spill kits. Soiled spill kits will be disposed of with the oily rags and grease hazardous

waste stream.

Sanitary waste generated from the offices and canteen/rest areas will be disposed of to

the port sewerage system.



4.6.5



Solid wastes



4.6.5.1 General

The waste strategy used by TEP Liban will be based on the following waste hierarchy:





prevent and avoid – avoid the production of waste and design products for a

longer life







minimise - reduce the amount of waste produced







reuse - use items as many times as possible, refurbishing / repairing whole items

or spare parts







recycle – recycle where possible and only after reuse







recover – e.g. incineration with recovery



Invasive alien species are plants, animals, pathogens and other organisms that are non-native to an ecosystem

and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health (definition provided by

Convention on Biological Diversity).



14



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4-37







disposal – dispose of residual waste in a responsible way.



TEP Liban has developed a Waste Management Plan for the Block 4 drilling campaign,

see Section 8.5.1.

Supply vessels will be used to transfer waste from the MODU to the onshore logistics

base. Responsibilities for waste management will be as follows:





waste from logistics base activities – belongs to and is managed by logistics base

contractor







waste from project support/supply vessels – belongs to and is managed by

logistics base contractor







waste from MODU operations – belongs to drillship contractor and is managed

by logistics base contractor







waste from drilling activities on MODU (NADF drill cuttings) – belong to TEP Liban

and managed by the drilling fluids contractor







reusable/recyclable chemicals packaging – belongs to and managed by drilling

fluids contractor and cementing chemicals contractor.



All wastes received at the logistics base will be logged by the logistics base contractor

and receipts generated that include waste type, quantity, waste-generating facility, and

date and time of receipt. The original receipt will be given to the supply vessel master, a

copy will be kept at the logistics base and a second copy of the receipt will be given to

the waste remover. A copy of all waste transfer documentation will also be provided to

TEP Liban.

Figure 4.11 shows the waste management processes onboard the MODU and the

transfer of waste streams to shore for recycling, treatment and/or disposal.

Table 4.15 presents an indicative list of non-hazardous and hazardous waste generated

by the drilling activity, disposal / treatment routes, estimated monthly quantities, and totals

for the B4-1 well and the full possible three-well programme.



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Figure 4.11: Waste management processes onboard the MODU and the transfer of wastes to shore for recycling, treatment and/or disposal



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Table 4.15: Indicative list of wastes, disposal contractors and treatment / disposal

routes, and estimated quantities from Block 4 drilling programme

Disposal contractor /

treatment



Monthly

estimated

quantities

(t unless

states)



Total

estimated

quantity

for well

B4-1

(t unless

stated)



Total

estimated

quantity for

possible

three-well

programme

(t unless

states)



9 m3



18 m3



54 m3



4.5



9



27



3.5



7



21



8.4



16.8



50.4



8.2



16.4



49.2



2



4



12



0.5



1



3



3.5



7



21



0.005



0.01



0.03



0.001



0.002



0.006



Cement contractor’s

subcontractor (Solution) –

recycled in MoE listed waste

facility



-



-



-



Fast Bollore transportation.

Sibline cement factory incineration



-



0.25



0.75



-



Few kgs

total



Waste



Domestic15 and non-hazardous waste16



Organic waste

(including food waste)



Metal

Paper/cardboard

(packaging)

Plastic

Wood packing



Ramco transportation.

Karantina sorting facility

(general domestic waste

belt) – composting facility

and landfill at Burj

Hammoud / Jdeideh Landfill

Ramco transportation.

Karantina sorting facility

(recyclables waste belt) –

recycling facility and landfill

at Burj Hammoud / Jdeideh

Landfill



Glass

Edible oil and grease

Absorbents, filters,

rags, uncontaminated

PPE

Alkaline batteries

(without mercury)



Ramco transportation.

Sold to specialised third

party for recycling and reuse

Ramco transportation.

Karantina sorting facility

(general domestic waste

belt) – landfill at Burj

Hammoud / Jdeideh Landfill



Ink cartridges without

hazardous substances

Non-hazardous cement

packaging

Hazardous waste17

Oily and greasy rags

Medical waste



Arc En Ciel transportation.



Domestic waste - generated by personal use

Non-hazardous waste - generated by industrial processes or activities

17 Hazardous waste - any waste that has one or more properties likely to render it harmful

15

16



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Arc En Ciel facility –

shredding and autoclaving

(30 mins at 130ºC) then

landfill at Burj Hammoud /

Jdeideh Landfill

NADF drill cuttings



Transported direct from

MODU to IESC in Cyprus for

See Table 4.16

treatment and disposal (see

Section 4.6.5)



Chemical wastes and

packaging (including

wastes from vessel

tank cleaning) during

operations



Transported direct from

MODU to IESC in Cyprus for

treatment and disposal

-



Chemical wastes and

packaging (including

wastes from vessel

tank cleaning) during

demobilisation phase



Transported to Lebanon and

stored in Ray Mondo

warehouse. Exported all

together to IESC in Cyprus

after demobilisation



Drilling slops



Transported to shore only if

MODU slop treatment unit

doesn’t meet 15 ppm oil in

water). In this case,

transported to IESC in

Cyprus for treatment and

disposal



Sludges from tanks (oil

sludges and sewage

sludges)



If there is a requirement to

empty MODU / vessel

sludge tanks (if they are full)

sludge will be transported to

shore for treatment by a

company approved by the

competent authorities



-



-



-



-



-



-



-



-



Note: There is no expectation to have other hazardous wastes such as electric and electronic waste, printer

cartridges, fluorescent tubes and lead, nickel-cadmium batteries. If such waste is generated it will be in limited

quantities. It will be managed by listed waste providers from MoE.



4.6.5.2 Drilling wastes

Non-aqueous drill cuttings and drilling fluids

In the case of Option 1, where NADF will be used for the lower-hole sections, the drilling

fluid/cuttings slurry will be returned to the MODU and the drilling fluids separated out

using the onboard solids control equipment (shale shakers and centrifuges, see Figure

4.5) so that they can be reused in the next hole section of the well.

The separated cuttings from these lower-hole sections, which will contain small quantities

of NADF, will not be discharged to the environment; they will be contained and shipped

to shore for treatment and disposal. Table 4.16 presents the generated quantities.

Non-aqueous-based cuttings will be stored on the MODU in specially designed cuttings

boxes equipped with sealed closure and certified release (see Figure 4.12).

Table 4.16 : Estimated quantities of cuttings and drilling fluids returned to shore

during drilling of B4-1 well (Option 1 only, NADF) (and for a 3 well programme)

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4-41



Hole section



Drilling

fluids



Cuttings /

section (t)



Drilling fluids

/ section (t)



Treatment /

disposal route



17½ in.



NADF



528



1350



12¼ in.



NADF



90



945



8½ in.



NADF



138



1688



Onshore treatment

and disposal of

cuttings and reuse

of drilling fluids



Total for well B4-1



756



3983



Total for a possible

three-well

programme if all

wells drilled using

Option 1



2268



11949



Figure 4.12 : Example cuttings box



The cuttings boxes will be transferred directly from the MODU to a treatment facility in

Cyprus (authorisation from Lebanese authorities for direct export granted, see Appendix

4.6). The skips will be transferred by project supply vessel in batches of 70 - 80 boxes to

Limassol Port (Cyprus), and from there to the IESC (Innovating Environmental Solutions

Center) treatment facility. IESC will treat the NADF based cuttings using a process known

as thermal desorption. This is a non-oxidising process to vaporise volatiles and semivolatiles through the application of heat. Treatment of the cuttings at IESC and

subsequent disposal will be in line with local and international standards. Appendix 4.7

includes permits and certificates for IESC. Transboundary permitting and transportation

will be compliant with the Basel Convention, requirements of the Lebanese MoE and the

receiving country (Cyprus).

The drilling fluids contractor will be responsible for the collection, segregation and

management of drill cuttings. They will be responsible for provision of cuttings boxes,

emptying and cleaning of cuttings boxes at the treatment facility and return to site,

specification of cuttings waste treatment, and collection of certificates of waste treatment

and disposal issued by IESC.



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At the end of the drilling campaign, the drilling fluids will be sent to shore, stored within

the drilling fluids mixing plant at the logistics base, and then transferred to the drilling fluid

contractor’s main eastern Mediterranean base in Egypt for re-use. It should be noted that

drilling fluids are classed as materials and not waste for this transfer.

4.6.5.3 Naturally occurring radioactive material

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) consists of materials, usually industrial

wastes or by-products, enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment such

as uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products such as radium and

radon. These natural radioactive elements are present in very low concentrations in the

earth's crust and can be brought to the surface through human activities such as oil and

gas production.

NORM can occur in production wells where formation water is extracted to surface

(usually mixed with hydrocarbons). For an equipment to be considered NORM

contaminated, the universal threshold is 5 cps or 0.5 μSv/h above background radiation.

Such radioactivity readings usually take prolonged periods of time to be reached as

NORM scales are deposited at a very slow rate on production well equipment.

The presence of NORM is not applicable to a two-month exploration well. Firstly, no

formation water is produced (the Block 4 exploration and appraisal wells will not go on to

production), and experience from previous drilling campaigns in this part of the

Mediterranean suggests that the probability of encountering such radioactive material in

the formation water is unlikely.

Despite the above, proof that the drill cuttings resulting from the Block 4 drilling

programme are not NORM contaminated is required by the Ministry of Environment in

Cyprus (for cuttings transferred to this country for treatment and disposal). A certified

Radiation Protection Officer from the drilling fluids contractor company will perform

radiation monitoring of the cuttings and cuttings skips before loading from the MODU onto

the supply vessel. A NORM survey double-check will be carried out at the arrival of the

cuttings skips at the IESC waste treatment facility.



4.6.6



Summary of discharges, emissions and wastes from entire Block 4 drilling

programme

Table 4.17 summarises estimated emissions, discharges and wastes for the entire Block

4 exploration drilling programme (assuming one further exploration well and one

appraisal well).



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Table 4.17: Summary of estimated emissions, discharges and wastes for entire Block

4 exploration drilling programme

Exploration well B4-1



Air emissions

(t)



Possible future

exploration well



Possible future

appraisal well

Similar to B4-1 with

addition of possible

well test emissions18,

see below:



PM10



7.6



SOx



8.4



NOx



279.3



NOx



2.7 t



VOC



8.5



VOC



11.7 t



CO



66.0



CO



14.8 t



CO2



13401



PM



5.5 t



CH4



0.7



1.3 t



N2O



0.9



Black

carbon



GHG

(CO2

eqiv)



13691



CO2



5935 t



CH4



93.8 t



N2O



0.2 t



GHG

(CO2

eqiv.)



9175 t



Similar to B4-1

Lower emissions if

Option 2 selected as

no transportation of

cuttings to Cyprus



Emissions above are

based on Option 1

(use of NADFs in

lower-hole sections

and transportation of

cuttings to Cyprus)



Lower emissions if

Option 2 selected as

no transportation of

cuttings to Cyprus



Cuttings and

drilling fluids

discharges



Option 1 selected:

1125 t cuttings

4113 t drilling fluids

(seawater, gel sweeps

and pad mud)



Same as B4-1, or if

Option 2 selected

1881 t cuttings and

8096 t of drilling

fluids (HPWBDF)



Same as B4-1, or if

Option 2 selected

1881 t cuttings and

8096 t of drilling fluids

(HPWBDF)



Cement

discharges



1–10 m3



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Pipe dope

discharges



Small quantities



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



BOP

discharges



28 m3



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Sanitary

wastewater

discharges



Grey water 15979 m3

Black water 363 m3



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Deck drainage

discharges



5504 m3

(deck wash 6 m3)



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Slop water

discharges



300 m3



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Well test emissions based on 3 days of flow: 24h at 20 mmscfd gas & 5 bbl/mmscf condensate; 24h at 30

mmscfd gas & 5 bbl/mmscf condensate; and 24h at 40 mmscfd gas & 5 bbl/mmscf condensate.



18



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4.7



Exploration well B4-1



Possible future

exploration well



Possible future

appraisal well



Desalination

unit discharges



MODU approx.

750 m3/day



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Cooling water

discharges



MODU approx.

105000 m3/day



Similar to B4-1



Similar to B4-1



Waste

(returned to

shore)



Non-hazardous waste

approximately 61 t

(plus 18 m3 organic

waste)

Hazardous waste

0.25 t

NADF cuttings 756 t

Drilling fluids 3983 t



Similar to B4-1

(if > 12 nm from

shore organic waste

discharged)

If Option 2 selected

no return of cuttings

to shore



Similar to B4-1

(if > 12 nm from shore

organic waste

discharged)

If Option 2 selected

no return of cuttings

to shore



Work force

Estimated work force numbers for the project are summarised below:



4.8







50 persons at the logistics base, mainly Lebanese nationals







180 persons onboard the MODU, mostly expatriate personnel, as specific skills

and experience will be required on the drillship that are not currently available in

Lebanon







20–22 persons on each support/supply vessel, mostly expatriate personnel with

significant offshore operations experience







6–10 helicopter pilots, mostly expatriate personnel with significant international

experience in offshore operations experience







small number of persons for helicopter passenger handling management, mainly

Lebanese nationals.



Schedule

The exploratory drilling programme is scheduled to begin in February 2020. The

programme, including mobilisation; drilling, casing and logging; and well suspension and

demobilisation will be two months for the B4-1 well. Table 4.18 presents the proposed

drilling schedule for well B4-1.

Table 4.18: Drilling schedule B4-1 exploration well

Activity



Estimated number of days



MODU mobilisation



1



Drilling operations

Pre-jetting activity on site (rig preparation, rig

positioning)



~10



Drilling



~33



Retrieval of equipment from the well, logging

(including any VSP), plug and abandon and

recover BOP



~17



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Activity



Estimated number of days



Drilling operations Total



~60



MODU demobilisation



1



The duration of any subsequent wells could be slightly longer, possibly 2–3 months by

comparison with the 2 months estimated for well B4-1. However, it is considered that the

discharge estimates provided in this chapter, which are based on operational periods,

are sufficient to allow the impact assessment for the whole programme to be completed.



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5



DESCRIPTION OF THE SURROUNDING

ENVIRONMENT



5.1



Introduction

This chapter describes the environmental and social baseline characteristics of the area

that could be affected by the project’s activities. It focuses on the physical and biological

components of the marine environment and the socio-economic conditions in the coastal

and offshore areas of Western Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean where Block 4 is

located.

The key information sources used to compile this chapter are listed in Section 1.8.5. A

full detailed environmental description is available in the Offshore Environmental

Baseline Study – Literature Review Report Blocks 4 & 9 (Keran Liban/Creocean, 2019a)

and the Offshore Environmental Baseline Survey (Keran Liban/Creocean, 2019b).

The offshore environmental baseline survey (EBS) took place between 19 March and 12

April 2019. The scope of the EBS was discussed and agreed with the MoE and the LPA,

and consisted of seawater and seabed sediment sampling, biota sampling

(microorganisms, phytoplankton, zooplankton and infaunal and epifaunal benthic

communities) and observations of other biota (e.g., marine mammals, turtles, sharks and

seabirds). The scope and the rationale behind the methodology employed and results of

the sample analyses is outlined in the relevant sections below. Survey locations within

Block 4 are shown in Figure 5.21.

Primary data collection for the social baseline study (SBS) began on 21 May 2019 and

has been ongoing throughout the scoping and EIA phases of the project.



5.1.1



Objectives

This chapter’s objectives are to











understand the environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage context in

which the onshore and offshore activities related to the exploration drilling will

take place

identify environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors in terms

of the potential impacts from exploration drilling activities

ascertain the sensitivity of the identified receptors for inclusion in the assessment

of impact significance (see Chapter 6).



Furthermore, the baseline data collected will serve to enable accurate monitoring of any

changes that may take place as a result of the project.



5.1.2



Receptors

As a result of the desktop data reviews, the strategic environmental assessment (SEA),

project description, impacts scoping, professional experience and stakeholder

engagement, several environmental and social receptors were identified for inclusion in

the study. These are shown in Table 5.1 for the environmental receptors and in Table 5.2

for the social receptors, along with their reason for inclusion. These receptors are



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described in the different sections of this chapter and where relevant, their sensitivity and

trends identified and summarised in Section 5.6. The receptors in Section 5.6 are

subsequently included within the impact assessment.

Table 5.1: Identified environmental receptors and indicators

Receptor



Reason for inclusion



Indicator



Air quality



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

air quality.



Offshore and onshore air

emissions



Climate change



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

climate.



Greenhouse gas emissions



Metocean conditions



Provide context for the physical

environment in which the

exploration drilling will take

place and the background

conditions for marine fauna

habitats. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

as oceanography and has been

expanded on in this EIA chapter,

Not included as a receptor for

impact assessment.



Wave action, wind, circulation,

current and tides, surface

temperature and velocity,

background underwater noise



Water quality



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

water quality that may indirectly

impact on other receptors. This

receptor was considered in the

scoping report and has been

expanded on here.



Temperature, salinity, pH,

turbidity, nutrient levels,

pollutant levels, bacteria



Bathymetry



Provides context to the study

area and marine fauna habitats.

This receptor was considered in

the scoping report and has been

expanded on here, however, it is

not included as a receptor for

impact assessment.



Bathymetry



Geology and

geohazards



Provides context to the study

area and offshore environmental

risks. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here, however, it is not included

as a receptor for impact

assessment.



Geological framework,

regional and local tectonic

framework, seismicity, gas

hydrates, over-pressured

zones, gas chimneys and gas

pockets, submarine landslides



Sediment quality /

composition



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

sediment quality/composition

that may indirectly impact on

other receptors. This receptor

was considered in the scoping



Physical descriptors and

pollutant levels



Physical environment



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Receptor



Reason for inclusion



Indicator



report and has been expanded

on here.



Seascape



Provides a visual context to the

study area, particularly along the

coast. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here, however, it is not included

as a receptor for impact

assessment.



Seascape



Biological environment



Benthos



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

benthic communities and

habitats. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here.



Offshore benthic communities,

coastal benthic communities,

coastal benthic habitats



Plankton



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

planktonic communities that may

have indirect impacts on other

receptors. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here.



Phytoplankton and

zooplankton



Fish



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

fish and fishery resources. This

receptor was considered in the

scoping report and has been

expanded on here.



Fish and fishery resources



Marine mammals



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

marine mammals. This receptor

was considered in the scoping

report and has been expanded

on here.



Cetaceans and seals



Marine turtles



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

marine turtles. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here.



Turtles



Seabirds



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

marine turtles. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here.



Offshore birds



Protected/threatened

species



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on



Fish and offshore birds*



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Receptor



Reason for inclusion



Indicator



protected or “threatened”

(classified vulnerable,

endangered or critically

endangered by the IUCN).

Terrestrial ecology



Protected areas



Logistics base operations may

have potential impacts on

terrestrial ecology.



Onshore fauna



Exploration drilling activities may

have potential direct impacts on

protected areas in the study

area. This receptor was

considered in the scoping report

and has been expanded on

here.



Nature Reserves, Ramsar

sites, UNESCO World

Heritage Sites, Specially

Protected Areas of

Mediterranean Importance,

Proposed Marine Protected

Areas, Proposed Deep Sea

Sites for Conservation, Key

Biodiversity Areas, Important

Bird Areas, Ecologically and

Biologically Significant Areas



*This receptor encompasses the species of fish and offshore birds that are protected and/or threatened

species. Protected and/or threatened species of marine mammal and turtle are included within the

overall marine mammal and marine turtle receptors.



Table 5.2: Identified social receptors1 and indicators



1



Receptor



Reason for inclusion



Indicator



Demographics



Provides context for political

disaggregation of impacts according to

the population groups. Not included as

a receptor for impact assessment.



Population trends (growth,

in-migration, age, sex,

ethnicity, religion,

urbanisation)



Education and

skills level of the

population



Potential need for employees and

requirement for training

More relevant for subsequent phases

of the project (if exploration drilling is

successful)

Stakeholder concern



Education services

availability and capacity.

Educational level of the

population



General

economy/industry



Potential impact on macro economy

Potential for supplying goods and

services to the project (stakeholder

concern)

Employment opportunities

(stakeholder concern)

Impact on onshore coastal area

(stakeholder concern)



Macro economy (trends,

small- and medium-sized

enterprises (SMEs),

employment, informal

economy)

Land-based livelihoods

(agriculture and natural

resource use)

Coastal small-and-mediumsized enterprises (SMEs)



All social receptors were considered in the scoping report and have been expanded on in the EIA report.



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Receptor



Reason for inclusion



Indicator



Fisheries



Potential impact on fisheries

(stakeholder concern)



Fisheries, activities and

supply chain, facilities,

aquaculture and sea

angling



Land-based

livelihoods

(agriculture/natural

resources

(ecosystem

services))



Provides context and background for

livelihoods. Potential impact on coastal

natural resources (stakeholder

concern). Receptor considered as

relevant only for non-routine

(accidental) events



Coastal agricultural

activities (crops and

livestock). Natural resource

use



Tourism



Potential impact on tourism

(stakeholder concern)

Impact on onshore coastal area



Tourism facilities, services

and activities



Potential impact on infrastructure



Utilities and transport

capacity and availability:

roads, railway, airport, port,

telecommunications,

submarine cables and

pipelines, electricity, water

and wastewater, waste



Shipping



Potential impact on shipping

(stakeholder concern)



Shipping activities, port

facilities



Public health



Potential impact on health of fishermen

and communities surrounding the port

(stakeholder concern)



Key health indicators,

health services availability

and capacity



Social conditions:

public safety and

security



Potential impact on safety and

security, including road safety at the

Port of Beirut



Security services

Crime and conflict

Vulnerable groups



Archaeological

and cultural

resources



Potential impact on archaeology

(stakeholder concern)



Cultural heritage and

archaeological resources

Cultural values and sense

of place



Infrastructure



5.1.3



Area of influence

This chapter considers the offshore and onshore area potentially affected by planned and

unplanned project activities and identifies environmental and social receptors. The AOI

for each receptor was identified based on the sector-specific “EIA Guidelines for Oil and

Gas Reconnaissance and Exploration Drilling Activities in Lebanon” (MoE and LPA,

2019) and encompasses the area likely to be affected by the following:

Project’s planned activities and facilities directly owned, operated or managed (including

by contractors) by project

The offshore area includes the drill site, the expected route and immediate surrounding

of the supply/support vessels between the drill site and Beirut Port and, if permission is

granted, the helicopter route from the drill site to Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport

(see Figure 1.4).



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Discussions are currently ongoing between TEP Liban and the government to determine

whether permission will be granted for the use of private helicopters to transfer crew from

the shore to the MODU (all helicopters in the country at present are for military use only).

The onshore AOI includes the Port of Beirut and its immediate surroundings, including

the expected transport routes to Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport.

Impacts from unplanned but predictable developments caused by project that may

occur later or at a different location and may impact on ecosystem services upon which

affected communities’ livelihoods are dependent

This includes the potential release of hydrocarbons from support/supply vessels (e.g.,

vessel collision), the drill ship (e.g., during transfer operations, tank leakage or, as an

absolute worst-case scenario, sinking of the drill ship) or condensate release from a well

blowout. Such a release could cover the coast of Lebanon from Beirut northwards, in

addition to a large offshore area and immediate onshore areas including the

municipalities and all communities within the coastal zone, who may depend on coastal

resources.

The AOI of unplanned (accidental) events includes from Beirut northwards, which is

driven by the oil spill modelling and has been defined to encompass all environmental

and social receptors.

At the beginning of the section for each receptor described in this chapter, the reasoning

behind the definition of the routine event AOIs is presented. AOIs have been described

on a precautionary basis, based on the worst-case scenario from any phases of the

exploration drilling activities (mobilisation through to demobilisation). Where it is

appropriate, a broader study area has also been described. The information from within

the study area is presented to give context to the data within the AOI for each receptor.



5.1.4



Sensitivity

At the end of each receptor section, there is a short justification of the assessment of the

receptor’s sensitivity. These assessments are based on the criteria in the Introduction

chapter (see Table 1.3 in Section 1.8.7.2).



5.1.5



Assumptions and data considerations

The EBS was conducted during spring 2019 and was intended to provide a snapshot of

the baseline environmental conditions in Block 4 for seabed sediment and biota, seawater

quality and biotic, marine megafaunal and ornithological characteristics.

The scope of the survey presents some limitations on the representativeness of the

results; the survey was undertaken over a limited period during only the spring of 2019

and used a blockwide approach to survey both Blocks: 4 and 9.

Seawater quality and plankton sampling was undertaken at selected locations throughout

the block; however, it is recognised that seasonal differences in the characteristics of the

eastern Mediterranean dictate that the samples collected provide only a snapshot of the

annual range of conditions.

Marine mammal monitoring by both visual and acoustic means was carried out during

the survey. Visual monitoring could only be undertaken during daylight hours, although

passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was also carried out during day and night to prevent



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gaps in survey coverage. While few animals were detected during surface visual

monitoring and no detections were made using the PAM equipment, it is recognised that

the waters of the eastern Mediterranean are of importance for marine mammals and other

species of marine megafauna. PAM equipment has some limitations including that it can

be masked by other background noise sources, and that it really only targets certain

species such as small cetaceans or those with particularly high rates of vocalisation. As

such, the fact that there were no detections during the survey does not indicate that

marine mammal species were not present.

Visual monitoring for seabirds and aggregations of fish was also undertaken. This method

presents similar limitations to the marine mammal observations; results obtained were

not necessarily representative of the true populations in Block 4. A dedicated survey over

a longer period in which transects are surveyed would provide a more representative

picture of these populations. It is recognised, therefore, that the survey for these

receptors was limited and that the abundance of marine mammals, seabirds, reptiles and

fish populations of Block 4 cannot be interpreted solely based on the results of the

offshore EBS. Equally, it is recognised that the impacts expected from the drilling work

may not warrant such an extensive survey.

Recognising the limitations of the EBS, further information has been included in the

baseline description from other sources such as, the regional strategic environmental

impact assessment, other regional oceanographic/marine biological programmes, as well

as academic and government publications. Where sampling and survey activities were

only able to provide information that gave a snapshot of environmental conditions, these

additional data sources have sought to put this information into a more spatial or temporal

context in order to provide a robust baseline environmental description against which

impacts can be assessed.

Environmental sensitivities are conservative estimates due to the paucity of

comprehensive data sets. Comprehensive data sets on marine megafauna (fish, marine

mammals, turtles and seabirds) usage of the Lebanese coast and offshore waters and

on benthic and planktonic communities are lacking and so research into the wider eastern

Mediterranean area was carried out to provide insight into the region.

The uncertainties and limitations of the SBS are discussed in Section 5.5.2.



5.2



Geographical context

Lebanon is a country in Western Asia between latitudes 33˚ and 35˚N and longitudes 35˚

and 37˚E. The country’s total area is 10,452 km2, of which 10,230 km2 is land. The

coastline on the Mediterranean Sea is about 225 km in length. Figure 5.1 shows the

location of Lebanon in its regional context.

The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) shares maritime borders with Syria, Cyprus and

Occupied Palestine.

Lebanon’s waters have been divided into ten exploration blocks, as shown in Figure 5.2.

Block 4 is offshore northern Lebanon, with its eastern boundary about 6 km from the

nearest coastline, and its south-eastern corner boundary just north of Beirut. It is within

the Levant Basin, a large offshore basin, which contains the Leviathan gas field. The

Levant Basin encompasses a large part of the offshore area in the eastern



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Mediterranean, covering the area offshore of the eastern coastline from southern Turkey

in the north to the eastern coast of Egypt in the south (Figure 5.3).



Figure 5.1: Lebanon’s location in the regional context



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Figure 5.2: Exploration blocks and geographic features of the sea basin off the coast

of Lebanon

Source: TEP Liban



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Figure 5.3: Levant Basin



Within Block 4, a priority area has been designated for exploration drilling with the first

exploration well, B4-1, in the east of this area (Figure 5.4). The B4-1 well location is within

Lebanon’s territorial waters (<12 nautical miles, nm/22.48 km) from the coast. Any further

wells (exploration or appraisal) assessed within this EIA will also be in the priority area.



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Figure 5.4:Block 4, the priority area and the B4-1 well site location

Source: TEP Liban



5.3



Physical environment



5.3.1



Metocean conditions



5.3.1.1 Climate regime

Lebanon has a Mediterranean climate with two main seasons:





long, hot, dry summers (generally April through October) with temperatures

ranging from a minimum 12.7°C in April to a maximum of 32.9°C in August. The



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relative humidity ranges from 34.6% to 99.4% during the same time period

(MeteoGroup, 2019).





short, cool, rainy winters (generally November through March) with temperatures

ranging from 6.5 to 28.4°C and relative humidity ranging from 27.6% to 99.4%

during those months (MeteoGroup, 2019).



Air quality

The AOI for offshore air quality is the proposed location of the wells and the transit

corridors for the supply/support vessels. The AOI is limited to the immediate areas (a few

hundred metres) of the project as impacts on air quality are localised and vessels

emissions are regulated by MARPOL. The study area encompasses the eastern

Mediterranean to give context to the sensitivity of the AOI.

Much of the eastern Mediterranean region is exposed to long-range transport of air-borne

pollutants, mainly from southern and eastern Europe and the Central Mediterranean

(CSA International, 2011). Although Block 4 is situated offshore, it may still be exposed

to such pollutants.

Long-range transport of industrial and urban plumes tends to be highest in summer as a

result of the regional/synoptic circulation, reduced removal processes, stable conditions,

trade winds and strong solar radiation leading to photochemical pollution (CSA

International, 2011). Studies have shown that long-range plumes of reduced air quality

can retain their characteristics for several days (Artelia, 2014)

Moreover, the eastern Mediterranean can also be affected by the presence of

particulates, mainly from dust storms, transported from the Sahara during the transient

seasons of spring and autumn (Michaelides et al., 1999). A secondary source of dust

entering the eastern Mediterranean is also evident from Syria and Turkey, when lowpressure weather systems are located over the Middle East (CSA International, 2011).

Considering the proximity of Block 4 to Cyprus, environmental studies carried out in

Cyprus have been useful in understanding the dispersion of pollutants, ozone

concentrations and sulphate concentrations across the Mediterranean region. Ozone

concentrations are high along the Lebanese coastline, particularly in the morning, while

sulphate concentrations are relatively low but higher at midnight than at noon.

Onshore air quality

There are plans to develop an onshore logistics base within the commercial port area of

Beirut, which will act as a support for the offshore drilling campaign for Block 4. This

section therefore describes onshore air quality.

The AOI for onshore air quality is the immediate area (a few hundred metres) of the

logistics base as emissions are predicted to be limited and local. The study area

encompasses air quality throughout Lebanon.

Before 2001, Lebanon lacked a proper air quality monitoring system and only academic

sectors measured air quality on a short-term basis for research purposes. Until 2012,

reported emissions were those prepared under the National Communications for the

United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), with emphasis

on greenhouse gases (GHGs) (MoEW, 2019).



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The Lebanese Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN) was launched in 2013 by the

Ministry of Environment (MoE). Pre-assessments of the existing situation and technical

requirements by the European Union (EU) determined the location of 15 monitoring

stations which are in main cities along the coastline as shown in Figure 5.5 (MoE, 2017;

MoEW, 2019). These stations were constructed between 2013 and 2017, and an

additional three stations were built in the Urban Community of Al Fayhaa in North

Lebanon (Tripoli, Mina and Beddawi).



Figure 5.5: Distribution of air quality monitoring stations

Source: MoE (2017) in MoEW (2019)



Beirut is known to experience occurrences of high air pollution because of its enclosed

nature, in addition to the pollutants that are transported from eastern Europe through

steady winds and strong solar radiation (Waked et al., 2013). Average annual

concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and nitric oxide (NO) in Beirut exceed World

Health Organization (WHO) guidelines.

Monitoring pollutants including ground-level ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2),

particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and

benzene can give an overview of ambient air quality. According to the Strategic

Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Exploration and Production Activities Offshore

Lebanon, the existing monitoring data and results obtained from the AQMN indicate the

following (MoEW, 2019):



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O3: Levels tend to be the highest in the summer as a result of the meteorological

conditions. Exceedances have been witnessed in Lebanon, with higher values in

Baalback (Bekaa plain) than Beirut (coastal).

NO2: Several field campaigns to measure NO2 took place between 2004 and

2013, with NO2 consistently monitored from 2013. Levels exceeded WHO

guidelines of 40 µg/m3 but were still within national ambient air quality standards

(NAAQS) of 100 µg/m3 (Decision 52/1).

PM10 and PM2.5: Studies over the years have concluded that PM levels within the

Greater Beirut area always exceed annual WHO guidelines for PM10, which is

20 µg/m3, and PM2.5, which is 10 µg/m3. Exceedance of the Lebanese NAAQS

was also identified for PM10 levels, which is 80 µg/m3. In Tripoli, PM10 and PM2.5

levels recorded at the Tripoli Urban Centre since 2000 exceeded WHO

standards.

SO2: Low SO2 concentrations of 8 µg/m3 levels were detected when measured

from December 2004 to July 2006 within Beirut, which is compliant with NAAQS

(80 µg/m3) (Decision 52/1). In 2014, levels identified were compliant with the

Lebanese standards for the different averaging periods.

CO: Low concentrations of CO, even at peak hours, were identified between

December 2004 and July 2006 and again starting in 2013. All levels were

compliant with NAAQS (Decision 52/1).

Benzene: In the summer of 2011 and winter of 2012, measurements of benzene

were taken in suburban Beirut showing an average level of 2 µg/m3. This is

compliant with NAAQS (16.2 µg/m3). Despite compliance, the levels found are

still linked with a lifetime risk of leukaemia when found in excess according to

WHO standards (less than 1/100,000).



Certain contaminants such as NO2, PM and O3 exceed the standards as a result of air

pollution in Lebanon, predominantly from the industrial and transport sector and from

electricity generation. Levels are highest and more concentrated in the main coastal cities

such as Beirut, Zouk Mikael, Jiyeh and Chekka. In Lebanon, main contributors to GHG

emission are as follows:











56% from the energy sector

23% from the transport sector

10% from industrial processes

7% from the waste sector.



Figure 5.6 and Figure 5.7 summarise the previous monitoring results in comparison with

WHO guidelines and Lebanese air quality standards (MoE, 2017).



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Figure 5.6: NO2 annual values over the Greater Beirut area

Source: MoE (2017)



Figure 5.7: Particulate matter annual values over the Greater Beirut area

Source: MoE (2017)



It has been reported that onshore, CO and SO2 levels in Lebanon are not of concern

(MoEW, 2019). However, O3 levels are high (MoEW, 2019), but not likely to be affected

by offshore oil and gas drilling activities. PM10 and PM2.5 levels also tend to be high

(MoEW, 2019) and influenced by dust storms from the Sahara which contain high levels

of particulate matter as discussed. As such, given the open nature of the drilling site, it is

not expected that impacts to air quality would be experienced, and given this,

measurements of air quality in Block 4 were not collected during the offshore baseline

survey.

Air quality sensitivity

Based on the offshore nature of most of the work and the high levels of air pollution

onshore of PM10, PM2.5 and O3, the sensitivity of air quality to the project is low (2) (for

definitions of sensitivity see Table 1.3 in Section 1.8.7.2). Offshore air quality is affected

by long-range air pollution from various sources and is also of low sensitivity.

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Climate change

The Earth acts like a greenhouse, whereby energy from the sun enters the atmosphere,

some is radiated back into space and some reaches the surface but 90% is absorbed by

greenhouse gases and radiated back towards the surface (NASA, 2019). If there was no

greenhouse effect, most of the energy would be released from the atmosphere and the

planet would be too cold to support life as we know it.

Greenhouse gases include water vapour, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs):













Water vapour is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but causes rain as it warms,

so it has a feedback mechanism.

CFCs are industrial compounds that are regulated in their production by

international agreements to protect the ozone layer.

Nitrous oxides are powerful greenhouse gases, produced predominantly by soil

cultivation practices using fertilisers and by burning biomass.

Methane comes from natural and human sources such as livestock and is a more

effective greenhouse gas but less abundant than carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide has a long residual life in the atmosphere and is caused by natural

and human sources but predominantly by burning fossil fuels (NASA, 2019).



Rising levels of CO2 emissions are seen as the driving force for climate change. These

originate from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes which contributed about

78% of the total GHG emission increase from 1970 to 2010 (IPCC, 2014).

Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on Lebanon in the coming

decades, costing the country an estimated $140 million in losses by 2040 (USAID, 2016).

Particular risks to Lebanon are





sea level rises along the coast where 85% of people live high temperatures

reducing tourism in winter and summer







falling agricultural yields due to higher temperatures and lower rainfall.



Greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 in Lebanon were 24.34 MtCO2e or 0.05% of global

GHG emissions. Most of these emissions were from the electricity and heat sector (21.14

MtCO2e) and mostly from oil power plants. The MoEW has a policy of moving towards

gas power stations and reducing the use of oil (MoEW, 2010).

There is currently no major legislation in respect to climate change in Lebanon, apart

from law 738/2006 relating to the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations

Framework Convention on Climate Change. Lebanon signed the Paris Agreement in April

2016 and is in the process of ratifying it (MoE/UNDP/GEF, 2017). Lebanon submitted its

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement in 2015, with

unconditional targets of reducing GHG emissions by 15% compared to the business as

usual scenario by 2030 and generating 15% of the power and heat demand in 2030

through renewables, and conditional targets of reducing GHG emissions by 30%

compared to the business as usual scenario by 2030 and generating 20% of the power

and heat demand in 2030 through renewables (see Table 2.2).

Climate change is considered an issue for Lebanon and on a global scale, therefore

sensitivity has been scored as medium (3).



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5.3.1.2 Wave action and wind

The study area for wave action and wind encompasses the Lebanese coastline, with

more detail provided for the area off Beirut. This study area provides context for Block 4,

with no AOI specified as the project will not affect these components of the environment.

Wave action

The maximum average monthly wave height off Beirut is 1.41 m. The average significant

wave height over 12 months is greatest in January and February and drops steadily until

June (Figure 5.8). Most waves travel from west to east (Figure 5.9). More forceful waves

are expected in windier areas, specifically in northern Lebanon, where average offshore

winds were found to be strongest with speeds reaching 7 m/sec (Aoun et al., 2013).



Figure 5.8: Average monthly significant wave heights offshore Beirut

Source: Aoun et al. (2013)



Based on the data recorded by the Tripoli Environment and Development Observatory

(TEDO) between 2012 and 2017, the highest waves in northern Lebanon were mostly

recorded during storm activity in the winter season, reaching around 1.1 m between

January and March (TEDO-Tripoli Weather station).

The MeteoGroup modelled metocean conditions at a single location in Block 4

(34°02’24’’N – 035°19’48’’E) in 1510 m water depth to be representative of the conditions

at the B4-1 well site (2019). Table 5.3 presents the data sources used by MeteoGroup to

model the wave, wind, current, sea temperature and salinity parameters. The MG

Metocean wave hindcast data set was used to derive wave extremes (MeteoGroup,

2019).

The percentage occurrence of significant wave height is presented in Table 5.4.

Significant wave height ranged from 0 to 6.1 m with an average monthly significant wave

height of 0.7 m, which is less than the average found off of Beirut.

The yearly average of significant wave height and direction measured at Block 4 is

presented in Figure 5.10. The majority (>75%) of the waves come from the west and

travel to the east, which is similar to those measured off Beirut.

Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



5-17



Figure 5.9: Wave rose for 2003 (significant wave height) offshore Beirut

Source: Aoun et al. (2013)



Table 5.3: Data sources used by MeteoGroup for Block 4 metocean modelling

Source of data



Parameter



CYCOFOS



7-year time series (2009–2016) of current data



CSFR from NOAA



30-year time series (1979–2017) of current

and wind data



ERA-Interim from ECMWF



20-year time series (1989–2017) of wind and

wave data



MG Metocean wave hindcast



26-year time series (1991–2017) of wave data



MG Metocean regional wave hindcast



26-year time series (1991–2017) of wave data



HYCOM



20-year time series (1992–2012) of current

data



OSCAR



20-year time series (1992–2012) of current

data



ESA



20-year time series (1992–2013) of wave and

wind data



MeteoGroup historical database (GTS

in-situ stations)



16-year time series (1996–2016) of wind data



Mediterranean Forecasting System from

NEMO



28-year time series (1987–2015) of sea

temperature and salinity



Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



5-18



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Table 5.4: Percentage occurrence of significant wave height (m) measured in Block 4

Percentage occurrence of

significant wave height (m)

7.5 - 8.0

7.0 - 7.5

6.5 - 7.0

6.0 - 6.5

5.5 - 6.0

5.0 - 5.5

4.5 - 5.0

4.0 - 4.5

3.5 - 4.0

3.0 - 3.5

2.5 - 3.0

2.0 - 2.5

1.5 - 2.0

1.0 - 1.5

0.5 - 1.0

0.0 - 0.5

TOTAL

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Standard deviation



Jan



Feb



Mar



Apr



May



Jun



Jul



Aug



Sep



Oct



Nov



Dec



All year



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.7

1.1

1.9

3.8

7.0

15.9

29.1

39.8

100.0

0.0

0.9

6.1

0.7



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.7

2.8

4.5

7.5

14.4

28.8

38.6

100.0

0.0

0.9

6.0

0.8



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.3

0.9

1.5

3.0

6.3

15.4

31.2

41.2

100.0

0.0

0.8

5.0

0.6



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.5

1.2

5.1

15.9

33.2

43.9

100.0

0.0

0.7

4.2

0.5



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.4

2.0

10.8

34.8

52.0

100.0

0.1

0.6

3.0

0.4



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9

10.1

47.5

41.5

100.0

0.1

0.6

2.2

0.3



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

9.5

62.8

27.4

100.0

0.1

0.7

2.0

0.2



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

4.9

56.4

38.5

100.0

0.1

0.6

1.7

0.2



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.7

6.9

38.9

53.4

100.0

0.0

0.5

2.2

0.3



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

1.5

5.3

26.1

66.8

100.0

0.0

0.5

3.0

0.3



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.9

2.1

3.7

8.4

22.2

61.9

100.0

0.0

0.6

5.2

0.6



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.3

0.5

1.2

2.3

3.7

6.1

12.4

26.9

46.3

100.0

0.0

0.8

6.1

0.8



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.8

1.6

3.4

10.8

36.6

45.9

100

0.0

0.7

6.1

0.5



Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



All year

NORTH



100%

75%

50%

25%

WEST



EAST



Hs (m)



SOUTH



643210-



8

6

4

3

2

1



Figure 5.10: Wave rose for measured for the year in Block 4

Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



5-19



Wind

Results of wind speed and direction models (shown in Figure 5.11 to Figure 5.14) show

that there is a variation in wind speed pattern and wind direction (especially at Tyre, the

centre of directional change) between the north and the south of the Levantine coast of

Lebanon (Safadi, 2016). This also applies to offshore areas up to 40 km off the coast,

especially in the morning, but also in the evening during the summer season. No violent

winds are recorded even in winter, during which the strongest recorded wind did not

exceed 4 on the Beaufort scale. The generated models nevertheless show some

variations in wind direction patterns. The known predominant winds during May and

October are north-westerly, southerly and south-westerly. A noticeable difference in wind

direction is observed between the northern and southern coast, especially at Tyre

(Safadi, 2016).

Percentage occurrence of wind speed and direction were modelled for Block 4 at the

single point metocean station. The CFSR dataset was used to derive wind extremes

(MeteoGroup, 2019). Table 5.5 presents the results of the percent occurrence of wind

speed (m/s) and Figure 5.15 shows the wind direction for the year (MeteoGroup, 2019).

Wind speeds ranged from 0 to 21.0 m/s with an average of 4.4 m/s (Table 5.5). Wind

direction was predominantly from the southwest (Figure 5.15).



5-20



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Figure 5.11: Wind speed and direction models for autumn: morning (left) and afternoon (right)

Source: Safadi (2016)

Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



5-21



Figure 5.12: Wind speed and direction models for winter: morning (left) and afternoon (right)

Source: Safadi (2016)



5-22



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Figure 5.13: Wind speed and direction models for spring: morning (left) and afternoon (right)

Source: Safadi (2016)

Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



5-23



Figure 5.14: Wind speed and direction models for summer: morning (left) and afternoon (right)

Source: Safadi (2016)

5-24



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Table 5.5: Percentage occurrence of wind speed measured in Block 4

Percentage occurrence of wind

speed (m/s)

20 - 21

19 - 20

18 - 19

17 - 18

16 - 17

15 - 16

14 - 15

13 - 14

12 - 13

11 - 12

10 - 11

9 - 10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

TOTAL

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Standard deviation



Jan



Feb



Mar



Apr



May



Jun



Jul



Aug



Sep



Oct



Nov



Dec



All year



0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.9

1.6

2.0

3.0

4.1

6.4

8.1

10.7

12.7

17.1

16.0

11.7

4.2

100.0

0.1

4.7

21.0

2.9



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.5

1.0

1.7

2.6

3.6

4.4

5.9

9.2

11.5

15.3

16.8

14.0

9.4

3.2

100.0

0.0

4.9

19.6

2.9



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.7

1.2

2.0

3.5

4.5

7.2

10.0

13.2

16.5

16.9

12.5

8.5

2.9

100.0

0.0

4.9

17.7

2.6



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.6

1.2

2.8

4.6

7.4

10.5

15.0

16.5

16.5

12.6

8.6

3.3

100.0

0.0

4.7

14.8

2.3



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.6

1.6

3.1

5.8

9.8

14.1

18.2

17.4

14.8

10.3

3.8

100.0

0.0

4.3

14.6

2.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.9

2.4

6.3

10.1

14.6

19.9

18.1

14.0

10.2

3.2

100.0

0.0

4.3

12.5

2.0



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

2.2

6.1

12.6

20.0

20.4

16.6

11.6

7.5

2.5

100.0

0.1

4.5

10.1

1.8



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.8

3.5

9.6

18.4

21.6

17.8

14.9

9.9

3.2

100.0

0.0

4.1

10.2

1.7



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.4

1.5

4.3

8.3

14.1

19.1

18.5

16.9

12.1

4.6

100.0

0.0

3.9

12.7

1.9



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.7

1.4

3.3

6.0

11.2

19.0

20.9

18.5

13.4

5.0

100.0

0.0

3.7

13.5

1.9



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.8

1.1

1.8

2.4

3.3

5.5

9.5

16.3

20.4

19.6

13.9

4.5

100.0

0.0

4.0

16.7

2.4



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.6

1.0

1.5

2.3

3.1

4.1

5.4

6.4

8.9

13.2

17.4

17.8

13.1

4.7

100.0

0.0

4.5

19.4

2.9



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.7

1.0

1.8

2.9

5.4

8.8

13.4

17.4

17.9

15.3

10.7

3.8

100

0.0

4.4

21.0

2.4



Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



Figure 5.15: Year-round wind rose for a single location in Block 4

Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



5-25



5.3.1.3 Circulation

The study area for circulation encompasses the Mediterranean, with greater focus on the

eastern Mediterranean basin. This study area provides context for Lebanese waters, with

no AOI specified as the project will not affect this component of the environment.

Winter circulation through the Mediterranean is generally counter-clockwise, while in

summer, the closest gyre system to Lebanese waters is the Shikmona and Mersa Matruh

gyre system located just south-east of Cyprus (Würtz, 2010).

The water circulation in the deep Mediterranean is dominated by the dynamics of the

regional seas, the Adriatic and the Aegean, and the transport through the Gibraltar and

Sicily straits. The eastern Mediterranean deep water (EMDW) is formed by the Aegean

deep water (AeDW) and Adriatic deep water (AdDW), while the western Mediterranean

deep water (WMDW) is formed by the Tyrrhenian deep water (TDW) and the Gulf of Lions

deep waters. The water depth in the eastern Mediterranean basin is 4000–5000 m, which

is deeper than the water depths in the southern Aegean and southern Adriatic parts of

the EMDW (1000–1500 m). This generates a current due to water moving to fill the

deeper area in eastern Mediterranean basin (El-Geziry and Bryden, 2010). The EMDW

flows into the western Mediterranean basin at the deepest point on the Tunisian side

because of the Coriolis force influence. The AeDW provides a warmer, more saline and

denser deep-water mass in the eastern Mediterranean (Würtz, 2010).

The average renewal time of the deep waters of the Mediterranean is 126 years,

considering that the upper boundary of the deep regime is of 1200 m.

5.3.1.4 Currents and tides

The study area for currents and tides encompasses the Mediterranean Sea, with more

detail provided for the Lebanese coastline. This wide study area provides context for

Block 4, with no AOI defined as the project will not affect these components of the

environment.

Tidal activity on the Lebanese coast is weak and ranges between 30 and 40 cm in height

range. The tidal current along the coast of North Africa generally flows eastward, before

turning in a north-eastern-northern direction along the coasts of Lebanon and Syria,

where it becomes weak, variable and affected by winds. The speed of this north current

has been recorded to exceed 1 knot during strong winds from the west.

According to the tidal movement, flood and ebb currents in the Mediterranean Sea set

east and west respectively. The flood current is accelerated by winds blowing from the

west and prevented by winds blowing from the east; while the inverse applies for the ebb

current (NG-IA, 2017).

Percentage occurrence of current speed and direction were modelled for Block 4 at the

single point metocean station. The CYCOFOS data set was used to model currents

(MeteoGroup, 2019). Table 5.6 presents the results of the percent occurrence of current

speed at the sea surface (m/s) and Figure 5.16 shows the year-round current rose at the

sea surface (MeteoGroup, 2019). Current speeds ranged from 0 to 0.9 m/s with an

average of 0.2 m/s (Table 5.6). Current direction was predominantly toward the northeast

(Figure 5.17). Current data at the sea surface (5–10 m), and at the seabed (1500–

1700 m) was used in the drill cuttings dispersion modelling, see Section 6.3.1.2.



5-26



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Table 5.6: Percentage occurrence of current speed measured at the surface in Block 4

Percentage occurrence of current

speed (m/s)

0.9 - 1.0

0.8 - 0.9

0.7 - 0.8

0.6 - 0.7

0.5 - 0.6

0.4 - 0.5

0.3 - 0.4

0.2 - 0.3

0.1 - 0.2

0.0 - 0.1

TOTAL

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Standard deviation



Jan



Feb



Mar



Apr



May



Jun



Jul



Aug



Sep



Oct



Nov



Dec



All year



0.1

1.0

0.8

1.3

5.2

13.0

13.9

22.8

30.3

11.5

100.0

0.0

0.3

0.9

0.2



0.0

0.0

0.1

0.5

2.7

7.1

15.2

27.2

29.8

17.4

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.7

0.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.0

2.4

16.5

24.9

34.3

21.5

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.7

0.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

1.2

3.6

8.0

26.2

38.5

22.5

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.6

0.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.8

3.2

10.9

24.3

39.9

20.6

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.6

0.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.2

6.8

21.0

31.9

29.1

10.1

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.6

0.1



0.0

0.6

1.2

4.8

10.6

18.2

22.1

19.9

15.3

7.3

100.0

0.0

0.3

0.9

0.2



0.0

0.1

0.3

2.9

7.5

9.7

15.7

24.2

24.3

15.3

100.0

0.0

0.3

0.8

0.2



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

2.3

8.9

13.3

16.5

26.9

31.7

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.6

0.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.2

3.6

10.5

24.5

35.6

24.7

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.6

0.1



0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

1.2

4.0

18.2

41.6

34.8

100.0

0.0

0.1

0.6

0.1



0.0

0.5

0.5

2.8

5.0

9.4

13.3

16.9

28.9

22.8

100.0

0.0

0.2

0.9

0.2



0.0

0.2

0.2

1.1

3.1

7.2

13.7

23.1

31.3

20.0

100

0.0

0.2

0.9

0.1



Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



All year

NORTH



30%

20%

10%

WEST



EAST



Current speed (m/s)



SOUTH



0.8 - 1

0.6 - 0.8

0.4 - 0.6

0.2 - 0.4

0.1 - 0.2

0 - 0.1



Figure 5.16: Year-round surface current rose for a single location in Block 4

Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



5.3.1.5 Surface temperature and velocity

The study area for surface temperature and velocity encompasses the eastern

Mediterranean, with more detail provided for the Lebanese coastline. This wide study

area provides context for Block 4, with no AOI defined as the project will not affect these

components of the environment.

The data for surface water velocity and temperature in the eastern Mediterranean was

provided by the Cyprus coastal ocean forecasting system (CYCOFOS). Figure 5.17

shows the data on 4 February 2016 where the surface current direction in Lebanese

waters is northwards.

Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



5-27



Figure 5.17: Surface temperature and velocity in the East Mediterranean on 4

February 2016

Source: Cyprus coastal ocean forecasting system (CYCOFOS)



Surface water temperatures show significant fluctuations, ranging from 17.3°C in January

to 28.9°C in August. Winter is characterised by a vertical homothermy at around 17°C in

the uppermost 100 m, which persists until April when a gradual warming of this layer

occurs (Abboud-Abi Saab 2008a; Lakkis 2011; Lakkis et al., 2011). Table 5.7 shows the

four permanent water layers that characterise the eastern Mediterranean Sea and Table

5.8 shows the water layer characteristics modelled for Block 4.

Table 5.7: Water layer characteristics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

Water layers



Depth (m)



Temperature (°C)



Salinity (%)



Surface water



30–50



22–29



38.80–39.30



Low salinity water

mass



50–75



18–23



38.60–38.80



Intermediate water



150–400



16–17



<39



Deep water



>400



14–15



About 39



Source: Abboud-Abi Saab (2008a), Lakkis (2011), Lakkis et al. (2011)



5-28



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

RSK/H/P/P80754/04/01 Block 4 rev2



Table 5.8: Water layer characteristic in Block 4

Water layer



Average depth (m)



Average

temperature (°C)



Average salinity

(%)



Surface water



30–50



19.75



39.11



Low salinity water

mass



50–75



19.75



39.11



Intermediate water



150–400



15.73



39



Deep water



>400



13.45



38.88



Source: MeteoGroup (2019)



During October 2016, OCEANA carried out a research cruise in Lebanese waters across

five areas off the coast of the country. Oceanographic parameters were recorded among

others using a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) instrument where conductivity,

temperature, pressure, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and chlorophyll-a were

monitored. Although the complete monitoring results are not published, examples of

temperature are shown in Figure 5.18.



Figure 5.18: Bottom temperature gradient across the sampled areas and temperature

gradient across the sampled depths

Source: Aguilar et al. (2018)



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5.3.1.6 Seawater quality

The AOI for seawater quality is up to a radius of 25 km around the proposed well sites.

Routine events near the proposed well locations and the transit corridors for the

supply/support vessels will create localised effects on seawater quality, as well as within

the Port of Beirut. Discussion of baseline seawater quality focuses on Block 4 presenting

results from the EBS study conducted by Keran Liban/Creocean.

The study area encompasses the eastern Mediterranean to provide context for Lebanese

waters. Water quality in the eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon, is affected by

many sources of pollution, ranging from river discharge, industrial effluent, coastal

landfills and untreated wastewater discharge.

Existing information on seawater quality in Lebanon is based on four studies on coastal

water quality by the National Centre for Marine Sciences and the National Council for

Scientific Research (NCMS-CNRS) (2018), CANA-CNRS (CANA scientific research

vessel) research cruises (2014), Fallah et al. (2016) and CNRS (2019). These studies

concluded the following:







biological contamination in Tripoli, Antelias and Beirut

a strong positive correlation between high bacteriological contamination and a

relatively high concentration of nitrate and phosphate at Saida and Ramlet ElBayda public beaches, mainly due to domestic waste









a high concentration of phosphate at Selaata and Antelias industrial sites

a higher concentration of nitrites and nitrates at the seawater–freshwater

interface between Jbeil and Nahr Brahim in 2014 when compared to the control

site of Enfeh

concentrations of metals (copper, chromium and lead) in Al Mina (Tripoli)

exceeded the toxicity reference value (along with significant levels of

bacteriological contamination attributed to untreated sewage dumping in coastal

waters).







These results demonstrate the presence of organic waste and bacterial pollution at the

two public beaches, the leakage of industrial chemical to the marine environment at the

industrial site, and the effect of continental freshwater on the variability of the seawater

characteristics. Table 5.9 shows cities, sampling locations and the nature of

contamination recorded.

Table 5.9: Summary of seawater contamination at selected sites on the coast of

Lebanon



Cities



Sampling

location



Enfeh



Nature of contamination

Biological



Chemical

toxicity



Eutrophication



Trace

metals



Enfeh coastline















x



Tripoli

(Al Mina)



Al Mina

coastline



















Antelias



Industrial















x



Beirut



Beirut coastline















x



Saida



Public beach















x



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Cities



Sampling

location



Ramlet

El-Bayda



Nature of contamination

Biological



Chemical

toxicity



Eutrophication



Trace

metals



Public beach















x



Selaata



Industrial















x



Jbeil – Nahr

Brahim



Seawater –

freshwater















x



Notes:



⚫ contamination



recorded;



x



no



data



available;



○ contamination



not recorded.



Source: CANA-CNRS (2014)



Fallah et al. (2016) conducted a study on seawater quality of the Northern Lebanese

coast in 2012 in 45 locations along the Mina coastline. Sampling took place in the month

of June and November. Results showed the following:















There was a slight decrease in temperature between June and November,

ranging from 24–25°C and 24–24.8°C respectively.

pH ranged between 5.25 and 8.75 during June with a mean value of 8.1 and

between 4.2 and 7.8 during November with a mean value of 7.8. The lowest pH

value recorded was 4.2 at the site of a sewage discharge along the Mina city

coastline.

Levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) during June and December respectively ranged

between 1.38–7.8 mg/L and 2.01–7.8 mg/L. The low levels of DO concentration

were recorded at sites with sewage discharges and are linked with heavy

contamination.

Electrical conductivity was around 98.8 mS/cm in June and 107.41 mS/cm in

November, while total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged between 17,355–

975,000 ppm in June and 280,150–1,072,500 ppm in November. According to

international standards, ionic concentrations were found in non-contaminated

areas.



Trace metals were also measured with results showing that Cr (chromium), Cu (copper)

and Pb (lead) exceeded the toxicity reference value (TRV). Microbial analysis for

heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliform, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. was

conducted showing significant levels of pollution associated to the discharge of untreated

sewage in coastal waters (Fallah et al., 2016).

Studies have shown that there are several sources of pollution that can affect water

quality in the eastern Mediterranean including Lebanon, such as but not limited to river

discharge, industrial effluent, coastal landfills and untreated wastewater. Reports have

highlighted that over the years there has been increasing values of pollution in seawater,

mainly around the major coastal cities of Lebanon, which reflect the negative impact of

anthropogenic sources (discharge of untreated sewage, solid waste, port activities, etc.).

The CNRS conducts monthly sampling at 26 stations along the coast of Lebanon as part

of the Coastal Seawater Monitoring Programme. The programme measures biological,

chemical and physical parameters. Figure 5.19 summarises the bacterial content of

faecal coliform and faecal streptococci in relation to the WHO guidelines (CNRS, 2019).



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Figure 5.19: Bacteriological status

Source: CNRS (2019)

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Nutrients

Nutrients such as phosphates, nitrates and silicates, among others, are known to

constitute determinant and limiting factors for microalgae and as well as the whole food

web (MoE/UNDP/GEF, 2016). Hydro-climatic and physical-chemical factors play a major

role in the transport of nutrients along the water mass as they have the ability to impact

the vertical and seasonal variations of plankton populations as well as their distribution

(Abboud-Abi Saab et al., 2008a).

During the winter season (December–March), upwelling and seawater mass-mixing

create conditions suitable for spring blooms which cause peaks in productivity in the

spring season. During the summer hot season (June–October), stratification in the water

column along with the shortage of nutrients lowers the quality and quantity of the plankton

community (Lakkis, 2011a; Lakkis et al., 2011; Kouyoumjian and Hamze, 2012).

Algal blooms have been observed and will worsen and become more frequent with

increasing temperatures due to climate change (Abboud-Abi Saab et al., 2006; AbboudAbi Saab et al., 2008a; Lakkis, 2011a; Lakkis et al., 2011; Nader, 2011). Algal blooms

were observed near the Antelias River estuary and the El Kaleb estuary following a heat

wave recorded on 8 May 2007 (Abboud-Abi Saab, 2008).

Abboud-Abi Saab et al. (2008b) conducted an environmental study describing the

concentrations of the nutrients and the chlorophyll along the Lebanese coast from the

north (Tripoli) to the south (Naqqoura). A total of 215 samples from 18 stations were

recorded monthly over one year. Figure 5.20 shows the stations’ location, while Table

5.10 summarises data obtained from the 18 stations.



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Figure 5.20: Location of water sampling locations from Abboud-Abi Saab et al. study

Source: Based on information from Abboud-Abi Saab et al. (2008b)



Table 5.10: Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum

values) of the parameters measured at the 18 stations

T°C



Salinity



pH



N-NO2

(µM/L)



N-NO3

(µM/L)



P-PO4

(µM/L)



Chl a

(mg/m3)



Mean



20.41



33.34



7.28



0.19



4.27



0.60



0.72



Min.



21.88



30.31



8.09



0.03



0.31



0.14



0.09



Max.



23.59



39.31



8.25



0.53



10.69



2.88



2.73



Source: Adapted from Abboud-Abi Saab et al. (2008b)



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5.3.1.7 Block 4 seawater sampling campaign

Methods

In-situ and discrete seawater quality samples were collected at four stations in Block 4

for water column characterisation and physiochemical analyses. Three of the stations

were within the priority area while the fourth station was to the east of this area. Figure

5.21 shows the sampling locations for the entire Block 4 survey campaign, which included

seawater sampling, seabed sediment physico-chemistry, benthic communities, seabed

video surveying, and marine fauna and seabird visual monitoring. Seawater sampling

locations are indicated in Figure 5.21 as blue diamonds.

Laboratory analyses included nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS), heavy and trace

metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes,

bacteria, total organic carbon (TOC), polyaromatic hydrocarbons and chlorophyll-a.

Seawater samples for the given parameters were collected from three discrete depths:

subsurface (10 m below the surface), mid depth (below thermocline, 300 m) and near

bottom (25 m above the seabed). Discrete samples were collected using a rosette of 10L Niskin water samplers.

In-situ measurements were taken throughout the water column at all four stations using

a multiparameter probe that measured salinity, temperature, pH, turbidity, depth and

dissolved oxygen.

The multiparameter probe was allowed to equilibrate at approximately 5 m water depth

for sensor stabilisation then lowered through the water column. Once the device was

recovered to the survey vessel, the data was downloaded and quality checked.



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Figure 5.21: Station locations for seawater (blue diamonds), sediment and benthos

(green diamonds) and video transects (red lines) sampled during the Block 4 offshore

EBS

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Results

Temperature

Temperatures decreased from 18°C at the surface to 17°C within a few metres. The

thermocline recorded with a rapid decrease in temperature from 200–250 m depth to

400–500 m depth, reaching a stable temperature of 14°C. No further decrease in water

temperatures was observed below the thermocline. Figure 5.22 presents the depth profile

for temperature at all four stations.



Figure 5.22: Temperature (°C) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Salinity

Salinity ranged from 38.5 to 38.9 practical salinity units (PSU) throughout the water

column and is presented for all stations in Figure 5.23. All stations showed a degree of

variation in salinity in the upper 500 m, before showing consistent salinities down to

seabed depths of between 38.5 and 39 PSU.



Figure 5.23: Salinity (PSU) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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pH

pH ranged between 7.9 to 8.2 at all sampling stations with higher concentrations at the

surface than at depth. This range corresponds to typical values of alkaline Mediterranean

waters. Figure 5.24 shows the depth profile for pH at the four seawater sampling stations.



Figure 5.24: pH depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Turbidity

Turbidity measurements were <3 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) at all stations

sampling, indicating clear water with very low turbidity throughout the water column,

which is considered typical for offshore areas of the eastern Mediterranean. Figure 5.25

shows the depth profiles of turbidity at the four seawater sampling locations.



Figure 5.25: Turbidity (NTU) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Total suspended solids (TSS) and total organic carbon (TOC)

Measurements for TSS ranged between <2 and 9 mg/L representing consistently low

TSS throughout the water column (Figure 5.26).

TOC (total (particulate and dissolved) organic carbon) concentrations at all stations

sampled ranged from 0.63 to 1.8 mg/L with highest concentrations measured in the

surface waters and lowest concentrations measured at the seabed (Figure 5.26).This is

likely due to the limited contributions of carbon from marine algae at depths below the

euphotic zone. These measurements of TOC reflect the general oligotrophic qualities of

the eastern Mediterranean waters which are characterised by low organic enrichment

and correspondingly low productivity.



Figure 5.26: TSS (mg/L) and TOC (mg/L) depth profiles for seawater stations sampled

in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Nutrients

Total nitrogen, nitrites, nitrates and organophosphates were also measured throughout

the water column and presented in Figure 5.27. Most nutrient concentrations at the sea

surface were close to zero and then slightly increased with increasing depth through the

water column to the seabed. Orthophosphates decreased at the sea surface until the

thermocline before gradually increasing or remaining constant with increased depth to

the seabed. Surface waters generally contain lower concentrations of dissolved nutrients

due to the uptake of nutrients from primary production. Increase in nutrient concentrations

in deeper waters is from the lack of mixing of water from below the thermocline and the

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deposition of organic particles, primarily zooplankton faecal pellets transported from the

surface.

Though recorded nutrient concentrations varied slightly, these variations were not

significant as all measurements were considered low. The results compared to European

Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for nutrients in seawater (EU, 2008) indicated

low nutrient enrichment, which classifies water quality as being very good or good (EQS

standards: total nitrogen = ≤0.7–1.05, nitrate = ≤10–50, orthophosphate = ≤0.032 and

nitrite = <0.33).



Figure 5.27: Depth profiles for total nitrogen, nitrates and orthophosphates at

seawater stations sampled in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



2

3



WFD 2000/60/EC, Decrees of 25 January 2010 and 27 July 2015

Circular of 07/05/07 defining provisional Environmental Quality Standards (pEQS)



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Trace metals

Discrete water samples were analysed for 19 trace metals. The European Union Directive

2008/105/EC provides threshold levels for trace metals based on EQS (EU, 2008).

Geochemical background levels (GBL) also exist for the Mediterranean as the theoretical

natural background concentration of a metal in a water body (Matschullat et al., 2000,

Bruland and Lohan, 2003). According to these standards, cadmium, mercury, nickel and

lead are all identified as priority substances owing to the significant risk they pose to the

aquatic environment. Cadmium and mercury are regarded as priority hazardous

substances due to their toxicity, persistence and bio-accumulation potential. The

threshold value for cadmium is less than or equal to 0.45 to 1.5 µg/L, dependent on

hardness of water.

Trace metal concentrations measured were very low values for all priority substances

and all were below the EQS thresholds (EU, 2008). For other trace-metals, aluminium

was detectable at the sea surface at station B404 (20 µg/L) and at the mid-depth of

station B401 (10 µg/L). Barium levels were detectable at the near bottom and ranged

between 4 to 21 µg/L, which is the same as the GBL (4–21 µg/L) (Bruland and Lohan,

2003). Chromium was detected at all stations but was below the EU Directive threshold

levels (0.16–0.26 µg/L4) (Keran Liban/Creocean, 2019b). Molybdenum, lithium and

vanadium concentrations were detected for some depths at all stations, but again

concentrations were below the EU Directive threshold values. It is noted, however, that

there is currently no threshold toxicity value for lithium concentrations in seawater.

Therefore, the toxicity in the samples cannot be determined.

For all other trace metals, concentrations measured at all stations were below the

laboratory detection limits so are not discussed. Water quality at all stations is considered

‘good’, as no trace-metal levels exceeded threshold toxicity values (EU, 2008). These

levels are considered typical for offshore areas of the eastern Mediterranean.

PAHs, PCBs, TPH biomarkers, BTEX

Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are identified as priority substances according to the

European Union Directive 2008/105/EC (EU, 2008), owing to the significant risk they

pose to aquatic environments, their toxicity, persistence and potential to bio-accumulate.

Benzo(a)pyrene can be considered as a marker for other PAHs, which has an EQS limit

of 0.27 µg/L. PAHs recorded in this study were well below this threshold value (<

0.001 µg/L).

Poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are classed as priority pollutants owing to their ability

to bio-accumulate. Concentrations of PCBs were low in all samples (<0.013 µg/L), so it

was not possible to infer contamination levels from these results as the laboratory

detection limits for were higher than the EU EQS threshold levels.

Low concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were measured at all stations

(< 0.01 µg/L). Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) levels were below

limits of detection for all stations (<1 µg/L) and below the threshold values of the Directive

2008/105/EC (modified by the Decree of 27 July 2018 (benzene) and the Circular of



4



Circular of 07/05/07 defining provisional Environmental Quality Standards (pEQS)



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07/05/07 (other BTEX) in seawater). The EU threshold limit for benzene is an annual

mean of 8 µg/L for coastal and transitional waters5.

Bacteria

Measurements

were

taken

for

hydrocarbon-degrading-bacteria

and

heterotrophic/aerobic bacteria in order to determine overall bacteria concentrations for

the stations sampled throughout Block 4. Hydrocarbon-degrading-bacteria in surface

waters ranged from 60 to 250 MPN/ml and from < 14 MPN/ml to 25 MPN/ml in near

bottom waters.

Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria concentrations were high in all samples with the

highest concentration of 25,000 MPN/ml. Despite relatively high bacterial concentrations,

the ratio between hydrocarbon-degrading-bacteria and heterotrophic/autotrophic

bacteria was very low (0.02–1.25%). This suggests that there is no hydrocarbon

contamination in the water column of Block 4.

Phytoplankton

The pigments chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin were measured to determine primary

production levels and plankton biomass. Chlorophyll concentrations in water samples at

all stations were highest at the sea surface indicating the presence of phytoplankton in

the surface waters above the thermocline. However, all concentrations were low and

consistent with oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean waters. Chlorophyll a is used as an

indicator pigment in the EU standards with 0–1.18 µg/L indicating “very good ecological

status”. Figure 5.28 presents the depth profile for pigment concentrations.



Figure 5.28: Depth profile for chlorophyll a, b and pheophytin concentrations at

Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



5



EC Directive dated 25 January 2010 (EU, 2010) modified by EC Directive dated 27 July 2018 (EU, 2018)



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Conclusion

Overall, the results for seawater quality obtained during the Block 4 survey campaign

exhibit seawater that is of low turbidity, oligotrophic in terms of nutrients and

uncontaminated. The results for Block 4 are considered representative of conditions

typical for offshore locations for the eastern Mediterranean.

The small degree of variation between sampling stations of organic and nutrient content

as well as contaminant concentrations indicate a high degree of homogeneity of the

environmental conditions throughout the study area.

5.3.1.8 Seawater sensitivity

Based on the low contamination levels offshore and general good water quality, the

sensitivity of the system is identified as medium (3). It is not designated as high because

the system is low in nutrients (oligotrophic) and has a low capacity to support higher levels

of biodiversity. The coastal waters are highly contaminated in certain locations; therefore,

the sensitivity is variable but generally considered to have a low sensitivity (2) (preexisting pollution limits its value)

5.3.1.9 Bathymetry

The study area for bathymetry encompasses the Lebanese EEZ, which provides context

for Block 4, with no AOI specified as the project will not affect this component of the

environment.

A bathymetric survey of the Lebanese EEZ was conducted in 2003 by the SHALIMAR

bathymetric cruise (MOPWT–DGLMT, 2017). According to the survey, the water depth

off the coast increases westward to 2000 m in the deep-sea plain of the Levant basin

(MOPWT–DGLMT, 2017). The mean depth of the Levant sub-basin in 1451 m (Würtz,

2010).

As defined by Law 163/2011 under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the

Seas, the seabed and subsoil that extends beyond the State’s territorial sea to the outer

edge of the continental margin (the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the

rise) is termed the continental shelf. When the continental margin does not extend to

200 nm, the corresponding area to 200 nm is included as part of the continental shelf.

The technical definition of a continental shelf is the shallow marine water (100–200 m)

on the margins of land masses that overlay an underwater extension of continental land

(Figure 5.29). A continental shelf is the portion of a continent submerged under an area

of relatively shallow water followed by a precipitous slope.



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Figure 5.29: Diagrammatic cross section of key geographic features off the coast of

Lebanon

Source: Nybakken (2001)



The Lebanese continental shelf itself is relatively narrow and considered the most

productive part of Lebanese waters where most fishing activities are concentrated. It can

be divided into three main parts:







between Enfeh and Akkar, the widest part of the continental shelf (18 km)

between Enfeh and Ras Beirut, the coastal plain is very narrow or almost nonexistent (in this part, the continental shelf does not extend to more than 3 km)







between Ras Beirut and Naquoura, the continental shelf widens reaching 7 km.



Between Beirut and Batroun, the shelf is extremely narrow and the margin exhibits its

steepest slope, with the water depth dropping from 100 to 1500 m in less than 5 km in

some areas (MOPWT–DGLMT, 2017).

The bathymetry of shallower waters (0–200 m depth) between the coast and up to 10 km

seaward is currently being surveyed. Once complete this will connect the inland

geomorphology with the seabed relief already mapped during the SHALIMAR

bathymetric survey (MOPWT–DGLMT, 2017).

Numerous submarine canyons are found past the continental shelf within the Lebanese

EEZ (Figure 5.30).



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Figure 5.30: Deep sea canyons off the Lebanese coast

Source: adapted from Singh (2003)



The area encompassing these canyons has been designated as the East Levantine

Canyons Area (ELCA) ecologically and biologically significant area (EBSA), owing to the

deep canyons, hydrothermal vents and submarine freshwater springs that characterise

the area (Elias et al., 2007; Würtz, 2012; Shaban, 2013; Bakalowicz, 2014).

Block 4 is within the ELCA EBSA and has a depth range of 320–1780 m. Bathymetry is

presented in Figure 5.31 and shows the presence of isolated mounts ranging between

50 m and 200 m in height and the presence of a submarine canyon trending southeast

to northwest.



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Figure 5.31: Block 4 bathymetry

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019a)



5.3.1.10 Background underwater noise

The study area for background underwater noise encompasses the eastern

Mediterranean, with more detail provided for Lebanese waters. This study area provides

context for Block 4, with no AOI specified as underwater noise in itself is not a receptor

(it serves to transmit noise from source to receptors).

Background or ambient underwater noise is generated by several natural sources, such

as rain, breaking waves, wind at the surface, biological noise and thermal noise.

Biological sources include marine mammals (which use sound to communicate, build up

an image of their environment and detect prey and predators) as well as certain fish and

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shrimp. Anthropogenic sources also add to the background noise, such as fishing boats,

ships, industrial noise, seismic surveys and leisure activities. Generalised ambient noise

spectra attributable to various noise sources (Wenz, 1962) are presented in Figure 5.32.

The frequency and intensity of an underwater noise source affects the way sound travels

in water and impacts the biological environment. Lower frequency noise, of less intensity,

travels further underwater than higher frequency, more intense noise. This is due to the

greater attenuation (scattering and absorption by water column) of the higher frequency

noise. The degree of attenuation depends on various conditions such as water pressure,

temperature and salinity (Gisiner, 1998).



Figure 5.32: Composite of underwater noise spectra

Source: Xodus Group (2019)



There is currently no data on ambient underwater noise for Block 4. However, underwater

noise has been recorded during in the wider eastern Mediterranean area close to Block

4 through a wider visual and acoustic survey (Marine Conservation Research

International, 2014).

From this study, shipping was concluded to be the major source of underwater noise.

Shipping generally produces a low frequency (below 1,000 Hz) and continuous noise

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generated from engines (Ameer and Linden, 2008). Shipping also produces additional

noise types, such as higher frequency pulsing/burst type noise from propellers and

thrusters, high frequency noise from rotating gears and mechanical components and

much higher frequency noise from turbine engines and hydro-jets (1–2 kHz) (Ameer and

Linden, 2008). Table 5.11 illustrates the frequencies (pitch), decibels (intensity) and

estimated received level of expected anthropogenic noise sources from different ships

that may occur in Block 4.

Table 5.11: Anthropogenic noise sources



Frequency

range (kHz)



Average source

level (dB re 1

μPa-m)



Large

merchant

vessel



0.005–0.9



Military

vessel

Super tanker



Activity



Estimated received level at different

ranges (km) by spherical spreadinga

0.1 km



1 km



10 km



100 km



160–190



120–

150



99–129



74 – 104



<29



-



190–203



150–

163



129–

142



104 –

117



29–42



0.02–0.1



187–232



147–

192



126–

171



101–146



26–71



Source: Adapted from Evans and Nice (1996); Richardson et al. (1995) in IOSEA2 (ERT/Aqua-Fact

International Services, 2007)



The ports of Beirut and Tripoli are to the east of Block 4 and receive over 300,000 ships

per year resulting in high levels of underwater noise due to shipping (Marine Traffic,

2019). Shipping routes in the area are shown in Figure 5.33 (Marine Traffic, 2019).

Ferries and recreational boating may also be potential underwater noise sources. Ferries

generate a higher frequency noise than other vessels and are common in the

Mediterranean Sea. This is due to their greater speeds requiring different propulsion

systems to larger ships, which produce a noise of 10 kHz or more. Recreational boating

may induce intense underwater noise bursts due to very fast speeds, but this is not

currently monitored (Ameer and Linden, 2008). Figure 5.34 illustrates the speed of

vessels in the area during 2013, highlighting the potential presence of ferries and

recreational boats (vessels travelling at more than 30 knots). It is likely that in 2019,

vessel traffic will be greater than in 2013, owing to increased industrialisation and

development in the region.

Background underwater noise from shipping is present in the region. However, the

sensitivity of underwater noise is not assessed in the baseline because underwater noise

in itself is not a receptor. Underwater noise is dealt with in relation to marine mammals,

turtles and fish in the impact assessment chapter (Section 6.3.1.13).



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Figure 5.33: Density of shipping in the Block 4 area

Source: Marine Traffic (2019)



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Figure 5.34: Vessel speeds in the eastern Mediterranean

Source: Marine Conservation Research International (2014)



5.3.2



Geology and geohazards

The study area for geology and geohazards encompasses the east Mediterranean

region, including the whole country of Lebanon. This study area provides context for

Block 4, with no AOI specified as the project will not affect these components of the

environment. However, an AOI has been defined for seabed sediments (see Section

5.3.2.5).



5.3.2.1 Geological framework

The geomorphology of Lebanon consists of two mountain chains (the Lebanon and AntiLebanon ranges) separated by the high-altitude Beqaa Plain. Both ranges trend in a

north–northeast–south–southwest direction (Figure 5.35). To the west, Mount Lebanon

is limited by a narrow coastal plain and the Mediterranean with relatively steep slopes

except in its northern part (near Tripoli), where the coastal plain is wider. This mountain

chain has the highest altitude in northern Lebanon (around 3083 m) and it plunges under

the Late Neogene Basalts and Quaternary Deposits of the Tripoli-Homs depression,

which separates it from the similar structural high of Jibal As-Sahiliyeh in Syria. To the

east, Mount Lebanon is limited by the Yammouneh Fault, a segment of the Dead Sea

Transform Fault, which constitutes the boundary between the Arabian Plate and the

Levant micro-Plate. The lithology of the deposited rocks and sediments constituting the

mountain chains along with the intervening plains ranges from siliciclastic to carbonates,

depending on the depositional environment and the ongoing regional and tectonic events

at the time of deposition. Localised volcanic outpourings, mainly through fractures and

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vents are present in northern Lebanon, and these form a part of the neighbouring Homs

Basalts, exposed in neighbouring Homs Province in Syria. The different geological

formations along with their corresponding stratigraphic units/facies and the

depositional/tectonic environments are presented/summarised in Figure 5.36.

Ghalayini et al. (2018) further subdivided Lebanon into four petroleum domains: the distal

Levant Basin, the Lattakia Ridge, the Levant margin and the onshore domain (Figure

5.37).



Figure 5.35: Regional tectonic framework: (a) Levant fault system; (b) active faults of

the Lebanese restraining bend

Source: Adapted from Daeron et al. (2007)



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Figure 5.36: Simplified stratigraphic chart of Lebanon

Source: Adapted from Walley (1997)



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Figure 5.37: Geological/petroleum domains of Lebanon

Source: Adapted from Ghalayini et al. (2018)



5.3.2.2 Regional tectonic framework

The tectonic setting of Lebanon is intimately related to that of the eastern Mediterranean

Levant Fault System as it is the result of the interaction of three major plates, the Arabian,

African and Eurasia plates, in addition to the Anatolian and Sinai sub-plates. The eastern

Mediterranean region is a tectonically complex system containing a variety of tectonic

regimes. In the south, the Red Sea represents a divergent tectonic environment

(continental rift). Strike-slip movement occurs along the Dead Sea Transform Fault

(DSTF) and the East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), while convergence/collision is

taking place along the Hellenic and Cyprian Arcs (see Figure 5.35).

The DSTF is a nearly 1000-km-long strike-slip fault system that defines the plate

boundary between the Arabian and African plates, and extends from the Gulf of Aqaba,

to the southeast of Turkey (see Figure 5.35). It transfers most of the Arabia-Africa

divergent motion in the Red Sea into the convergence motion between Eurasia and

Arabia (Wdowinski et al., 2004). Some of the divergent motion in the Red Sea is also

transferred to the Gulf of Suez, which forms the boundary between Africa and Sinai.

Previous studies have estimated the plate motion along the DSTF to be within a range of

4-10 mm/yr (e.g., Meghraoui et al., 2003; Gomez et al., 2003; Daeron et al. 2005).

5.3.2.3 Local tectonic framework

The DSTF can be subdivided into two main sections joined by an approximately 200-kmlong restraining bend running along the length of Lebanon. Within this Lebanese

restraining bend, the DSTF splays into several fault branches: the Roum, Yammouneh,

Serghaya and Rachaiya faults (Figure 5.35). Of these only the Yammouneh Fault crosses

the whole country and is considered the main fault branch of the DSTF within Lebanon

that is transferring most of the movement occurring along the DSTF (Daeron et al., 2004).

Recent paleo-seismic studies (Gomez et al., 2003; Daeron et al., 2004, 2005; Nemer and

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Meghraoui, 2006) and geodetic investigations (Wdowinski et al., 2004) along the different

fault branches within the restraining bend have indicated that these faults are active and

accordingly they are likely to influence the earthquake hazard in Lebanon.

Furthermore, during the course of the investigation and identification of active thrust faults

in the Tripoli region in northern Lebanon, Tapponnier et al. (2001) referred to the

existence of a large thrust fault system, the Mount Lebanon thrust (MLT), in the offshore

area between the cities of Saida and Tripoli (Figure 5.35). The existence of this offshore

thrust system has also been confirmed by geophysical data (Elias et al., 2007; Carton et

al., 2009).

5.3.2.4 Geohazards

Several geohazards are associated with offshore exploration activities, including

seismicity, gas hydrates, over-pressured zones and submarine landslides.

Seismicity (earthquakes)

The DSTF system and its associated surface expressions (Yammouneh, Roum, Rachaya

and Serghaya faults) have an active seismic record. Recent research work categorised

the Lebanese section of the DSTF as being a strong seismic activity zone. The active

structures within and around Lebanon are shown in Figure 5.38 (Huijer et al., 2016).



Figure 5.38: Main active structural elements of Lebanon

Source: adapted from Huijer et al. (2016)

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An evaluation study on seismic hazards of Lebanon that was carried out initially by Huijer

et al. (2011) concluded that Lebanon is a country of moderate to high seismic hazard.

However, in the light of newly mapped active thrust fault system of the MLT, Huijer et al.

(2016) undertook a re-evaluation and update of the seismic risk hazards, as the thrust

fault extends right underneath and runs along the Lebanese shoreline and in respect of

the established coastal cities along its extent. It is important to note that a revised and

up-to-date source catalogue was used in the new study, in addition to the use of the

recent and new generation attenuation relationships/parameters that are proposed for

the eastern Mediterranean region. The study proposed updated and revised design

recommendations for Lebanon and its outcome can be summarised as follows:





Lebanon is a country of moderate to high seismic risk.







The expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) with a 10% probability of

exceedance in 50 years ranges mostly from 0.20 g to 0.30 g.

The seismic zone parameter adopted for the coastal area between Tripoli and

Saida should be increased from its present value of 0.20 to 0.30 g in the local

design code.

The remaining parts of the country should adopt a revised PGA of 0.25 g for

seismic design.











A historical seismicity map and a seismic hazard map of Lebanon are presented in Figure

5.39 and Figure 5.40 respectively.



Figure 5.39: Instrumented earthquake events in and around Lebanon between 2006

and 2016

Source Adapted from CNRS (2016)

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The updated study concluded that all structures that are to be constructed in the coastal

area between Tripoli and Saida should be designed based on the design and

reinforcement detailing requirements for concrete structures of high seismic hazard

specified in the international codes of practice.



Figure 5.40: Seismic hazard map (contouring of peak ground acceleration with a 10%

probability of exceedance in 50 years)

Source: Adapted from Huijer et al. (2016)



Gas hydrates

The eastern Mediterranean is known for the presence of gas hydrates, which are known

in the Lebanon exploration areas. Gas hydrates form when methane and water freeze at

high pressures and relatively low temperatures. These conditions occur in the shallow

part of marine sedimentary sections on many continental margins (Shanmugam, 2012).

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Gas hydrates are considered a potential hazard, considering the impacts they have on

the safety of drilling operations. In this respect, the zone or depth at which a methane

clathrate naturally exists in the marine environment in the earth’s crust is known as a

methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ) (Praeg et al., 2011).

The thickness of the stable gas hydrate zone can reach up to 150–200 m offshore

Lebanon (Praeg et al., 2011). It was also reported that in the southern part of the Levant

Basin, the predicted existence of MHSZ in the seafloor sediments at water depths of

1.2 km can have a thickness ranging between 1 and 600 m (Praeg et al., 2011).

Gas hydrates have been proven by coring at one site in the eastern Mediterranean, but

their wider extent remains uncertain (Praeg et al., 2011). Comparing the MHSZ with

known or potential zones of gas flux to seabed may indicate prospective areas for hydrate

occurrence, mainly in the eastern basin. One such place is the Nile fan, where evidence

of the first bottom-simulating reflector, a reflection event closely associated with

identifying hydrates in seismic cross-section, confirms the potential for additional hydrate

discoveries in this portion of the Mediterranean Sea (Praeg et al., 2011).

Over-pressured zones

Over-pressured zones are rock formations containing fluids with abnormally high

pressures. These reservoirs are normally localised/isolated environments, where the fluid

flow out of the reservoirs is restricted, and the total overburden load is partially supported

by the pore fluids (Serebryakov et al., 2002). The formation of over-pressured zones has

been associated with diagenetic reactions, rapid sediment disposition, and gas charging

and melting of gas hydrates (Garziglia et al., 2008). Drilling into over-pressured strata

can be risky and hazardous as the over-pressured fluids will rapidly escape the

confinement imposed on them.

The Messinian evaporitic layer present in the eastern Mediterranean is an example of a

sealing rock that can hinder the escape of fluids (Figure 5.41). Other features that present

evidence of over-pressured zones are gas chimneys and mud volcanoes.



Figure 5.41: Seismic cross-section showing gas chimneys on top of a Miocene

anticline in the Lattakia Ridge domain

Source: Ghalayini et al. (2018)

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Gas chimneys and gas pockets

Similar to over-pressured zones, mud volcanoes and pockmarks are another potential

hazard. Mud volcanoes are planar to conical features with a relief of up to 500 m on land,

and a base diameter ranging from less than 1 to over 3 km. Their formation is commonly

associated with over-pressured zones that usually develop by processes such as

compaction disequilibrium, hydrocarbon generation and liquefaction.

Pockmarks take the form of circular erosional depressions that typically form by fluid

expulsion from over-pressured zones via low-permeability pathways and are commonly

associated either with strongly destabilised sedimentary masses or with gas chimneys.

These may be a drilling hazard if not taken into consideration.

The eastern basins of the Mediterranean are where mud volcanoes and related fluid

expulsion features are the most abundant. In the southern part of the Levant Basin, the

Nile deep-sea turbid system displays many fluid-releasing structures on the seabed,

namely mud volcanoes in the form of small cones (100–900 m in diameter), mud pies

(5 km in diameter) and pockmarks. These features delineate a belt of apparently very

active gas chimneys along the upper continental slope.

Submarine landslides and coastal slope failures

Submarine slope instability covers a variety of down-slope movements of the material

composing slope (Yin-can, 2017). The major risks relating to submarine landslides

include the destruction of seabed infrastructure, the collapse of coastal areas into the sea

and landslide-generated tsunamis. The submarine landslides mapped in the

Mediterranean basins were compiled from multiple sources and are presented in Figure

5.42. The common occurrence of slumping processes along the southern continental

margin was described and attributed to a combination of seismic activity, presence of gas

within the sediments, and relatively steep and precipitous slopes (MoEW, 2019).



Figure 5.42: Mapped submarine landslides within the Mediterranean Sea

Source: Papadopoulos et al. (2014; modified from Urgeles and Camerlenghi, 2013)



5.3.2.5 Seabed sediments

The AOI for seabed sediments is a 1.5-km radius around the proposed well site and

encompasses the precautionary distance from the wells to the distance which drilling

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discharge impacts and anchoring impacts (if conventional moored semi-submersibles are

used) on seabed sediments could extend.

The study area is wider, with a focus on the Block 4 priority area, broadening out to

include Block 4 as a whole, and including coastal sediments, to provide context for the

sensitivity of the sediment quality in the AOI.

Several studies covering the coastal areas of Lebanon were conducted by the CNRS

between 2011 and 2014, as part of the CANA-CNRS programme (CANA-CNRS, 2019),

to analyse the sediment subject to the impact of various anthropogenic sources of

pollution such as chemical industries, treated and untreated sewage effluents and the

urban development expansion. The CNRS studies focused on 11 coastal areas and the

results are as summarised in MoEW (2019), with a study by Merhaby et al. (2015)

focusing on Tripoli harbour. All coastal areas studied exhibited elevated levels of

contaminants compared with what would be expected in the deep sea, such as Block 4.

The exception being Tyre, which was adopted as a coastal reference location:









































Selaata marine area seems to be the most contaminated among the studied

regions owing to the presence of a phosphate fertiliser plant.

The sediment quality of the fishing port of Tripoli varies between moderately and

highly polluted. Studies on their mobility show that an extremely small percentage

of copper is in ion exchange form thus representing the highest risk to the water

column and to living organisms.

The sediments of the port of Tripoli were found to be mostly contaminated with

high molecular weight 5–6-ring aromatic hydrocarbons, which are highly toxic and

carcinogenic.

The sediments of the wider Tripoli harbour area were contaminated by 4-6

chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and 4–5-ring polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons (Merhaby et al., 2015).

The marine region of Nahr Antelias might be occasionally considered as a

contaminated area especially in its deep sector, where high values of organic

matter, total phosphate and trace metals were recorded.

The marine region of Nahr-el-Kalb is proved to be clear of any severe

contamination as the sediment exhibited the lowest values of potential

contaminants.

The sediment of the Ghadir marine region is shown to be contaminated mainly at

the deepest sampling points close to the outlet of the main pipe from Ghadir

treatment plant.

The coastal region of Beirut River is an area of accumulation for a range of

contaminants. The sediment at all depths showed high values of contaminants,

indicating that this region clearly receives the discharges from multiple sources

of contamination including the waters of the river charged with agricultural,

industrial and domestic wastewaters.

The coastal area of Jounieh Bay represents a meso-oligotrophic system. The

geomorphology of the bay in association with the prevailing hydrodynamic factors

has caused the deepest points to behave as a sink for the fine fraction which are

usually adsorbed by the organic and mineral contaminants.

The area of Dora (Beirut) sediments were found heavily polluted with lead and

cadmium.

Raouchy is considered a potentially contaminated area and represents a zone of

accumulation of mainly domestic pollutants owing to its geomorphology.



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Ramlet el-Bayda, despite the presence of two sewage outfalls, shows less signs

of pollution and may be considered a non-contaminated marine area. This is

because of its morphology and the strong hydrodynamism to which it is subjected.

Tyre is a clean marine area, exempt of any type of contaminants, and may be

adopted as a reference zone.

Tyre port sediments were found to be mostly contaminated with moderate

molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbon (3–4 rings), and with polychlorinated

biphenyl concentrations extremely high mainly related to agricultural activities in

the region.



Figure 5.43, Figure 5.44, Figure 5.45 and Figure 5.46 show the grain size composition,

the total phosphate concentrations, the percentage of organic matter, and levels of three

trace metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu)) in the sediment of four Lebanese

marine coastal areas (Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata) (CANA-CNRS,

2014).



Figure 5.43: Grain size composition of the sediment of four coastal marine areas

(Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata)

Source: CANA-CNRS (2014)



Figure 5.44: Total phosphate concentrations (µg.g-1) in the sediment of four coastal

marine areas (Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata)

Source: CANA-CNRS (2014)



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Figure 5.45: Percentage of organic matter in the sediment of four coastal marine

areas (Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata)

Source: CANA-CNRS (2014)



Figure 5.46: Levels of 3 trace metals (Cd, Pb and Cu) in the sediment of four

Lebanese marine coastal areas (Tyre, Ramlet-el-Bayda, Raouchy and Selaata)

Source: CANA-CNRS (2014)



A study by Abi-Ghanem et al. (2016) determined the levels of the same trace metals (Cd,

Pb, and Cu) in marine sediments in Tripoli fishing port and Beirut military port. In Tripoli

fishing port, the marine sediment samples were taken from 11 different points with depth

ranging between 2 and 5 m, while in Beirut military port, samples were taken from 12

points with depth ranging between 5 and 10 m.

The results obtained from the samples at Tripoli fishing port are shown below:









Concentrations of Cd ranged from 0.237 to 0.644 µg/g with an average value of

0.328 µg/g.

Concentrations of Pb ranged from 40.2 to 92.8 µg/g with an average value of

60.12 µg/g.

Concentrations of Cu ranged from 55.7 to 524.5 µg/g with an average value of

152.592 µg/g.



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The results obtained from the samples at Beirut Military port are shown below:









Concentrations of Cd ranged from 0.26 to 6.7 µg/g with an average value of

2.25 µg/g.

Concentrations of Pb ranged from 19.2 to 518.9 µg/g with an average value of

240.19 µg/g.

Concentrations of Cu ranged from 27.5 to 246.8 µg/g with an average value of

143.64 µg/g.



The levels of heavy and trace metals in the seabed sediments in Tripoli fishing port above

are higher than those that would typically be associated with the deep-sea seabed owing

to the shallower depth and proximity to sources of contaminants from the coastline and

the various anthropogenic inputs owing to the nature of the location as a commercial port.

Except for Tyre, all the studied locations on Lebanon’s coast were considered

representative of coastal locations for the region that were within proximity to

anthropogenic or other sources of elevated concentrations of metals, hydrocarbons and

nutrients, which would be expected in coastal waters.

5.3.2.6 Block 4 sediment sampling campaign

Methods

Seabed sediments were collected from 29 stations throughout Block 4, of which 25

stations were within the priority area, as shown in Figure 5.21 in Section 5.3.1.7 (Block 4

seawater sampling campaign). Figure 5.21 shows all surveyed stations for the Block 4

survey campaign. The priority sampling area comprised areas of deep-sea canyons as

well as more open areas of seabed bathyal plains (bathyal – describing areas of seawater

depth between 1000 and 4000 m).

Sediment was sampled using a 0.25-m2 Grey-O’Hara steel box core deployed twice at

each sampling station to collect sufficient material for sampling and analysis. The box

core was deployed directly from the survey vessel.

Several in-situ observations were made of the sediment in the cores, including visual

appearance, colour and redox potential. In addition, recovered samples were

photographed. The box core was then subsampled for a range of physico-chemical and

biological laboratory analyses.

Results

Visual description

Appearance (colour and odour) of sediments, stratification, possible disturbance (e.g.

incomplete degradation of organic matter/chemical pollution) were identified during

sampling.

Block 4 sediment characteristics are summarised below:









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Sediments are brown mud.

A superficial silty mud with very fine light fractions layer is typically present at the

sediment surface.

This superficial layer overlies a more compact grey clay layer.

Sediments had no odour and no trace of reduction but light stratification.

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Grain size

Sediment grain size-distribution determines sediment fluidity and compactness and in

turn the ability to host benthic infauna and/or accumulate contaminants. Table 5.12

demonstrates average grain size distribution.

Table 5.12: Average grain size distribution in sediment (Block 4)

Clay (<2 µm)



Silt (2–63 µm)



Fine sand (63–

200 µm)



Coarse sand

(200 µm-2 mm)



23.1%



75.3%



1.5%



0.1%



Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Following Bellair and Pomerol (1977) grain class standards, sediments were categorised

as silts with little sand (<2%). According to grain size distribution across stations, the silt

fraction was the most dominant and is presented in Figure 5.47.



Figure 5.47: Particles size distribution in sediments between stations (Block 4) (d.w. =

dry weight)

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Dry weight varied between stations ranging from 2 to 73% with an average of 48%. This

variation occurred due to larger rocks and elements in disturbed sediments such as bases

of seamounts and entrances/seafloor of canyons. However, no correlation was identified

between percentage fraction of coarse sand and distribution of coarser elements.



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Water content

Water content of sediments is related to grain size with finer sediments containing more

water than coarser sediments. Block 4 sampling results (shown in Figure 5.48) indicated

high water content for all stations which is consistent with the grain size results.



Figure 5.48: Water content distribution in sediments (Block 4)

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Organic and nutrient enrichment

Total organic matter (TOM) and total organic carbon (TOC) of sediments were analysed.

TOM varied widely from 2.4% to 54.6% (mean of 16.7%) with highest concentrations

identified for stations located on open areas of bathyal plain seabed. Conversely, TOC

concentrations showed little variation (between 6.2 and 9 g/kg). TOM and TOC results

indicate a low organic content, despite the sediment containing a fairly high clay fraction.

Results for TOM and TOC are shown in Figure 5.49.



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Figure 5.49: TOM and TOC distribution in Block 4 sediments

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Nutrient analysis results showed total nitrogen concentrations were low (analysed using

the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) method) and homogeneous between stations (between

0.5 and 0.8 g/kg dry weight (average 0.6 g/kg). Nitrite concentrations were not identified

as levels were below the limit of quantification (20 mg/kg dry weight). Phosphorous (P)

concentrations were also low and homogenous (ranging between 0.5 and 0.8 mg/kg dry

weight and an average of 0.7 g/kg). Table 5.13 presents average results of TOC, TOM,

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TKN and P measured in Block 4 sediment along with the organic enrichment index (Alzieu

index) for each parameter. Total index was 3, which indicates low organic enrichment.

Table 5.13: Average concentrations of organic contents and nutrients in sediments

TOC



TOM



TKN



P



%



%



g/kg d.w.



mg/kg d.w.



Average whole area



0.72



16.7



0.61



687



Organic enrichment index



1



-



1



1



Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Redox potential

The measure of oxidation-reduction (redox) potential of sediments reflects biological

activity of the sediment bacteriological component. Higher organic enrichment is linked

to lower redox potential, whereas lower organic enrichment is linked to higher redox

potential. Block 4 stations predominantly showed positive redox potentials and are shown

in Figure 5.50. This was consistent with low organic enrichment of station samples.

However, some stations (those located inside or at the entrance of submarine canyons)

demonstrated negative redox potential.



Figure 5.50: Redox potential measured in the sediments in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Metals

Metal concentrations in sediments were analysed. Aluminium and iron are of interest as

these are considered indicators of anthropogenic pollution. Aluminium and iron

concentrations were consistent across stations with aluminium ranging between 27.3 and

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41.4 g/kg dry weight and iron between 40.6 and 56.6 g/kg dry weight. Lowest aluminium

concentrations were measured at stations located on the open bathyal plain (southern

section Block 4), with highest concentrations in a canyon in the northern area of the block.

Nickel and copper concentrations were above regulatory thresholds (the OSPAR and US

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) levels). Arsenic concentrations also exceeded

OSPAR thresholds. Mercury levels exceeded geochemical background levels (GBL)

recorded for the Mediterranean (GBL = 0.00004-0.03 µg/L (Bruland and Lohan, 2003),

yet were below regulatory thresholds. Zinc and lead concentrations were low and below

GBL levels, consistent with naturally occurring ocean concentrations. Some metals were

not detected as levels were below limits of quantification. Table 5.14 shows average

metal concentrations in Block 4 sediments.

Table 5.14: Average metal concentrations in sediments and regulatory thresholds

Block 4



Regulatory threshold



Metals

(mg/kg dry

matter)



Mean



Min.



Max.



Aluminium (Al)



35,176



27,300



41,400



Antimony (Sb)



1.2



1.0



2.62



Silver (Ag)



<5



<5



<5



Arsenic (As)



15.2



9.47



20.3



Barium (Ba)



48.9



35.1



73.8



Beryllium (Be)



<1



<1



<1



Cadmium (Cd)



<0.4



<0.4



<0.4



1.2



Chromium (Cr)



55.7



44.0



66.3



81



Cobalt (Co)



25.0



19.5



28.9



Copper (Cu)



48.0



37.6



57.5



34



15



Mercury (Hg)



0.11



0.10



0.17



0.15



0.05



Iron (Fe)



50986



40600



56600



Lithium (Li)



29.2



21.7



36.8



Manganese

(Mn)



2753



790



4960



Molybdenum

(Mo)



1.4



1.0



2.26



Nickel (Ni)



49.1



40.2



55.2



20.9



Lead (Pb)



17.2



11.3



23.6



46.7



25



Selenium (Se)



<5.00



<5.00



<5.00



-



-



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ERL

OSPAR US EPA



Geochemical

background

levels (GBL)



8.2



0.15



5-69



Block 4



Regulatory threshold



Metals

(mg/kg dry

matter)



ERL

OSPAR US EPA



Geochemical

background

levels (GBL)



Mean



Min.



Max.



Tin (Sn)



<5.00



<5.00



<5.00



Thallium (Tl)



<1.00



<1.00



<1.00



Vanadium (V)



84.4



66.9



94.0



-



-



Zinc (Zn)



62.8



47.0



81.8



150



90



Colours in the table indicate concentrations that exceeded a threshold. Values in blue means

concentration under the threshold. ERL OSPAR US EPA = Effects Range Low provided by the OSPAR

Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Geochemical background levels

measured in oceans, global databases (based on the literature of Bruland and Lohan, 2003). Source:

Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon analysis of Block 4 sediments identified PAHs, aliphatic and aromatic

hydrocarbons, BTEX and PCBs. PAH concentrations ranged between 0.016 and

0.510 µg/kg dry weight (dw) with a mean of 0.093 µg/kg dw. Levels were below OSPAR

and EU EPA thresholds for all stations, though fluoranthene levels were slightly higher

than GBL. Overall, no significant PAH contamination was identified. Table 5.15 below

presents a summary of the results, regulatory thresholds and GBLs.

Table 5.15: Average PAH concentrations in sediments and regulatory thresholds



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PAH

(µg/kg dry

matter)



Concentration in the

whole area

Mean



Min.



Naphthalene



6.2



Acenaphtylene



Regulatory threshold



Max.



ERL OSPAR

(US EPA)



Geochemical

background

levels



4.0



20.0



160



-



-



<2.4



2,4



-



-



Acenaphtene



-



<2.4



5,3



-



-



Fluorene



3.4



2.0



8.6



-



-



Phenanthrene



11.5



5.6



45.0



85



-



Anthracene



3.7



2.0



13.0



240



-



Fluoranthene



10.4



2.0



53.0



600



40



Pyrene



7.6



2.0



37.0



665



-



Benzo (a)

anthracene



6.4



2.0



48.0



261



-



Chrysene



7.6



2.0



51.0



384



-



Benzo (b)

fluoranthene



11.7



2.8



72.0



-



200



Benzo (k)

fluoranthene



4.7



2.0



24.0



-



100



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PAH

(µg/kg dry

matter)



Concentration in the

whole area



Regulatory threshold



Geochemical

background

levels



Mean



Min.



Max.



ERL OSPAR

(US EPA)



Benzo (a)

pyrene



7.1



2.0



47.0



430



100



Dibenzo (a,h)

anthracene



3.9



2.0



28.0



-



-



Benzo (g,h,i)

perylene



6.3



2.0



34.0



85



100



Indeno (1,2,3cd) pyrene



6.7



2.0



41.0



240



100



Colours in the table indicate concentrations that exceeded a threshold. Values in blue means

concentration under the threshold. ERL OSPAR US EPA = Effects Range Low provided by the OSPAR

Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Geochemical background levels

measured in oceans, global databases (based on the literature of Bruland and Lohan, 2003). Source:

Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



No aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons were identified at any stations in Block 4, whereas

BTEX concentrations were below limits of quantification (<0.10 mg/kg or 0.20 mg/kg of

dry matter). PCB levels were also below limits of quantification (<0.001 mg/kg of dry

matter).

Bacteria degrading hydrocarbons

Bacteria degrading hydrocarbons were detected in low levels at all stations except B401

(< 2,00E +04 – Most Probable Number (MPN)/g). Station B401 demonstrated far higher

number at around 1.10E+05 MPN/g. Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria concentrations

showed far greater variation in levels (from close to 0 MPN/g to 7,00E+06 MPN/g).

Highest levels were recorded at station B406 on the open bathyal plain.

Figure 5.51 demonstrations variation in bacterial concentrations between stations.



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Figure 5.51: Variations of sediment bacterial concentrations between stations

(Block 4)

MPN = most probable number. Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Conclusion

The results of the analysis of sediment samples collected during the Block 4 sampling

campaign indicate that the sediments of Block 4 are comprised brownish mud dominated

by fine particle size fractions.

Despite this important fine fraction, sediments exhibit a low organic and nutrient

enrichment, except for TOM, which presents large spatial variations and at certain

stations was very high. These results are similar to those found in Leviathan field (to the

south of Block 4, within Lebanon’s offshore waters) where seafloor sediments were

classified as silty clay. TOC concentrations were considered similar to those at Leviathan

field, which is expected given the highly oligotrophic nature of the entire eastern

Mediterranean region.

In spite of a high percentage of fine fractions liable to trap metallic pollution, the overall

results show the absence of metallic contamination that would present toxicity to marine

organisms throughout Block 4. However arsenic, copper, nickel and, to a lesser degree,

mercury present higher concentrations. Arsenic, copper, and nickel are known to be

present in high concentrations throughout the Levantine Basin (CSA, 2116). These

results are consistent with those found in Leviathan field to the south, where no metal

contamination was noticed except for arsenic, copper and nickel. In Leviathan Field,

contamination of antimony, barium, cadmium and lead were also reported but restricted

in the proximity to Leviathan exploration wells themselves, and these elevated

concentrations are considered the result of previous drilling activity.

Most sediments in Block 4 display hydrocarbon concentrations below the reference

values proposed by different regulations, regarding toxicity for the marine organisms.

PAHs were in low concentrations throughout the whole of Block 4, two stations.

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX and PCBs were not detected.

This absence of contamination is consistent with results found in Leviathan field where

no contamination of PAHs, TPH and PCBs was noted.

When detected, bacteria degrading hydrocarbons were in low concentration compared

to heterotrophic aerobic bacteria: the mean ratio was 0.5% indicating no sign of

hydrocarbons contamination, which is consistent with previous results of PAHs analysis.

The results are considered typical of the deep-sea sediments in the eastern

Mediterranean and contrast with the much higher concentrations observed in sediments

in Lebanon’s coastal waters and port areas, as reported above.

5.3.2.7 Seabed sediment sensitivity

Coastal sediments off Lebanon have high contamination levels. Offshore sediments have

high levels of some heavy metal contamination, but low levels of other contaminants.

Therefore, the overall sediment sensitivity is considered as low (2).



5.3.3



Seascape

There is limited available information describing the seascape of Lebanon. The study

area focused on the coastal landscape along the length of Lebanon. No AOI is specified

as seascape is not a receptor (the receptors are tourists and other viewers).



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The present and proposed land use/landscape of the Lebanese territory, including the

coastline, is determined by the National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory

(NPMPLT). The entire country has been mapped with respect to land use (see Figure

5.52). Coastal areas have special significance and are protected by law. The main areas

include the







Aarqa River estuary (MoE, Decision no. 188/1998)

terraces and beach of southern Tripoli towards Qalamoun (Decree No.

3362/1972)









El Jawz River estuary (MoE, Decision no. 22/1998)

Batroun National Marine Hima at the National Centre for Marine Sciences (MOA,

Decision no. 129 of 1991)

Nahr Ibrahim River estuary and archaeological sites (MoE, Decision no. 34/1997)

coastal front rocks and terraces of Wata Slim (Tabarja) (MoE, Decision no.

200/1997)

El Kelb River estuary and historical site (MoE, Decision no. 97/1998)

Beirut River estuary (MoE, Decision no. 130/1998)

Awali River estuary (MoE, Decision no. 131/1998; MoEW, 2019).















Nahr Ibrahim River estuary and archaeological sites is the closest protected coastal site

to Block 4 (9.1 km from Block 4 and 29.2 km from the proposed well site; Figure 5.53).

The sensitivity of the project for landscape is considered negligible and considered in the

impact assessment only within the tourism receptor (Section 5.5.3.5). The drilling site is

20 km offshore and only visible from sea level along the coast, though it is noted that

subsequent wells could be closer.

There is no relevant or specific information regarding seascape in Block 4.



5.3.4



Summary of key physical sensitivities

The key physical sensitivities within the study area are













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air quality: The eastern Mediterranean is affected by various sources of air

pollution, including long-range airborne pollutants and particulate matter (PM10

and PM2.5) from dust storms. The Lebanese coastline also has high ozone

concentrations, while onshore contaminants such as such as NO2, PM and O3

exceed the standards as a result of air pollution in Lebanon, predominantly from

the industrial and transport sector and from electricity generation and are highest

in the main coastal cities.

seawater quality: Offshore, seawater has low turbidity, is oligotrophic in terms of

nutrients and uncontaminated and is considered representative of conditions

typical for offshore locations for the eastern Mediterranean. The seawater quality

within the priority area of Block 4 has a high degree of homogeneity. The coastal

seawater is highly contaminated with anthropogenic pollution, such as untreated

sewage discharge, solid waste and port activities, around major coastal cities

such as Beirut, and algal blooms have been recorded near the Antelias River

estuary and the El Kaleb estuary.

seabed sediment quality: The offshore sediments comprise brownish mud

dominated by fine particles and are considered typical of the deep-sea sediments

in the eastern Mediterranean, with low contamination from most heavy metals

and other contaminants such as hydrocarbons, BTEX and PCBs, except for

arsenic, copper and nickel. The characteristics have been identified as

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homogeneous throughout the priority area of Block 4, which suggests that the

environmental conditions of the habitats are stable, and the area is of oligotrophic

nature, with low organic and nutrient enrichment. Higher concentrations of heavy

metals, hydrocarbons and nutrients are observed in sediments in Lebanon’s

coastal waters and port areas, but this coastal contamination has not affected the

offshore deep seafloor.



Figure 5.52: Existing and proposed land use/landscape of the Lebanese coastline

(based on the NPMPLT)

Source: MoEW (2019)



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Figure 5.53: Protected and proposed coastal sites

Source: MoE/IUCN (2012), MoEW (2019)



5.4



Biological environment

The Mediterranean Sea holds more than 10,000 species of macroscopic marine

organisms, which corresponds to 4–18% of global marine biodiversity (Bianchi and Morri,

2000; Boudouresque, 2004; Bariche, 2012). Cartilaginous and bony fishes, for instance,

are represented in the Mediterranean by respectively 9.5 and 4.1% of the total number

of species of these groups worldwide. Similarly, 18.4% of the world’s marine mammals,

8.6% of marine reptiles, 5.6% of marine invertebrates and 16.9% of seaweeds and

marine plants are also found in the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean is therefore

considered a marine biodiversity hotspot.

Biodiversity is high as a result of its geological history, paleogeography (particularly the

last 5 million years) and the variety of climatic and hydrological conditions that support

temperate and subtropical biota (Bianchi and Morri, 2000; Boudouresque, 2004).

Species diversity and abundance decrease in the Mediterranean from west to east. This

is because the eastern Mediterranean basin is characterised by a semi-arid climate with



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limited precipitation and reduced inflow of fresh water and nutrients. This is also because

nutrient-rich Atlantic waters are depleted when they reach the eastern Mediterranean

basin. These nutrients are essential to marine life (Quignard and Tomasini, 2000;

Bariche, 2012).

Biodiversity also decreases in the Mediterranean with depth and major faunal transitions

occur at 200 m, 500 m and 1000 m water depths (Tselepides et al., 2000). In addition,

the relatively narrow continental shelf results in the majority of the Mediterranean basin

being deep (Bariche, 2012). Prominent thermal stratification exists within the surface

waters, while below a depth of about 400 m a permanent homothermia (12 to 13°C) is

present between this depth and the seabed. This temperature is considered “too warm”

for potential colonisers from the deep Atlantic. The situation is similar for potential deep

tropical colonising species from the deep Red Sea and Indo-Pacific geographical area,

through the Suez Canal (Quignard and Tomasini, 2000; Bariche, 2012). It should be

noted however that a number of more moderate depth Indo-Pacific species have become

established particularly in the eastern Mediterranean via the Suez Canal. Deep-sea

depressions or trenches in which organic matter accumulates over time may represent

isolated benthic biodiversity hotspots (Boetius et al., 1996).

Marine biodiversity reported for Lebanon’s waters includes over 230 species of seaweeds

(macroalgae) and seagrasses (flowering plants) and at least 12 groups of marine

invertebrates, including several hundred species of molluscs, polychaetes, crustaceans,

sponges and cnidarians (e.g., Khouzami et al., 1996; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997; Bitar and

Kouli-Bitar, 1998; Bariche and Trilles, 2005; Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012; Crocetta et al.,

2013a,b; 2014; Khalaf and Fakhri, 2017).



5.4.1



Benthic communities

The AOI for benthic communities is a 1.5 km radius around the proposed well site and

encompasses the precautionary distance from the wells to the distance which drilling

discharge impacts and anchoring impacts (if conventional moored semi-submersibles are

used) on offshore benthic communities could extend.

The study area is wider, with a focus on the Block 4 priority area, and broadening out to

include Block 4 as a whole. The study area also encompasses territorial Lebanese waters

inshore of Block 4 to give context to the low sensitivity of the benthic communities within

the AOI and to include coastal benthic communities.



5.4.1.1 Offshore benthic communities

The offshore deep-water benthic communities in Lebanese waters have rarely been

studied and as such only very scarce information is available. A recent study which used

a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) provided some information on the

biodiversity of the deep sea macrobenthos (OCEANA, 2016). Six main habitat types have

been documented at depths ranging between 36 m and 1050 m. These habitats are:

coralligenous habitats and rodolith/maerl beds; rocky bottom areas; muddy and sandymuddy bottoms; sandy bottoms; canyon heads; and bathyal muds. The depths of habitat

types were not delineated by the authors (Aguilar et al., 2018). The findings identified 619

benthic taxa, which included most taxonomic groups (Figure 5.54). The most significant

being molluscs (178 taxa), fishes (152 taxa), cnidarians (147 taxa) and sponges (57 taxa)

(Figure 5.54).

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5.4.1.2 Block 4 benthic community EBS

Methods

As part of the Block 4 specific EBS conducted in spring 2019, benthic communities were

characterised from seabed samples taken throughout Block 4. The sampling of seabed

macrobenthos (invertebrates living in the seabed sediment) used the same box core that

was used to collect sediment for physico-chemical analyses. Macrobenthos was sampled

at a total of 29 stations throughout Block 4, of which 25 stations were sampled within the

priority area (Figure 5.21) that had been identified as the focus of the exploration drilling

campaign, as the seismic surveys had indicated that this area avoided to a large extent

areas of potential shallow geohazard. As noted previously, two deployments of the box

core were carried out at each sampling station. Half of the volume from the first

deployment and all the second deployment of the box core at each sampling station were

retained to provide samples covering a total seabed area of 0.3 m2 for subsequent

taxonomic analysis. This resulted in three replicate samples at each sampled station.



Figure 5.54: Number of species recorded during the OCEANA expedition

Source: Aguilar et al. (2018)



Samples were processed using a 500-μm-mesh sieve. All retained infaunal samples were

transferred from the sieve into labelled plastic containers and preserved with buffered

formalin and rose bengal. Samples were then transferred to the laboratory for subsequent

analysis.

In addition to sediment collection, visual monitoring of the seabed was undertaken using

a video mounted on an ROV. The ROV surveyed 14 transects throughout the block, all

of which were undertaken within the priority area.



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The ROV was equipped with a range of cameras and an obstacle avoidance sonar.

Transects were surveyed at an approximate speed of 0.2–0.5 knots for a distance of

500–1300 m.

The imagery provided visual evidence of the seabed conditions, focusing particularly on

the epifaunal communities (living on top of the seabed) in Block 4.

In addition to the video transects, drop-down video footage was captured at the same

sites from which sediment was collected. A camera was deployed attached to the box

core and slightly inclined to capture a general view of the seabed close to where the

seabed was sampled. Videos were checked following each deployment and a screenshot

of the seabed taken from the video at each sampling location.

Results

Benthic community description

The analysis of benthic samples in Block 4 identified 330 individuals of macrobenthic

organisms from 20 different taxonomic groups. Samples were sorted, counted and

identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. A mean density of 38 individuals/m2 and

a mean biomass of 0.135 mg/m2, which is considered low, for a deep-sea environment.

In particular, the measurements of biomass are very low owing to the occurrence of

animals of small body size.

The species richness, average density and biomass, and the measure of diversity (using

the Shannon Weaver diversity Index) and evenness were all calculated on the basis of

the list of identified species in combination with their density and biomass per station.

Species richness was calculated per sampled area (0.3 m2) while all other descriptors

were scaled over an area of 1 m2.

Average species richness was 8 species per station and ranged from 4 species per

station within the priority area to 15 species per station to the north of the priority area.

Average density recorded was very low with an average of 38 individuals/m2 and a range

between 13 and 70 individuals/m2 within the priority area.

Biomass measured was low with an average biomass at all stations of 0.066 mg/m2. This

biomass is indicative of communities composed of very small infaunal organisms and is

typical for deep sea environments.

The calculated Shannon Weaver diversity index was intermediate with an average of

2.86. Most stations showed diversities higher than 2, except station B409, while

diversities higher than 3 occurred at 13 stations. This is indicative of differences in the

structure of the communities.

Species evenness indicates how evenly distributed the species are in a designated

community. The average evenness was 0.94 with a range between 0.88 and 1.

Overall, the benthic infauna seems more abundant in Leviathan field to the south off the

Lebanese coast with a mean density reaching 107.3 individuals/m 2 (CSA, 2016).

However, the specific richness is of the same order and Shannon Weaver diversity index

is lower in Leviathan field. These comparative results suggest that the offshore seafloor

of the eastern coasts of the Levantine Basin is a low-productive area and supports an



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impoverished infaunal community, which is consistent with the low organic and nutrient

enrichment found in the sediment.

Benthic community composition

Sixty-six taxa were identified in the benthic samples. The most representative species

were polychaetes (23), followed by bivalves (eight), amphipods (seven) and cumaceans

(five). All remaining groups have 5 or less species and 12 include a single taxon

(actiniarians, copepods, decapods, mysidaceans, dipters6, caudofoveatids, scaphopods,

echinoids, holothuroids, ophiuroids, nematodes and nemerteans).

Polychaetes were present in all 29 stations and bivalves occurred in 27, while amphipods

and copepods occurred in less than half of the stations. Actiniarians, decapods,

mysidaceans, dipters and holothuroid echinoderms were present at single stations.

Figure 5.55 shows the averaged percentage species richness, density, biomass and

frequency of the main benthic infaunal taxonomic groups collected in the Block 4

samples.



6 There is no existing insect species colonisation in seawater, so the presence of dipters must be due

to sample contamination when the box corer was on the deck of the vessel in the open air.

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Figure 5.55: Percentage species richness, density, biomass and frequency of the

main benthic infaunal taxonomic groups collected in Block 4 samples

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Density was largely dominated by polychaetes which represented 42.8% of the total

density (Figure 5.55). Bivalve molluscs and copepod crustaceans represent 23.5% and

6% of the total density, respectively, while the remaining taxonomical groups made up

less than 5%.

Biomass of the benthic community consisted of holothuroid echinoderms, which

represent almost 50% of the total. Sipunculids and polychaetes contributed to the total

biomass with 23% and 10% respectively, bivalves with 5% and decapods and echinoids

with 2%. All other groups make up less than 2% of the total biomass. However, it must

be noted that these data did not reflect the actual distribution of biomass in Block 4

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samples, as the holothuroids were represented by a single specimen (a sea cucumber)

in one of the replicates at station B423. Therefore, the other taxonomic groups (namely

sipunculids and polychaetes) have a higher representative biomass than that shown in

the percentages shown in Figure 5.55.

The following figures (Figure 5.56 and Figure 5.57) illustrate several abundant or common

species that were identified within samples collected throughout Block 4.



Figure 5.56: Common or abundant species sampled in Block 4 (annelids)

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)

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Figure 5.57: Common or abundant species sampled in Block 4 (other taxa)

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)

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Benthic community structure

Cluster and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to analyse the structure of the

benthic communities to reveal the main groups of stations and their particular

characteristics. The differences between the groups of stations identified in these

analyses have been assessed by one-way analysis of similarity, and the species

responsible for the within-group similarities and the between-group dissimilarities have

been assessed with the help of the similarity percentage analysis.

Based on the density data, the stations in Block 4 can be grouped in two highly

significantly different groups, which did not show an evident geographical or bathymetric

distribution and showed a high level of intermixing. However, Group 1 stations were

located more in the western part of the survey area than those from Group 2 (Figure

5.59). Groups 1 and 2 clearly highlighted differences in the composition of the benthic

assemblages identified at the sampling stations. These differences were supported by

differences in the levels of TOM and total PAH concentrations of the sediments (more

than 25% higher in the former), as well as in redox levels and arsenic concentrations

(more than 5% higher in Group 1).

Figure 5.58 shows the results of the cluster analysis.



Figure 5.58: Results of the cluster analysis showing the two groups of stations

identified at a similarity percentage of 9%. Group 1: green; Group 2: orange

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Figure 5.59: Geographical location of the two groups of stations identified in the

cluster and MDS analysis

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Seabed imagery

The ROV observations show a flat muddy seafloor with very few sessile invertebrates on

the seabed despite numerous examples of evidence (holes, mounds), as well as a low

abundance of mobile species such as red shrimps and few fish (mainly tripod

Bathypterois dubius fish).

A high abundance and frequency of anthropogenic waste was observed on the seafloor,

varying in nature and size (an average of one waste item per 50 m of video transect

length, Figure 5.61).

Overall the seafloor presents a relatively flat and homogeneous soft sediment

environment, except at transects B4-VT07 and B4-VT13 (Figure 5.21; same location

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shown in Figure 5.62), within a pre-identified pockmark area, where outcrops have

formed dark hard reliefs one or two metres in height. These features likely have originated

from the chemical reaction/precipitation of seeping cold gases coming in contact with

seawater at the sediment surface. These reliefs were not highly colonised by sessile

invertebrates yet abundant molluscs, white sea urchins, crabs and fish were observed

(Diplocanthopoma cf. brachysoma, Lepidion sp.). Throughout the surveyed area of Block

4, this was the only location showing a developed epifaunal community. It is the only area

classified as high sensitivity seabed habitat and is located north of the proposed well

location (Figure 5.60).

There is a small area of potentially high sensitivity seabed habitat to the south of the

proposed well location, another pockmark area. The canyon areas within the Block 4

priority area are classified potentially as low sensitivity habitat (Figure 5.60).



Figure 5.60: Location of sensitive areas determined from the EBS



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No coralligenous habitats and rodolith/maerl beds were observed as they had been

during the OCEANA survey campaign conducted between 2012 and 2016 (Aguilar et al.,

2018). The OCEANA survey described six main habitat types over a broad depth range

(36 m to 1050 m): Coralligenous habitats and rodolith/maerl beds; rocky bottom areas;

muddy and sandy-muddy bottoms; sandy bottoms; canyon heads; and bathyal mud

(CANA-CNRS, 2014; Aguilar et al., 2018). In comparison, Block 4 biota appear to be less

diverse when compared to the findings of previous regional campaigns which reported

75 flora counts, 14 fauna of invertebrates, 99 species of molluscs, 82 species of

polychaetes, 45 species of crustaceans, 44 species of sponges and 22 species of

cnidarians, totalling 650 species and benthic taxa (Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012; Khalaf and

Fakhri, 2017). It should be recognised, however, that the range in water depths surveyed

in these previous campaigns was greater than that of the surveyed area of Block 4.

Conclusions

Overall, the benthic infauna seems more abundant in Leviathan field to the south of Block

4. However overall species richness is of the same order and species diversity is lower

at Leviathan field. These comparative results suggest that the offshore seafloor of the

eastern coasts of the Levantine Basin is a low-productive area and supports an

impoverished infaunal community, which is consistent with the low organic and nutrient

enrichment found in the sediment.

5.4.1.3 Sensitivity

The sensitivity of the benthic fauna is considered low (2), the area is a ‘bathyal mud’

habitat, which is considered relatively impoverished in the region in terms of species

abundance and diversity. Sensitive marine habitats (offshore) are rated as high (4) as

one area of highly sensitive habitat is located in the Block 4 priority area. Although this is

outside the AOI for the first exploration well, other potentially sensitive habitats may be

present in the Block 4 priority area.



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Holes grouped in a patch



Soft sediment with holes and mounds



Red shrimp (cf. Aristeus antennatus)



Tripod fish (Bathypterois dubius)



Anthropogenic waste



Anthropogenic waste colonised by a fish



Blackfin sorcerer fish (Nettastoma melanurum)



Accumulation of anthropogenic waste



Figure 5.61: ROV images of the typical seafloor throughout Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Figure 5.62: ROV images from Transect B4 VT07 showing the seafloor epibenthic

communities in the vicinity of potential cold gas seep area

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



5.4.1.4 Coastal benthic communities

Marine biodiversity in Lebanese coastal waters encompasses most groups of marine

invertebrates, including several hundred species of sponge, cnidarians, worms, molluscs,

crustaceans and echinoderms (e.g., Tortonese et al., 1966; Fadlallah, 1975; Shiber,

1976; Shiber and Fattah, 1977; Khouzami et al., 1996; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997; Bitar

and Kouli-Bitar, 1998; Perez et al., 2004; Bariche and Trilles, 2005, 2006; Vacelet et al.,

2007; Harmelin et al., 2009; Morri et al., 2009; Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012; UNEP/MAP RS,

2012, 2013; Crocetta et al., 2013a,b, 2014; Ramos-Espla et al., 2015; Harmelin et al.,

2016; Badreddine, 2018). As coastal benthic communities are an integral part of the

coastal benthic habitats, the sensitivity of coastal benthic habitats (Section 5.4.2.4)

incorporates the sensitivity of coastal benthic communities.



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5.4.2



Coastal benthic habitats

The AOI for coastal benthic habitats is limited to the near vicinity of the Port of Beirut

during routine activities (vessels transiting from the port to the well site). The study area

extends over the whole length of the Lebanese coast to provide context.



5.4.2.1 Macroalgae

Studies on macroalgae along the Lebanese coast are fairly limited and relatively few

studies have reported on the diversity. Studies conducted from 1976 to 2003 reported

about 220 species/taxa were known in Lebanese waters (Basson et al., 1976; Khouzami

et al., 1996; Bitar, 1999; Abboud-Abi Saab et al., 2003). A checklist of marine macroflora

and cyanobacteria listed 243 taxa (Lakkis and Novel-Lakkis, 2007). It is relatively wellknown that organic pollution has had a negative effect on brown algal species in

Lebanese waters, whereas many green algae are considered more tolerant.

5.4.2.2 Seagrasses

Marine seagrasses form a unique ecological entity, as they are flowering plants that grow

in the marine environment. Two species of seagrass are present in the Lebanese coastal

waters, Cymodocea nodosa and Halophila stipulacea, which occupy shallow sandy

seabeds, often forming meadows. These meadows, or seagrass beds, are considered of

great importance in coastal waters, as they constitute nursery and feeding grounds for

an array of marine species (Bitar, 2010; Kouyoumjian and Hamze, 2012; Kanaan et al.,

2015; MoE/GEF, 2016). Several of the proposed marine protected areas in Lebanon

include the presence of seagrass beds in their applicable criteria, see Table 5.16, and

Figure 5.70 for known areas of seagrass beds in Lebanon’s coastal waters.

5.4.2.3 Vermetid reefs

Vermetid reefs are bioconstructions created by gastropod molluscs belonging to

Dendropoma (and related genera) in association with another vermetid Vermetus

triquetrus and the crustose coralline algae Neogoniolithon brassica-florida (Setchell and

Mason 1943; Chemello and Silenzi, 2011; Milazzo et al., 2017).

In the Mediterranean basin, vermetid reefs are commonly distributed along the warmwater coasts of the southern part and their largest bioconstructions can be found along

the Levantine Sea (Milazzo et al., 2017), including the Lebanese coast.

Vermetid reefs are one of the most important coastal ecosystems of the Mediterranean

Sea and guarantee many ecological services, e.g., productivity and biodiversity, refuges

and nursery areas (Milazzo et al., 2017). They also protect the shoreline from wave

erosion and act as a carbon sink (Chemello and Silenzi, 2011). Figure 5.63 shows a

schematic illustration of a typical vermetid reef on the Lebanese coast relative to the sea

level.

The death and erosion of vermetid reefs are presently observed in several area of the

Mediterranean Sea, particularly along the Levantine coast (Rilov, 2016; Milazzo et al.,

2017). Several of the proposed marine protected areas in Lebanon include the presence

of vermetid reefs in their applicable criteria, see Table 5.16.



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Figure 5.63: Schematic illustration of typical Lebanese vermetid reef

Source: Badreddine (2018)



Table 5.16: Proposed MPAs and applicable coastal benthic habitat criteria

Name of proposed MPA



Vermetid

reefs



Seagrass

beds



Sidon rocks









✓ (vestige)



Beirut port outer platform

Byblos







Batroun Phoenician wall







Artificial

reef



Coralligeneous

concretions

















Litani estuary







Awally estuary







Damour estuary







Nahr Ibrahim estuary







Arida estuary







Source: Based on information in Lebanese Ministry of Environment/IUCN (2012)



5.4.2.4 Sensitivity

The AOI (vicinity of Port of Beirut for routine activities) and the wider study area (area

that could be impacted in the case of an accidental event) includes sensitive benthic

habitats. The sensitivity of coastal benthic habitats such as seagrass beds and vermetid

reefs is considered high (4) because these habitats are of international importance that

would be difficult to restore if affected.



5.4.3



Planktonic communities

Planktonic communities are pelagic organisms that live suspended in the water column.

They are divided into phytoplankton and zooplankton and are usually subdivided based

on size. Viruses are considered part of the virioplankton while most of the picoplankton

consists of archaea and bacteria. Larger organisms can be categorised based on their

sizes (micro-, meso-, macro- and megaplankton) or as autotrophic phytoplankton and



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heterotrophic zooplankton. All planktonic organisms have limited motive capacity and are

dependent on prevailing water movements.

The AOI for planktonic communities is a radius of 25 km around the proposed well site

and is the precautionary distance from the wells to which drill fluids and cuttings impacts

on water quality, and hence plankton could extend. The study area encompasses Block

4 and all territorial Lebanese waters to give context to the low sensitivity of the planktonic

communities’ AOI.

5.4.3.1 Phytoplankton

A relatively large number of phytoplankton species (>400 species) have been reported

from Lebanese waters (e.g. Abboud-Abi Saab, 1985; 1989; Lakkis, 2011a). Their

composition, densities and biomass fluctuate based on season or other factors such as

nutrients and light availability or pollution levels in the water column. Species, such as

dinoflagellates, that live in waters that contain high levels of phosphates, nitrates and

organic matter may grow rapidly and under certain conditions form a bloom.

Spring phytoplankton blooms in the coastal waters of Lebanon are characterised by the

presence of diatoms while dinoflagellates are very common during the summer season.

The seasonal distribution of the most commonly observed species is shown in Table 5.17

(Lakkis, 2007). Typically, the diversity of phytoplankton populations is lowest in May and

highest in September (Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012).

Table 5.17: Seasonal distribution of the most common phytoplankton species in

Lebanese waters

Season



Phytoplankton species



Winter



Chaetoceros curvisetrus, Ch. pseudocurvisetus, Ch. decipiens,

Leptocylindrus danicus, Skeletonema costatum, Pseudonitzschia

fraudulenta, P.seriata, Cerataulina pelagica, Dinophysis caudata,

Protoperidinium divergens, P.diabolus.



Spring



Ch. pseudo-curvisetus, Skeletonema costatum, Leptocylindrus danicus,

Lminimus, P. fraudulenta, P. seriata, P. pungens, P. closterium



Summer–

autumn



Chaetoceros affinis, Ch. brevis, Ch. didymus, Ch. Anastomosans, Ch.

rostratus, Streptotheca thamesis, Rhizosolenia calcar-avis, Bacteriastrum

elegans, Ceratium furca, C. pulchellum, Dinophysis caudata,

Protoperidinium divergens, P. Diabolus, Dinophysis caudate,

Prorocentrum micans



Source: Lakkis (2007)



5.4.3.2 Zooplankton

Zooplankton is an extremely diverse group of free-floating fauna in the water column.

This group comprises most of the marine zoological groups like protozoans and

chordates. The zooplankton also includes the eggs, larvae and juvenile phases of many

larger species of marine fauna.

Zooplankton are the most studied group of plankton in Lebanese waters and have been

monitored for more than 35 years (Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012) with more than 780 species

being reported (Lakkis, 2011b; Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012). Zooplankton include cnidarians,

comb jellies, polychaetes, chaetognaths, cirripeds and other crustaceans as well as

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pelagic tunicates (thaliaceans and appendicularians). Fish eggs and larvae, known as

ichthyoplankton, also occur seasonally (Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012).

Zooplankton ecology is affected by the hydrological, hydro-biological and

physical/chemical characteristics of the water column they inhabit (MoE/GEF, 2016). In

Lebanon, the peak density is reported in the summer months, immediately after the spring

phytoplankton bloom. During the winter months, zooplankton densities decrease (Lakkis,

2011b; Abboud-Abi Saab, 2012).

The smallest part of the plankton is constituted of viruses (virioplankton) and bacteria

(picoplankton), some of which can be heterotrophic or autotrophic. Autotrophic bacteria

are the most important photosynthetic organisms in early stages of biomass production

(MoE/GEF, 2016), yet specific data related to these groups is noticeably absent from the

literature for this part of the Mediterranean Sea. This is due to the lack of surveys

undertaken in Lebanese waters.

5.4.3.3 Block 4 plankton sampling campaign

Methods

Plankton sampling was undertaken as part of the dedicated Block 4 EBS. Samples for

both phytoplankton and zooplankton were collected at each of the four water quality

sampling stations in Block 4 (as shown in Figure 5.21). Both types of sample

(phytoplankton and zooplankton) were collected using WP2 vertical plankton nets, which

had a 0.25 m2 opening. The nets were also equipped with a flowmeter to assess the

volume of water filtered. The net used for phytoplankton analysis had a 50-µm mesh and

the zooplankton net had a 200 µm mesh size.

Before sampling began, the nets were lowered to a depth just below the thermocline (at

approximately 300 m). The nets were then pulled to the surface at a speed of

approximately 30 m per minute to keep them vertical in the water column. The flowmeter

readings were recorded before and after the deployment so that the volume of filtered

water could be calculated.

Once recovered on the vessel, the plankton samples were preserved using a 5%

formaldehyde solution (for zooplankton) and Lugol’s solution for phytoplankton and

stored for subsequent analysis.

Results

More than 110 taxa of zooplankton and phytoplankton were collected during the EBS.

The 50 µm mesh size net sampled both phytoplankton (micro-algae) and zooplankton

(small crustaceans, crustacean larvae [nauplii]).

Samples were analysed using the FlowCAM system to assess the diversity of taxa and

their abundance and to estimate species diversity and evenness of taxa. While the

FlowCAM could identify most organisms present in the samples, some were not identified

and considered as “temporary” or “centric”.

A total of 57 taxa were collected using the 50 µm mesh size net, which included a variety

of organisms such as micro-algae and nauplii larvae. Bacillariophyta were the most

representative in terms of taxa diversity (about 32% of the taxa), followed by Ciliophora

(about 27% of the taxa), Holodinophyta (about 8% of the taxa), Radiozoa (about 6% of

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the taxa) and Arthropoda (approximately 4% of the taxa) (as shown in Table 5.18).

Similarly, Bacillariophyta were the most representative in terms of taxa abundances

(about 58%) followed by Ciliophora (about 13%), Holodinophyta (about 5%), and

Arthropoda (about 5%) (Table 5.19). The Shannon diversity index was 1.48 to 3.37 and

the evenness index was 0.3 to 0.69, indicating that taxa were heterogeneously distributed

among the four sea water sampling stations.

Table 5.18: Taxonomic groups of plankton in Block 4 by diversity

B4-01



Stations



nb./m



3



B4-04

%



nb./m



3



B4-11

%



nb./m



3



B4-15

%



nb./m3



%



1



3.45



Radiozoa



2



6.90



3



7.69



3



7.32



Arthropoda



3



10.34



2



5.13



1



2.44



Temporate Ind.



6



20.69



7



17.95



7



17.07



8



27.59



Ciliophora



7



24.14



9



23.08



13



31.71



8



27.59



Bacillariophyta



11



37.93



13



33.33



10



24.39



9



31.03



1



2.44



5



12.20



3



10.34



1



2.44



Cnidaria

Foraminifera



1



2.56



Holodinophyta



4



10.26



Mollusca

Total



29



39



41



29



nb. = number. Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Table 5.19: Taxonomic groups of plankton in Block 4 by abundance

B401



Phylum



nb. ind./m



B404

3



%



nb. ind./m



B411

3



B415



%



nb. ind./m



3



%



nb. ind./m3



%



Arthropoda



17.203



7.24



5.950



7.57



5.191



6.05



568



1.03



Bacillariophyta



188.162



79.19



4.2076



53.51



42.220



49.19



27.810



50.26



Ciliophora



11.827



4.98



12.750



16.22



12.804



14.92



9.365



16.92



346



0.40



4.257



7.69



851



1.54



12.486



22.56



Cnidaria

Foraminifera



425



0.54



692



0.81



Holodinophyta



2.975



3.78



8.652



10.08



346



0.40



Mollusca

Other

Radiozoa



2.150



0.90



Retaria

Temporary Ind.



1.8279



Total



237.622



7.69



425



0.54



692



0.81



2.550



3.24



1.384



1.61



425



0.54



346



0.40



11.050



14.05



13.150



15.32



78.627



85.824



55.337



nb. ind. = number of individuals. Source: Keran Liban/Creocean, 2019b



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Seventy-two taxa were collected using the 200 µm mesh net including a variety of

organisms such as copepods, crustaceans and fish larvae. The 200-µm mesh samples

larger planktonic organisms belonging to mesozooplankton and macroplankton. The 200

µm mesh net also collected significant quantities of detritus and fibre.

Samples were analysed with the ZooScan system to assess the diversity and abundance

of taxa and to estimate diversity and evenness indices. As with the FlowCAM system

used for samples collected with the 50 µm mesh net, there were some taxa that the

ZooScan could not identify and considered as “temporary”.

Arthropods were the most representative in terms of taxa diversity (about 39% of the

taxa), followed by Cnidarians (about 17% of the taxa), Chordates (about 13% of the taxa),

and Molluscs (about 10% of the taxa) (Table 5.20). Similarly, Arthropods were the most

representative in terms of taxa abundances (about 78%) followed by Chordates (about

23%), Molluscs (about 3%), and Cnidarians (about 2%) (Table 5.21). The Shannon

diversity index was 2.23 to 4.19 and the evenness index was 0.41 to 0.71, showing that

taxa were heterogeneously distributed among the four stations.

Table 5.20: Diversity of taxonomic groups of plankton collected in Block 4

Phylum



Nb. taxa



%



Annelida



3



4.2



Arthropoda



28



38.9



Chaetognatha



3



4.2



Chordata



9



12.5



Cnidaria



12



16.7



Echinodermata



2



2.8



Foraminifera



1



1.4



Harosa



1



1.4



Holodinophyta



1



1.4



Mollusca



7



9.7



Other



1



1.4



Radiozoa



1



1.4



Temporary ind.



3



4.2



Total



72



Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Table 5.21: Abundance of taxonomic groups of plankton found in Block 4

B401

Phylum



B404



B411



B415



nb. ind./m3



%



nb.

ind./m3



%



nb. ind./m3



%



nb.

ind./m3



%



Annelida



1



0.783



1



0.58



1



0.67



1



0.60



Arthropoda



133



84.326



137



69.94



148



77.80



188



79.86



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B401

Phylum



B404



B411



B415



nb. ind./m3



%



nb.

ind./m3



%



nb. ind./m3



%



nb.

ind./m3



%



Chaetognatha



3



1.804



5



2.66



4



2.31



9



3.75



Chordata



10



6.335



29



14.62



17



8.70



8



3.26



Cnidaria



2



0.965



6



3.22



5



2.59



5



1.96



Echinodermata



3



1.902



5



2.56



5



2.69



3



1.37



Foraminifera



1



0.336



0.00



0



0.15



Harosa



0



0.112



1.18



1



0.32



Holodinophyta



0



0.224



Mollusca



4



2.517



6



3.02



3



1.51



8



3,57



Other



0.000



3



1.60



3



1.63



5



2.32



Radiozoa



0.000



0.00



0



0.01



4



1.51



0.68



3



1.63



4



1.67



Temporary ind.



1



Total



157



0.699



2



0.00



1

196



0.00

0



0.00



190



0.12

0.00



235



Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



Conclusion

The information reported by Abboud-Abi Saab (2012) on seasonal variation of

phytoplankton presents a minimum diversity index in May whereas maximum values were

obtained in September. Furthermore, Lakkis (2011b) also describes an aquatic

environment poor in zooplankton during the winter months in more coastal Lebanon

waters, however, with quite high diversity, due to the mixing turnover of water layers.

The EBS survey campaign provided a snapshot of the plankton communities found in the

study area of Block 4. These results only provide a semi-quantitative representation of

the plankton communities that occur in this area at this time of the year. The plankton

samples were quite diverse; however, the abundances were always low, which is

consistent in offshore oligotrophic waters typical in the eastern Mediterranean area. It is

also consistent with the low nutrient concentrations and spring seasonal conditions during

which the EBS was conducted.

5.4.3.4 Sensitivity

Based on the low abundance and seasonal variation of phytoplankton and zooplankton

in Lebanese waters, and because these systems are not fragile or unique and are

expected to recover quickly, the sensitivity of plankton is considered low (2).



5.4.4



Fish and fishery resources

The AOI for fish communities is a radius of 25 km around the proposed well site and is

related to a precautionary distance from the wells to which drill fluids and cuttings impacts

on water quality, and hence fish could extend.

The study area encompasses Block 4 and all territorial Lebanese waters to give context

to the sensitivity of the fish in the AOI.



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The biodiversity of fish in Lebanese waters is well studied related to commercially

exploited species. Lebanon’s coastal waters contain more than 100 fish species of

commercial importance. Artisanal fisheries are the main fishery type with around 5000

fishing vessels, using fishing gear including trammel nets, gill nets, longlines, purse seine

nets and beach seines. Section 5.5.3.5 provides details on fisheries.

Fisheries data obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for 2017 show that two

species of small pelagic fish accounted for approximately one third of landings: round

herring (Etrumeus teres) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). Other fish

accounting for the majority of landings included pelagic species of herring (Clupeidae),

tuna and mackerels (Scombridae), demersal sea breams (Sparidae) and rabbitfishes

(Siganidae) (MoA, 2018). Commercially important pelagic fish in Lebanese coastal

waters have been shown to exhibit clear seasonal trends in abundance and biomass

(Bariche et al., 2007). European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and chub mackerel

(Scomber japonicus) dominate catches between May and June and are then replaced by

round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) in July and European anchovy in August (Bariche et

al., 2006, 2007; MoA, 2018).

There are also species present in Lebanese waters that are included on the IUCN Red

List, including the dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus), which is endangered in the

Mediterranean (Cornish and Harmelin-Vivien, 2011); the European seabass

(Dicentrarchus labrax); and the common dentex (Dentex dentex). The populations of

European seabass and common dentex in the Mediterranean are classified as near

threatened and vulnerable respectively (Yokes et al., 2011; Bizsel et al., 2011).

Spawning information in Lebanese waters is limited. Tsikliras et el. 2010 collected all

available information on the spawning season of Mediterranean marine fish. Those

applicable to the Block 4 area are summarised in Table 5.22.

Table 5.22: Spawning of Mediterranean marine fish stocks – summary of those

applicable to Block 4

Species

Country of study and location



J



F



M



A



M



J



J



A



S



O



N



D



Saurida undosquamis (brushtooth

lizardfish)

Occupied Palestine, Mediterranean

coast

Synodus saurus (Atlantic lizardfish)

Occupied Palestine, Mediterranean

coast

Sargocentrum rubrum (squirrelfish

species)

Occupied Palestine, Haifa Bay

Spicura smaris (ray-finned fish species)

Turkey, eastern Mediterranean

Pempheris vanicolensis (greenback

bullseye)

Occupied Palestine, Occupied

Palestinian coast



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Species

Country of study and location



J



F



M



A



M



J



J



A



S



O



N



D



Mycteroperca rubra (mottled grouper)

Occupied Palestine, eastern

Mediterranean

Siganus luridus (rabbitfish species)

Lebanon, Batroun

Siganus rivulatus (rabbitfish species)

Syria/Lebanon, Levantine coast

Rhinobatos rhinobatos (guitarfish

species)

Turkey, eastern Mediterranean

Source: Tsikliras et al. (2010)



The sharks and rays in the region have also been characterised (Bariche, 2012). A 2013

survey along the coast of Lebanon from depths of 0–600 m recorded 25 species. This

comprised 11 species of sharks and 14 species of rays (including guitarfishes, electric

rays, skates and stingrays), as shown in Table 5.23, and includes several deep-water

species. Some taxa such as guitarfishes and whaler sharks (Carcharhinidae) were found

to be of commercial significance; critically endangered angel sharks (Squatina sp.) and

blackchin guitarfish (Rhinobatos cemiculus) were also recorded (Lteif, 2015). The

OCEANA expedition recorded the longnosed skate (Dipturus oxyrinchus) for the first time

in the eastern Mediterranean and the velvet-belly lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) for

the first time in Lebanese waters and the Mediterranean (Aguilar et al., 2018).

Table 5.23: Sharks and rays recorded along the Lebanese coast during 2013 surveys



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Common name



Scientific name



IUCN Status



Dusky shark



Carcharhinus obscurus



Vulnerable (VU)



Gulper shark



Centrophorus granulosus



Vulnerable (VU)



Kitefin shark



Dalatias licha



Vulnerable (VU)



Marbled stingray



Dasyatis marmorata



Data deficient (DD)



Common stingray



Dasyatis pastinaca



Data deficient (DD)



Tortonese's stingray



Dasyatis tortonesei



Not evaluated (NU)



Longnosed skate



Dipturus oxyrinchus



Near threatened (NT)



Blackmouth catshark



Galeus melastomus



Least concern (LT)



Spiny butterfly ray



Gymnura altavela



Vulnerable (VU)



Sharpnose sevengill shark



Heptranchias perlo



Near threatened (NT)



Bluntnose sixgill shark



Hexanchus griseus



Near threatened (NT)



Shortfin mako shark



Isurus oxyrhincus



Endangered (EN)



Common smoothhound



Mustelus mustelus



Vulnerable (VU)



Bullray



Pteromylaeus (Aetomylaeus)

bovinus



Data deficient (DD)



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Common name



Scientific name



IUCN Status



Pelagic stingray



Pteroplatytrygon violacea



Least concern (LT)



Thornback skate



Raja clavata



Near threatened (NT)



Brown skate



Raja miraletus



Least concern (LT)



Blackchin guitarfish



Rhinobatos cemiculus



Critically endangered

(CR)



Common guitarfish



Rhinobatos rhinobatos



Endangered (EN)



Longnose spurdog



Squalus blainville



Data deficient (DD)



Sawback angelshark



Squatina aculeata



Critically endangered

(CR)



Smoothback angelshark



Squatina oculata



Critically endangered

(CR)



Round fantail stingray



Taeniura grabata



Data deficient (DD)



Spotted torpedo



Torpedo marmorata



Data deficient (DD)



Great torpedo ray



Torpedo nobiliana



Data deficient (DD)



Source: Lteif (2015), IUCN (2019)



Most of the knowledge on fish in Lebanese waters is for coastal commercial species, with

limited information available for offshore fish. The species classified as “threatened”

(vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered) (Table 5.23) by the IUCN are

predominantly benthic, with most species limited to depths shallower than 1000 m (IUCN,

2019). Only the gulper shark is found is depths approaching 1500 m, while threatened

pelagic sharks that could be present in the priority area, such as the shortfin mako shark,

are migratory throughout the Mediterranean Sea with the Lebanese coast not considered

a breeding or foraging hotspot (IUCN, 2019).

A key characteristic of the fish of the eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanese waters,

is Lessepsian migration, whereby fish species of Indo-Pacific origin arrive from the Red

Sea via the Suez Canal. In fact, many non-indigenous fish have been recorded in

Lebanon since the 1960–70s and in studies since 2005, as detailed in Section 5.4.11

(Invasive Species).

5.4.4.1 Block 4 fish observations

Benthic fish were observed using the methods for the ROV described in Section 5.4.1.2,

while any large pelagic fish were recorded as part of the megafauna visual survey using

the methods described in Section 5.4.5.1. A small number of deep-water fish species

were recorded. The most common species was the tripod fish (Bathypterois dubius),

which was found along several transects. Other species included ophidiiform fish

(Diplocanthopoma cf. brachysoma), gadiform fish (cf Lepidion sp.), as well as spiny eels

(Notacanthus bonaparte, Polyacanthonotus rissoanus) and the blackfin sorcerer

(Nettastoma melanurum) (Figure 5.61 and Figure 5.64).

The blackmouth catshark (Galeus melastomus) and the longnosed skate (Dipturus

oxyrinchus) were also recorded (Figure 5.64).



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Two pelagic fish sightings were made during the survey and included a dolphinfish and

a ray.



Figure 5.64: Fish species recorded during the Block 4 EBS

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019)



5.4.4.2 Sensitivity

Based on the available information on the fish assemblage, the sensitivity of fish is

considered medium (3).

However, as there may be protected or “threatened” species present in the AOI, these

fish are included within the protected/threatened species receptor, which has a high (4)

sensitivity.



5.4.5



Marine mammals

The AOI for marine mammals is an 8.6 km radius around the proposed location of the

wells and a 900 m buffer zone around the transit routes for the MODU and support/ supply

vessels. This AOI encompasses a precautionary zone in which behavioural changes in

marine mammals could occur from a stationary source of noise at the well site, and the

zone in which strong behavioural reactions may potentially occur in response to vessel

noise. The study area encompasses Block 4 and the eastern Mediterranean to provide

context for the use of Lebanese waters by marine mammals.

Several species of marine mammals (cetaceans7 and seals) are reported from the

Levantine basin region and include species of whales, dolphins and the Mediterranean

monk seal, some of which are threatened. Table 5.24 shows the species that have been

recorded in the eastern Mediterranean.



7



Cetaceans include whale and dolphin species.



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Table 5.24: Marine mammal species recorded in the eastern Mediterranean



Common name



Scientific name



Fin whale



IUCN status

Global



Mediterranean*



Balaenoptera physalus



Vulnerable



Vulnerable



Humpback whale



Megaptera novaeangliae



Least concern



Sperm whale



Physeter macrocephalus



Vulnerable



Endangered



Cuvier’s beaked whale



Ziphius cavirostris



Least concern



Vulnerable



Killer whale



Orcinus orca



Data deficient



False killer whale



Pseudorca crasssidens



Near Threatened



Pygmy killer whale



Feresa attenuata



Least concern



Long-finned pilot whale



Globicephala melas



Least concern



Data deficient



Risso’s dolphin



Grampus griseus



Least concern



Data deficient



Rough-toothed dolphin



Steno bredanensis



Least concern



Common bottlenose

dolphin



Tursiops truncatus



Least concern



Vulnerable



Striped dolphin



Stenella coeruleoalba



Least concern



Vulnerable



Short-beaked common

dolphin



Delphinus delphis



Least concern



Endangered



Mediterranean Monk

Seal



Monachus monachus



Endangered



Critically

endangered



*Mediterranean subpopulation classifications where available. Source: IUCN (2019)



Although the eastern Mediterranean region has relatively low abundances of marine

mammals, its assemblage of species, which includes the Mediterranean monk seal,

rough-toothed dolphin, Risso’s dolphin and false killer whale, is relatively unique (Ryan

et al., 2014). Regularly occurring cetaceans in the region include bottlenose dolphin,

stripped dolphin, short-beaked common dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, Cuvier’s beaked whale

and rough-toothed dolphin, while fin whales, sperm whales, and false killer whales are

considered visitors to the area. Humpback whales and killer whales are considered

vagrant (Bariche, 2010, 2012; Kerem et al., 2012). Some of these species are not well

known in the Mediterranean, and certain species such as the rough-toothed dolphin have

not been reported in the western region of the Mediterranean.

Data on marine mammals is scarce in Lebanese waters, although the CNRS carries out

regular monitoring (MoE/GEF, 2016; CANA-CNRS, 2019). CNRS is currently

establishing a network of observations for stranding mammals all along the Lebanese

coast and to increase human skills for applying the photograph identification method

(CANA-CNRS, 2014).

The common bottlenose dolphin is the most abundant species in Lebanese waters and

was observed in high densities off the coast of Beirut during 2010–2011 (Figure 5.65).

Just over half of the bottlenose dolphins sighted were within 300 and 600 m depth

(MoE/IUCN, 2012). Other species of whales and dolphins (sperm whale, Risso’s, striped

and rough-toothed dolphins, false killer whale, Cuvier’s beaked whale and fin whale) may

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be seen seasonally in the Block 4 area, as the Levantine basin region is within their

migration routes or known areas of use.



Number of observations



10



8



6



4



2



0

1



2



3



4



5



6



7



Group size per observation



Figure 5.65: Number of bottlenose dolphin groups observed off Beirut coast (2010–

2011)

Source: MoE/IUCN (2012)



The Mediterranean monk seal is the only seal species present in Lebanese waters

(Karamanlidis and Dendrinos, 2015). While once considered locally extinct, 47 individuals

were recorded between 1996 and 2015 along the Lebanese coast, with increased

observations during the last 5 years. There were 25 confirmed sighting from 2003 to

2016, which has led to the status of the species being re-evaluated (Bariche and

Crocetta, 2016; Ramadan-Jaradi, 2017a). However, the Mediterranean monk seal is

extremely affected by socio-economic development and habitat loss (Khalaf and Fakhri,

2017) and is considered critically endangered due to its small population which does not

exceed 400 individuals within the Mediterranean Sea.

5.4.5.1 Block 4 marine mammal observations

Megafauna visual survey methods

Two trained and experienced marine fauna officers (MFO) were present on board the

survey vessel during the Block 4 EBS. The MFOs conducted observations from an

elevated position on the survey vessel, working during daylight hours only (sunrise to

sunset and when weather permitted) when the vessel was on station (conducting

sampling work), transiting between stations and transiting to and from the port.

The MFOs scanned the water and recorded sightings of marine mammals, marine turtles,

seabirds, fish, invertebrates and vessels using handheld binoculars, unaided eye,

cameras and a laptop connected to the ship’s positioning system.

Sightings data included the following data fields for each group: sighting number,

common name, scientific name, number of individuals (i.e., group size), initial time of

sighting, behaviour, vessel activity during the sighting (e.g., transit, benthic sampling),

location (latitude and longitude), photos taken (frame numbers of each camera), number

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of calves in the sighting, Beaufort Sea State and water depth. In addition to data specific

to marine mammals, other marine megafauna, seabirds or fish sighting, environmental

data were recorded during visual observations including wind speed and direction, swell

height and direction, relative position of the sun and visibility.

To complement the visual observations during daylight hours, a passive acoustic

monitoring (PAM) device to record marine mammal vocalisations was used. With the

PAM device, both low- and high-frequency marine mammal vocalisations could be

recorded.

When the vessel was stationary or operating at very low speeds during the ROV

operations, the PAM device was deployed and retrieved over the bow of the vessel and

the data downloaded at the end of each day. It was therefore possible to carry out 33

separate PAM deployments throughout the EBS.

Results

There were only two marine mammal sightings during the visual survey of Block 4, with

bottlenose dolphins sighted on two separate occasions within the southern section of

Block 4, close to the coast and not within the priority area.

Acoustic recordings did not detect any marine mammal vocalisations in Block 4 during

the EBS (the limitations of the EBS are acknowledged in Section 5.1.5).

5.4.5.2 Sensitivity

The sensitivity of seals is considered high as Mediterranean monk seals are a critically

endangered species in the Mediterranean. Therefore, Mediterranean monk seals have a

high (4) sensitivity as any individual present in Block 4 is internationally important.

Cetaceans (dolphins and whales) are more common than seals. However, while some

species are listed as vulnerable or endangered in the Mediterranean, cetaceans are

considered to have high (4) sensitivity.



5.4.6



Marine turtles

The AOI for marine turtles is a 1.4 km radius around the proposed location of the wells

and a 20 m buffer zone around the transit routes for the support/supply vessels. This AOI

encompasses a precautionary zone in which strong behavioural changes in marine

turtles could occur from a stationary source of noise at the well site, and the zone in which

strong behavioural reactions may potentially occur in response to vessel noise. The study

area encompasses Block 4 and the eastern Mediterranean to provide context for the use

of Lebanese waters by marine turtles.

Three species of sea turtle are found in Lebanese waters; green turtle (endangered),

leatherback turtle (vulnerable) and loggerhead turtle (vulnerable) (IUCN, 2019). Nesting

sites for green and loggerhead turtles are found on sandy shorelines in Lebanon,

whereas the leatherback turtle is only a visitor to the Mediterranean (MoE/GEF, 2016).

A survey of the Lebanese coast for turtle nesting in 2004 found that the overall nesting

potential for marine turtles is greatest in the south (Kasparek and Aureggi, 2005). The

most important nesting beach is El-Mansouri in southernmost Lebanon, which is of

moderate importance regionally. Surveys there in 2001 recorded a total of 42 nests

between 16 June and 18 July, 37 of which were loggerhead turtle, and 5 were green turtle



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(Newbury et al., 2002). A further nesting survey between May and September 2004

recorded a total of 49 nests (43 loggerhead, 6 green) (Khalil et al., 2005). In addition to

El-Mansouri, nesting has also been reported as occurring nearby at El-Aabbassiyeh and

in the Tyre Coast Nature Reserve, with the nesting status on Palm Island off Tripoli

requiring clarification (Kasparek and Aureggi, 2005). Hatching of turtles in the Tyre Coast

Nature Reserve was reported in August 2015 (IUCN, 2015). Nesting activities of turtles

are highly threatened by coastal development.

Stokes et al. (2015) conducted a study where 34 female green turtles were satellite

tracked from breeding grounds in four eastern Mediterranean countries with major

nesting (Cyprus, Turkey, occupied Palestine and Syria).

Ten foraging grounds were identified, with two major hotspots in Libya accounting for

>50% of turtles tracked to conclusive endpoints. A high-use seasonal pelagic corridor

running south-west from Turkey and Cyprus to Egypt was also evident, used by >50% of

all tracked turtles.

Figure 5.66 demonstrates that green turtle migration takes place along the eastern coast

of the Mediterranean through Syrian, Lebanese and occupied Palestinian waters (though

to a lesser extent than the corridor between Cyprus and Egypt). A turtle foraging ground

was identified off Tripoli in Lebanon (G in Figure 5.66).

5.4.6.1 Block 4 Turtle observations

The method for observing marine megafauna, including turtles, during the EBS is

discussed in Section 5.4.5.1.

No marine turtles were observed during the visual survey of Block 4, although two were

recorded close to Beirut Port.

5.4.6.2 Sensitivity

Turtles use the coast of Lebanon as a migratory corridor, with foraging grounds off Tripoli.

Turtle nesting is predominantly seen in the south of the country. Although there are no

known foraging or nesting grounds near the Block 4 priority area, the species present are

listed as endangered or vulnerable and therefore the sensitivity of turtles is considered

high (4).



5.4.7



Offshore birds

The AOI for offshore birds encompasses the priority area and the southern portion of

Block 4 and helicopter transit routes to/from Beirut Airport. Offshore birds are not likely to

be affected by routine events, although the helicopter transit route introduces potential

disturbance to the inland Important Bird Area (IBA) close to the airport. The study area is

wider and encompasses the whole of Block 4 and the length of the Lebanese coast.

Lebanon is situated in one of the world’s key significant migratory bird corridors (see

Figure 5.67) and hosts bird species of international significance. However, birds face

pressures such as hunting and pollution (MoE/UNEP/GEF, 2016).



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Figure 5.66: Post-nesting green turtle satellite tracks from (a) Cyprus (n = 22), (b)

Turkey (n = 8), (c) Syria (n = 1) and Occupied Palestine (n = 3), and (d) migratory

corridor density map

Numbers indicate the number of individuals tracked conclusively to each foraging ground. In panel (b),

tracks in blue are from the first year of tracking (2004) and those in black are from the second year of

tracking (2005). Colour in panel (d) is indicative of the number of satellite tracks that pass through each

hexagonal grid cell. Movements to secondary foraging grounds after prolonged stays in initial foraging

grounds are not included. Letters in (d) indicate the following foraging grounds: A – Libya/Tunisia border,

B – Gulf of Sirte, C – Gulf of Bomba, D – Gulf of Salum, E – Gulf of Arab, F – Lake Bardawil, G – Tripoli,

Lebanon, H – Erdemli, I – Gulf of Antalya, J – Episkopi Bay. Source: Stokes et al. (2015)



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Figure 5.67: Major flyways between Africa and Eurasia

Source: Birdlife International (2018)



Approximately 186 coastal and marine bird species have been recorded close to the

Lebanese coast. Although major migratory routes have been defined, a detailed analysis

of important marine areas of seabirds has not yet been prepared (Ramadan-Jaradi et al.,

2008).

Many seabird species like gulls live close to the coast, while species like shearwaters live

exclusively offshore. MoE/UNEP/GEF (2016) have suggested that important marine

areas for seabirds should be identified and a scientific database established for proper

monitoring and protection of these birds.

A study by CNRS on the status and dispersal of migrating and breeding marine birds in

the north of Lebanon was conducted during the winter and breeding seasons of

2016/2017. The southern extent of the study area was Batroun and covered the area just

inshore of the north east corner of Block 4 extending along the coastline to Cheikh

Zennad in north Lebanon. Eighty-six different species were documented including

















35 foreshore species (waders like plovers and sandpipers)

18 coastal species (gulls and terns)

6 marine species (such as petrels, shearwaters, skuas and gannets)

9 duck species

6 heron species

9 saltwater species (such as cormorants, pelicans and mergansers)

3 terrestrial species.



The most abundant species encountered were the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis),

which breeds on Palm Island, and the common black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus

ridibundus). Other species included the great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus),

great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), little gull (Hydrocoloeus minutus) and the

Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan), a globally threated species classified as

vulnerable by the IUCN (Ramadan-Jaradi, 2017b).

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Offshore species, such as shearwaters, may have a flightless period after they moult their

flight feathers while offshore during winter months (Camphuysen and Van der Meer,

2001) where they form aggregations on the sea surface. However, the importance of the

area offshore Lebanon has not yet been defined.

5.4.7.1 Block 4 offshore bird observations

The methods of for observing marine megafauna, including birds, during the EBS are

discussed in Section 5.4.5.1.

A total of 419 individual seabirds were observed within the priority area and southern

portion of Block 4. The Laridae family (gulls) was the most sighted family of seabirds

(Figure 5.68), with the most clearly identifiable species the lesser black-backed gull

(Larus fuscus).

Table 5.25 shows that along with gulls, other similar species were present in Block 4 as

were sighted during the CNRS survey, such as shearwater, skua, duck, heron and

saltwater species. Images of species seen during the EBS are shown in Figure 5.69.



Figure 5.68: Composition of birds observed in Block 4

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



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Table 5.25: Birds species observed in Block 4

Species



Block 4



Family



Common name



Scientific name



No. of

sightings



No. of

individuals



Anatidae



Duck sp.



Anatidae sp.



1



100



Yelkouan shearwater



Puffinus yelkouan



2



2



Scopoli’s shearwater



Calonectris diomedea



12



13



Little egret



Egretta garzetta



1



15



Cattle egret



Bubulcus ibis



1



3



Heron sp.



Ardea sp.



1



9



Finsch’s Wheatear



Oenanthe finschii



1



1



Common Redstart



Phoenicurus phoenicurus 1



1



Barn swallow



Hirundo rustica



5



7



Larid sp.



Laridae sp.



13



30



Lesser black-backed

gull



Larus fuscus



40



95



White Wagtail



Motacilla alba



2



2



Wagtail sp.



Motacilla sp.



1



1



Phalacrocoracidae Shag sp.



Phalacrocorax sp.



1



25



Phylloscopidae



Common Chiffchaff



Phylloscopus collybita



2



6



Stercocaridae



Pomarine skua



Stercorarius pomarinus



2



2



Sylviidae



Whitethroat sp.



Sylvia sp.



4



4



Upupidae



Hoopoe



Upupa epops



1



1



Bird



Unidentified bird



-



3



102



94



419



Procellariidae



Ardeidae



Hirundinidae

Laridae



Motacillidae



Subtotal

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



5.4.7.2 Sensitivity

Although limited data is available on the use of Lebanese waters by seabirds, the

Lebanese coast is likely to be an important area for migrating coastal seabirds such as

gulls, as well as offshore species such as shearwaters. However, the birds are likely to

be transient through the Block 4 area and so the sensitivity of seabirds offshore is

considered medium (3) for the majority of the seabird assemblage.

However, as there may be protected or “threatened” species present in the AOI, such as

the Yelkouan shearwater which may use the area for a flightless period post-moult, these

bird species are included within the protected/threatened species receptor, which has a

high (4) sensitivity.



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Figure 5.69: Birds observed during EBS

Source: Keran Liban/Creocean (2019b)



5.4.8



Onshore fauna

The location of the onshore logistics base within Beirut Port is presented in Figure 4.7

and the AOI for onshore fauna focuses on the site up to its boundaries. The sensitivity of

onshore fauna is assumed to be very low (1) owing to the logistics base location in an

existing commercial port area and because the base will be placed on hard standing

which does not generally support a diversity of floral and faunal species.



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5.4.9



Protected areas

The AOI for protected areas is coastal and offshore areas near the Port of Beirut and

along the transit routes for the MODU and support/supply vessels during routine events.

The study area encompasses the whole length of the Lebanese coast and offshore area.

Owing to intensive coastal development and exploitation in Lebanon, protected areas are

considered crucial to the conservation and maintenance of healthy ecosystems and

biodiversity. There are a number of designated protected areas in Lebanon and several

proposed protected areas. There are also a number of international recognised

conservation areas.

The different types of protected / conservation area designations are listed below:





















Nature Reserve – designated by law by the Lebanese government

Ramsar site – sites of wetland importance established under the Ramsar

Convention

UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) – designated by UNESCO as having

cultural, historical, scientific or other importance

Specially Protected Areas (SPA) of Mediterranean Importance – designated

under Barcelona Convention

Proposed Marine Protected Areas – proposed by Lebanese MoE and IUCN

Proposed Deep Sea Sites for Conservation – proposed by OCEANA8

Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) – sites identified by IUCN that contribute to the global

persistence of biodiversity

Important Bird Areas (IBAs) – sites identified for birds using internationally

agreed criteria applied locally by BirdLife Partners and experts

Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) – identified under the

Convention on Biological Diversity.



Locations of existing and proposed protected areas and internationally recognised

conservation areas along the Lebanese coast are illustrated in Figure 5.70. Estuarine

sites that are currently protected, or proposed for protection, are included in Figure 5.53.

More detailed information on each of the existing and proposed protected areas and

internationally recognised conservation areas along the Lebanese coast is provided in

Table 5.26 along with distance from Block 4 and the priority drilling area.

There are no protected areas specifically within Block 4, although Block 4 is partially

within the ELCA EBSA. The closest sites to the Block 4 priority area are Beirut Port Outer

Platform proposed MPA, Raoucheh Cliffs and Caves proposed MPA and three sites

identified by OCEANA as deep sea sites for conservation (Saint Georges Canyon,

Jouneih Canyon and Beirut Escarpment).

5.4.9.1 Sensitivity

Protected areas are considered under the receptors ‘coastal habitats’ and ‘sensitive

marine habitats offshore’. Both of these have been scored as high (4) owing to the

presence of species of international importance or high sensitivity ecosystems.



8



Surveys undertaken by the OCEANA expedition (Aguilar et al., 2018) identified several sites of conservation

importance in deep water off Lebanon. The surveyed sites along with their level of conservation interest are

presented in Figure 5.71.

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Figure 5.70: Protected areas and proposed protected areas (excluding estuarine

sites) in relation to Block 4

Note: Estuarine protected areas shown in Figure 5.53.

Source: MoE/IUCN (2012)



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Table 5.26: Details of designated protected areas, proposed protected areas and internationally recognised conservation areas on Lebanese coast

Name of

Protected

Area



Area

(km2)



Distance

from well

site (km)



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



Designation



Summary description



Nature

Reserve

Ramsar Site

MPA

SPA

IBA and KBA



Reserve consists of a group of three flat rocky islands of eroded

limestone, with associated outcrops and surrounding waters, rising

from 1–12 m above the sea. The islands' beaches support the

endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) during nesting and

breeding, and the critically endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas)

occurs infrequently but regularly in surrounding seas. The endangered

Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) was seen regularly

until recent years but only very rarely since. The many caves and

sheltered coastal rocks provide an important spawning ground for fish,

and some 42 species of migratory birds (include six IUCN Red List

species) feed and rest on the islands before moving on to the

Lebanese mainland for breeding. During winter, freshwater is found in

inland pools; a single well, built at the time of the Crusades and

associated with archaeological remains of a Crusader church from AD

1224, yields potable water but is over-extracted, increasing

groundwater salinity. Alteration of the vegetation cover by a

proliferation of rabbits is seen as a threat to the biodiversity. Declared

a Nature Reserve in 1992, Palm Island has permitted visitors for

guided tours and swimming between July and September since 1998.

The area is designated as a Ramsar site and as is important for

several nesting birds including the Hoopoe (Upupa epops), White

wagtail (Motacilla alba) and Graceful Warbler (Prinia gracilis). It also

represents an important site for migratory birds from the mainland

(Serhal and Bassima, n.d.). The area is also designated as an IBA and

a non-avian KBA owing to its important for globally threatened and

endemic species, such as the Yelkouan Shearwater (Puffinus

yelkouan), the Audouin’s Gull (Larus audouinii), Mediterranean Monk



Designated protected areas



Palm

Islands

Nature

Reserve



5-112



5



63.4



52.6



15.9



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Name of

Protected

Area



Area

(km2)



Distance

from well

site (km)



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



Designation



Summary description

Seal (Monachus monachus), Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) and

Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).

Designation law = Law no. 121 of 9/3/1992.



Tyre

Coast

Nature

Reserve



Deir el

Nouriyeh

cliffs of

Ras

Chekaa

(Ras El

Chekaa

Cliffs)



3.8



9.93



87.4



41.5



76.3



33.0



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

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76.3



5.7



Nature

Reserve

Ramsar Site

MPA

SPA

UNESCO

WHS



Site is located within the best-preserved stretch of sandy coastline in

southern Lebanon; it is remarkable for its biodiversity but threatened

by its proximity to the city of Tyre and the Rachidieh refugee camp. Its

artesian wells are an important heritage site and give rise to a number

of notable freshwater habitats. Beach vegetation is dominated by sea

spurge and cotton weed, while the hillocks are dominated by shrubs,

grasses and the rush, Juncus. Vegetables, citrus and palm trees are

cultivated within the reserve area and irrigated with water from the

artesian wells. In the summer months, the area is a popular tourist

destination. The beaches of Tyre are thought to be important nesting

areas for the green turtle and loggerhead turtle. Ramsar site with 204

species including threatened species pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax

pygmeus), Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), lesser kestrel

(Falco naumanni) and corn crake (Crex crex). A review by the

MedMPA Network in 2014 categorised Tyre Springs (located within

Tyre Coast Nature Reserve) as having high conservation value due to

rare and interesting habitats, e.g. freshwater springs, littoral caves,

maerl beds and corraligenous formations (Alfonso et al., 2015).



Ramsar Site

KBA

Proposed MPA



Site is part of a coastal limestone promontory just north of Beirut, amid

the highly developed narrow coastal plain between Beirut and Tripoli

and is described as "a mosaic of woodland and olive groves". The site

is significant because of its position as a coastal headland on the

Middle East bird migration route: notable bird species include the white

pelican and purple heron. The presence of submarine freshwater

springs off the coast at Ras Chekaa is thought to enhance the

biodiversity of the waters here. Of historical and cultural interest is the

convent of Deir el Nouriyeh. The main agricultural use of the site is the

cultivation of olives. A review by the MedMPA Network in 2014

5-113



Name of

Protected

Area



Area

(km2)



Distance

from well

site (km)



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



Designation



Summary description

categorised Ras Chekaa as having high conservation value due to

pristine nature and presence of rare and interesting habitats (Alfonso

et al., 2015). The site is also a KBA due to the presence of globally

threatened species.

Designation law = Law no. 708 of 5/11/1998.



Byblos



<1



30



27



8



UNESCO

WHS

Proposed MPA



This site is composed of large vermetid reefs with ponds. Phoenician

ruins (UNESCO WHS) are located in area. The site is important for fish

nurseries, feeding and spawning grounds, hard and soft bottom

habitats and seagrass meadow communities.



Ecologically or

Biologically

Significant

Area



This area consists of several deep canyons along the majority of the

Lebanese coastline – containing important areas such as hydrothermal

vents, submarine freshwater springs and Opistobranch formations

(Elias et al., 2007; Würtz, 2012; Bakalowicz, 2014). The formation of

the canyons is vital for ecosystem functioning – with upwelling of

nutrients leading to increased primary productivity. This in turn

supports many species including several listed as ‘threatened’ on the

IUCN Red List – such the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus

monachus), smalltooth sandtiger shark (Odontaspis ferox; Walker et

al., 2005), the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias; Ellis et al., 2016), the

common guitarfish (Rhinobatos rhinobatos; Bradai and Soldo, 2016),

and marine mammals such as sperm whales, striped dolphins, Risso’s

dolphin, short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins

(Dedel et al., 2012). Important areas also include the Turgut Reis

Seamount as a host for deep sea shrimp stocks and on bluefin tuna

migratory routes (Würtz, 2012), and nesting grounds for green turtles

(Chelonia mydas) and loggerhead turtles (Carretta carreta). The area

also contains the two marine protected areas – Palm Island and Tyre

Coast.



Internationally recognised conservation areas



East

Levantine

Canyons

Area



5-114



>10,00

0



0



0



0



Total E&P Liban Sal

Block 4 (Lebanon) Offshore Exploration Drilling EIA

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Name of

Protected

Area



Beirut

Coast



Area

(km2)



5.7



Distance

from well

site (km)



29. 9



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



15.5



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



Designation



Summary description



9.3



KBA



Identified as a KBA due to significant populations of threatened

species and species endemic to the area. These include several fish,

the endangered Schreiber's fringe-fingered lizard (Acanthodactylus

schreiberi), endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and

endangered Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus).

This river valley area is inland yet close to Beirut airport. It is identified

due to its important for several species of birds – specifically for

migration of raptors. During a 2006 autumn count, over 70,000 birds of

more than 33 different species were identified.

This site is identified due to significant populations present of

threatened and endemic vulnerable species – including the loggerhead

turtle (Caretta caretta).



Beirut

River

Valley



80.96



29.6



21.9



12.8



IBA

KBA



Jbail coast



0.21



30.3



26.3



7.3



KBA



Nakoura



<1



104.4



92.7



92.7



KBA



This site is important for vermetid reefs and corraligenous formations.

It is beneficial to fish for nurseries, feeding and spawning grounds.

According to a review, Nakoura had high conservation value due to

high fish biomass and pristine areas, including littoral caves and

freshwater springs (Alfonso et al., 2015).

The site is also a KBA due to the presence of globally threatened

species such as the green turtle (Chelonia mydas).



Enfeh

Peninsula



<1



51.0



41.3



5.7



KBA

Proposed MPA



This site consists of limestone rocks and vermetid reefs, hard and soft

seabed. It is an important archaeological site and historical site and

important for fish nurseries, feeding and spawning grounds, habitats

for hard and soft bottom communities. It does have a high human

presence.

The area is identified as a KBA owing to the presence of globally

threatened species such as the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta).



Awalli

estuary



4.7



50.4



40.1



40.0



KBA

Proposed MPA



This site is an estuary of Awali river. Fishing activities are prohibited

(as in all Lebanese estuaries – Act no. 1/385). It contains wetland

habitats, beaches and marine vegetation and is important for seagrass



Total E&P Liban Sal

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5-115



Name of

Protected

Area



Area

(km2)



Distance

from well

site (km)



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



Designation



Summary description

communities, fish nursery, spawning and feeding ground and for

vulnerable species.

Identified as a KBA also due to its presence of endemic and globally

threatened species, such as the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta).



Nahr

Ibrahim

estuary



0.54



29.2



27.0



9.1



KBA

Proposed MPA



This is an estuarine site of the river Ibrahim. It is a touristic area and

fishing activities are prohibited. The site consists of sandy seabed and

seagrass meadows and is important for seagrass communities, marine

turtles and as a feeding/shelter ground for many species. Also listed as

a KBA due to presence of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta).



24.5



Proposed MPA

Proposed

UNESCO

WHS



This site is close to Saida town. Composed of hard seabed with sandy

sediment, vermetid reefs, rocks and corraligenous formations. It

contains several archaeological features and has low biodiversity but is

important for bottom-dwelling organism and seagrass meadow

communities.



Proposed Marine Protected Areas



Sidon

rocks



<1



36.2



25.9



Raoucheh

cliffs and

caves



<1



21.0



12.8



7.6



Proposed MPA



This limestone cliff site contains vermetid reefs, corraligenous

formations, caves, crevices and sandy bottoms in deep waters. It’s an

important fish nursery, feeding and spawning ground, popular tourist

area and has high conservation value related to high fish biomass and

pristine areas (Alfonso et al., 2015).



Beirut port

outer

platform



2



23.0



16.5



6.1



Proposed MPA



This site is composed of a jetty creating artificial reef habitat and is

important for fish nursery, feeding and spawning, for hard and soft

bottom communities.



Medfoun

rocky area



<1



34.7



27.7



6.5



Proposed MPA



This site is rocky with cliffs, hard and soft bottoms. It lies within a

military area, is important for fish nurseries, feeding and spawning

grounds and habitats for hard and soft bottom communities.



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Name of

Protected

Area



Batroun

Phoenicia

n wall



Litani

estuary



Area

(km2)



<1



<1



Distance

from well

site (km)



38.4



78.3



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



30.1



67.8



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



6.8



67.8



Designation



Summary description



Proposed MPA



This is a rocky site containing vermetid reefs and hard bottom

communities. It’s an important archaeological, historic and tourist site

due to presence of Phoenician wall. It is also important for fish

nurseries, feeding and spawning grounds, habitats for hard and soft

bottom communities and seagrass meadow communities.



Proposed MPA



This site is an estuary of Litani river (longest river in Lebanon and

important water resource). Fishing activities are prohibited (as in all

Lebanese estuaries – Act no. 1/385). It contains wetland habitats,

beaches and marine vegetation and is important for marine turtles,

seagrass communities, fish nursery, spawning and feeding ground and

for vulnerable species.



Damour

estuary



<1



38.6



28.3



27.1



Proposed MPA



This estuarine site is located in proximity to city of Damour. Fishing

activities are prohibited. The site consists of sandy seabed and

seagrass meadows and is important for seagrass communities, marine

turtles and as a feeding/shelter ground for many species.



Areeda

estuary



<1



89.0



78.4



41.6



Proposed MPA



This estuarine site of the river Areeda consists of sandy bottom and

seagrass meadows. It is important for turtles, seagrass communities

and as a feeding/shelter ground for many species.



OCEANA

proposed deep

sea site for

conservation



This deep-water site was identified during surveys as part of the Deep

Sea Lebanon Project surveys conducted by OCEANA (Aguilar et al.,

2018) (see Figure 5.71 for survey locations in relation to Block 4). The

area is a fisheries restricted area and consists of open slope systems,

submarine canyons, hydrothermal vents and permanent anoxic

systems. The area supports several vulnerable habitats including fossil

reefs, coralligenous formations, rhodolith and maerl beds. It also

supports a high number of species (more than 300) with rare species

such as protected molluscs, starfishes and the glass sponge Farrea

bowerbanki.



OCEANA proposed deep sea sites for conservation



Jounieh

Canyon



~7



27



24



Total E&P Liban Sal

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8



5-117



Name of

Protected

Area

Beirut

Escarpment

Canyon



Saint

Georges

Canyon



Sour

Canyon



Area

(km2)



Distance

from well

site (km)



24.5



21.8



53.5



Distance

from

priority

area (km)



14.7



16.6



42.8



Distance

from

Block 4

(km)



Designation



Summary description



11.7



OCEANA

proposed deep

sea site for

conservation



This deep-water site is a fisheries restricted area and consists of open

slope systems, submarine canyons, deep basins, seamounts, deepwater coral systems, cold seeps, carbonate mounds, hydrothermal

vents and permanent anoxic systems. It was identified following

surveys undertaken by OCEANA (Aguilar et al., 2018).



3.2



OCEANA

proposed deep

sea site for

conservation



This deep-water site is a fisheries restricted area and consists of open

slope systems, submarine canyons, deep basins, seamounts, deepwater coral systems, cold seeps, carbonate mounds, hydrothermal

vents and permanent anoxic systems. It was identified following

surveys undertaken by OCEANA (Aguilar et al., 2018).



42.8



OCEANA

proposed deep

sea site for

conservation



This deep-water site is a fisheries restricted area and consists of open

slope systems, submarine canyons, deep basins, seamounts, deepwater coral systems, cold seeps, carbonate mounds, hydrothermal

vents and permanent anoxic systems. It was identified following

surveys undertaken by OCEANA (Aguilar et al., 2018).



Source: MoE/IUCN (2012), CBD (2014, 2016), IBAT Alliance (2019), BirdLife International (2019), RAC/SPA (2019), Ramsar (2019)



5-118



Total E&P Liban Sal

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Figure 5.71: Surveyed sites within OCEANA expedition (2016) and their level of

conservation interest

Source: Aguilar et al. (2018)



Total E&P Liban Sal

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5-119



5.4.10



Shoreline oil spill sensitivity

The AOI for the shoreline oil spill sensitivity is the whole length of the Lebanese coast.

As part of the ‘National Oil Spill Contingency Plan in Lebanese Waters’ (MOPWTDGLMT, 2017), sensitivity maps were developed classifying the country’s shoreline using

a vulnerability or environmental sensitivity index (ESI) with values ranging from 1 – 8,

where 1 is robust and resilient and 8 represents the most vulnerable.

The maps demonstr